Gene Symbol: fumA
Description: fumarate hydratase (fumarase A), aerobic Class I
Alias: ECK1607, JW1604
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Ueda Y, Yumoto N, Tokushige M, Fukui K, Ohya Nishiguchi H. Purification and characterization of two types of fumarase from Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1991;109:728-33 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequences of their NH2-terminals suggest that the two enzymes are the products of the fumA gene (FUMA) and fumC gene (FUMC), respectively...
  2. Lin H, Lin C, Hwang S, Tseng C. High growth rate downregulates fumA mRNA transcription but is dramatically compensated by its mRNA stability in Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 2012;64:412-7 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the association among the transcription, post-transcription, and protein production of the fumA gene. This study demonstrates that increasing growth rate (k) from 0.24/h to 0...
  3. Woods S, Schwartzbach S, Guest J. Two biochemically distinct classes of fumarase in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;954:14-26 pubmed
    ..Biochemical studies with strains of Escherichia coli that are amplified for the products of the three fumarase genes, fumA (FUMA), fumB (FUMB) and fumC (FUMC), have shown that there are two distinct classes of fumarase...
  4. Tseng C, Yu C, Lin H, Chang C, Kuo J. Oxygen- and growth rate-dependent regulation of Escherichia coli fumarase (FumA, FumB, and FumC) activity. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:461-7 pubmed
    ..Growth rate control of fumarase activities in the wild type and mutants was demonstrated in continuous culture; FumA and FumC activities were induced four- to fivefold when the cell growth rate (k) was lowered from 1.2/h to 0...
  5. Chen Y, Lin H, Yang C, Huang S, Tseng C. Regulatory role of cAMP receptor protein over Escherichia coli fumarase genes. J Microbiol. 2012;50:426-33 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli expresses three fumarase genes, namely, fumA, fumB, and fumC. In the present study, catabolite repression was observed in the fumA-lacZ and fumC-lacZ fusion strains, but not in the fumB-lacZ fusion strain...
  6. Guest J, Roberts R. Cloning, mapping, and expression of the fumarase gene of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:588-96 pubmed
    Two classes of fumarase-transducing phages, lambda fumA and lambda fumB, were isolated from populations of recombinant phages containing HindIII fragments of Escherichia coli DNA; they were isolated by virtue of their ability to ..
  7. Djaman O, Outten F, Imlay J. Repair of oxidized iron-sulfur clusters in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44590-9 pubmed
  8. Justino M, Almeida C, Teixeira M, Saraiva L. Escherichia coli di-iron YtfE protein is necessary for the repair of stress-damaged iron-sulfur clusters. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10352-9 pubmed
    ..We concluded that YtfE is critical for the repair of iron-sulfur clusters damaged by oxidative and nitrosative stress conditions. ..
  9. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed

More Information


  1. Mass E, Gottesman S. A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These include two other genes encoding enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, acnA and fumA, two ferritin genes, ftnA and bfr, and a gene for superoxide dismutase, sodB...
  2. van Vugt Lussenburg B, van der Weel L, Hagen W, Hagedoorn P. Biochemical similarities and differences between the catalytic [4Fe-4S] cluster containing fumarases FumA and FumB from Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55549 pubmed publisher
    The highly homologous [4Fe-4S] containing fumarases FumA and FumB, sharing 90% amino acid sequence identity, from Escherichia coli are differentially regulated, which suggests a difference in their physiological function...
  3. Yumoto N, Tokushige M. Characterization of multiple fumarase proteins in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;153:1236-43 pubmed
    ..A. Woods & J.R. Guest (1987) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 48, 219), the activity could be restored by anaerobic incubation with ferrous ions and SH-compounds. ..
  4. Flint D. Initial kinetic and mechanistic characterization of Escherichia coli fumarase A. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;311:509-16 pubmed
    The protein encoded by the fumA gene in Escherichia coli is shown herein to be a highly efficient and specific catalyst of the fumarase reaction...
  5. Miles J, Guest J. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional start point of the phosphomannose isomerase gene (manA) of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1984;32:41-8 pubmed
    ..isomerase (PMI) structural gene, manA, and the 5' end of the gene encoding the major fumarase activity, fumA, of Escherichia coli K-12, has been sequenced using the chain termination method...
  6. Flint D, Emptage M, Guest J. Fumarase a from Escherichia coli: purification and characterization as an iron-sulfur cluster containing enzyme. Biochemistry. 1992;31:10331-7 pubmed
    It has been shown previously that Escherichia coli contains three fumarase genes designated fumA, fumB, and fumC. The gene products fumarases A, B, and C have been divided into two classes...
  7. Miles J, Guest J. Complete nucleotide sequence of the fumarase gene fumA, of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:3631-42 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of a 2.41 kb fragment of E. coli DNA containing the fumA gene encoding fumarase was determined using the dideoxy chain termination method...
  8. Guest J, Miles J, Roberts R, Woods S. The fumarase genes of Escherichia coli: location of the fumB gene and discovery of a new gene (fumC). J Gen Microbiol. 1985;131:2971-84 pubmed
    The fumB gene of Escherichia coli, which complements the fumarase deficiency of a fumA mutant when present in multiple copies, has been located at 93.5 min in the E...
  9. Flint D. Escherichia coli fumarase A catalyzes the isomerization of enol and keto oxalacetic acid. Biochemistry. 1993;32:799-805 pubmed
    Fumarase A, a product of the fumA gene of Escherichia coli, has been found to catalyze the isomerization of enol to keto oxalacetic acid (OAA) in addition to catalyzing the fumarase reaction...
  10. Gruer M, Guest J. Two genetically-distinct and differentially-regulated aconitases (AcnA and AcnB) in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 10):2531-41 pubmed
    ..Comparable studies with the fumarase genes (fumA, B and C) indicated that fumA (encoding the unstable aerobic iron-sulphur-containing fumarase) is activated by the ..
  11. Calderón I, Elías A, Fuentes E, Pradenas G, Castro M, Arenas F, et al. Tellurite-mediated disabling of [4Fe-4S] clusters of Escherichia coli dehydratases. Microbiology. 2009;155:1840-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive fumarase A (FumA) and aconitase B (AcnB) as well as ROS-resistant fumarase C (FumC) and aconitase A (AcnA) were assayed in cell-free ..
  12. Park S, Gunsalus R. Oxygen, iron, carbon, and superoxide control of the fumarase fumA and fumC genes of Escherichia coli: role of the arcA, fnr, and soxR gene products. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6255-62 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli contains three biochemically distinct fumarases. While the fumA and fumB genes encode heat-labile, iron-containing fumarases, the fumC gene product is a heat-stable fumarase which ..