ftsH

Summary

Gene Symbol: ftsH
Description: protease, ATP-dependent zinc-metallo
Alias: ECK3167, JW3145, hflB, mrsC, std, tolZ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Ito K. Subunit a of proton ATPase F0 sector is a substrate of the FtsH protease in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1996;399:26-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound ATPase with a proteolytic activity against the SecY subunit of protein translocase. We now report that subunit a of the membrane-embedded Fo part of H+-ATPase is another substrate of FtsH...
  2. Okuno T, Yamada Inagawa T, Karata K, Yamanaka K, Ogura T. Spectrometric analysis of degradation of a physiological substrate sigma32 by Escherichia coli AAA protease FtsH. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:148-54 pubmed
    ..established a fluorescence polarization assay system by which degradation of sigma32, a physiological substrate, by FtsH can be monitored spectrometrically. Using the system, it was found that an FtsH hexamer degrades approximately 0...
  3. Akiyama Y, Ogura T, Ito K. Involvement of FtsH in protein assembly into and through the membrane. I. Mutations that reduce retention efficiency of a cytoplasmic reporter. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5218-24 pubmed
    ..The mutation was identified as a single base change in the ftsH gene, causing an amino acid substitution in the proposed periplasmic region of FtsH, a putative membrane-bound ..
  4. Herman C, Prakash S, Lu C, Matouschek A, Gross C. Lack of a robust unfoldase activity confers a unique level of substrate specificity to the universal AAA protease FtsH. Mol Cell. 2003;11:659-69 pubmed
    b>FtsH, a member of the AAA family of proteins, is the only membrane ATP-dependent protease universally conserved in prokaryotes, and the only essential ATP-dependent protease in Escherichia coli...
  5. Shotland Y, Teff D, Koby S, Kobiler O, Oppenheim A. Characterization of a conserved alpha-helical, coiled-coil motif at the C-terminal domain of the ATP-dependent FtsH (HflB) protease of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2000;299:953-64 pubmed
    b>FtsH (HflB) is an ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts...
  6. Schumann W. FtsH--a single-chain charonin?. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1999;23:1-11 pubmed
    ..It was first identified in Escherichia coli where it is also designated hflB, tolZ or mrsC, and seems to be present in most if not all bacteria...
  7. Akiyama Y, Ito K. Roles of homooligomerization and membrane association in ATPase and proteolytic activities of FtsH in vitro. Biochemistry. 2001;40:7687-93 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound and ATP-dependent protease which degrades some soluble and integral membrane proteins...
  8. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. A protease complex in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane: HflKC (HflA) forms a complex with FtsH (HflB), regulating its proteolytic activity against SecY. EMBO J. 1996;15:6122-31 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB), a membrane-bound ATPase is required for proteolytic degradation of uncomplexed forms of the protein translocase SecY subunit...
  9. Halder S, Banerjee S, Parrack P. Direct CIII-HflB interaction is responsible for the inhibition of the HflB (FtsH)-mediated proteolysis of Escherichia coli sigma(32) by lambdaCIII. FEBS J. 2008;275:4767-72 pubmed publisher
    The CIII protein of bacteriophage lambda exhibits antiproteolytic activity against the ubiquitous metalloprotease HflB (FtsH) of Escherichia coli, thereby stabilizing the lambdaCII protein and promoting lysogenic development of the phage...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Tomoyasu T, Yamanaka K, Murata K, Suzaki T, Bouloc P, Kato A, et al. Topology and subcellular localization of FtsH protein in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1352-7 pubmed
    b>FtsH protein in Escherichia coli is an essential protein of 70.7 kDa (644 amino acid residues) with a putative ATP-binding sequence...
  2. Tomoyasu T, Yuki T, Morimura S, Mori H, Yamanaka K, Niki H, et al. The Escherichia coli FtsH protein is a prokaryotic member of a protein family of putative ATPases involved in membrane functions, cell cycle control, and gene expression. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1344-51 pubmed
    The ftsH gene is essential for cell viability in Escherichia coli. We cloned and sequenced the wild-type ftsH gene and the temperature-sensitive ftsH1(Ts) gene. It was suggested that FtsH protein was an integral membrane protein of 70...
  3. Herman C, Thevenet D, D Ari R, Bouloc P. Degradation of sigma 32, the heat shock regulator in Escherichia coli, is governed by HflB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3516-20 pubmed
    ..The essential protein HflB (FtsH), known to control proteolysis of the phage lambda cII protein, also governs sigma 32 degradation: an HflB-..
  4. Koodathingal P, Jaffe N, Kraut D, Prakash S, Fishbain S, Herman C, et al. ATP-dependent proteases differ substantially in their ability to unfold globular proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these differences in unfolding abilities contribute to the fates of substrate proteins and may act as a further layer of selectivity during protein destruction. ..
  5. Bertani D, Oppenheim A, Narberhaus F. An internal region of the RpoH heat shock transcription factor is critical for rapid degradation by the FtsH protease. FEBS Lett. 2001;493:17-20 pubmed
    ..is determined by interactions with the DnaK chaperone machine, RNA polymerase and the ATP-dependent protease FtsH. Bradyrhizobium japonicum expresses three RpoH proteins of which RpoH(1) is highly stable...
  6. Leffers G, Gottesman S. Lambda Xis degradation in vivo by Lon and FtsH. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1573-7 pubmed
    ..We found that Xis is degraded in vivo by two ATP-dependent proteases, Lon and FtsH (HflB)...
  7. Führer F, Muller A, Baumann H, Langklotz S, Kutscher B, Narberhaus F. Sequence and length recognition of the C-terminal turnover element of LpxC, a soluble substrate of the membrane-bound FtsH protease. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:485-96 pubmed
    The membrane-anchored FtsH protease is essential in Escherichia coli as it adjusts the cellular amount of LpxC, the key enzyme in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Both accumulation and depletion of LpxC are toxic to E. coli...
  8. Saikawa N, Akiyama Y, Ito K. FtsH exists as an exceptionally large complex containing HflKC in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:123-9 pubmed
    b>FtsH is an ATP-dependent and membrane-associated protease, which exerts processive proteolysis against membrane-embedded and soluble substrate proteins...
  9. Urech C, Koby S, Oppenheim A, Munchbach M, Hennecke H, Narberhaus F. Differential degradation of Escherichia coli sigma32 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum RpoH factors by the FtsH protease. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:4831-9 pubmed
    ..The integrity of the DnaK chaperone machinery and the ATP-dependent FtsH protease are required for sigma32 proteolysis in vivo...
  10. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. FtsH is required for proteolytic elimination of uncomplexed forms of SecY, an essential protein translocase subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4532-6 pubmed
    ..We found, however, that some mutations in ftsH, encoding a membrane protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) ..
  11. Chiba S, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Membrane protein degradation by FtsH can be initiated from either end. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4775-82 pubmed
    b>FtsH, a membrane-bound metalloprotease, with cytoplasmic metalloprotease and AAA ATPase domains, degrades both soluble and integral membrane proteins in Escherichia coli...
  12. Srinivasan R, Ajitkumar P. Bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is stable against degradation by AAA family protease FtsH in Escherichia coli cells. J Basic Microbiol. 2007;47:251-9 pubmed
    We have found that FtsH protease of Escherichia coli could degrade E...
  13. Arsene F, Tomoyasu T, Bukau B. The heat shock response of Escherichia coli. Int J Food Microbiol. 2000;55:3-9 pubmed
    ..Degradation of sigma32 is mediated mainly by FtsH (HflB), an ATP-dependent metallo-protease associated with the inner membrane...
  14. van Stelten J, Silva F, Belin D, Silhavy T. Effects of antibiotics and a proto-oncogene homolog on destruction of protein translocator SecY. Science. 2009;325:753-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that jammed Sec complexes caused the degradation of essential translocator components by the protease FtsH. Increasing the amounts or the stability of the membrane protein YccA, a known inhibitor of FtsH, counteracted this ..
  15. Tatsuta T, Tomoyasu T, Bukau B, Kitagawa M, Mori H, Karata K, et al. Heat shock regulation in the ftsH null mutant of Escherichia coli: dissection of stability and activity control mechanisms of sigma32 in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:583-93 pubmed
    ..b>FtsH, a membrane-bound AAA-type metalloprotease, degrades sigma32 and has a central role in the control of the sigma32 ..
  16. Inagawa T, Kato J, Niki H, Karata K, Ogura T. Defective plasmid partition in ftsH mutants of Escherichia coli. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:755-62 pubmed
    b>FtsH is an ATP-dependent protease that is essential for cell viability in Escherichia coli...
  17. Gill R, Valdes J, Bentley W. A comparative study of global stress gene regulation in response to overexpression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2000;2:178-89 pubmed
    ..Specifically, the responses included significantly increased upregulation of heat shock (ftsH, clpP, lon, ompT, degP, groEL, aceA, ibpA), SOS/DNA damage (recA, lon, IS5 transposase), stationary phase (rpoS, ..
  18. Chiba S, Akiyama Y, Mori H, Matsuo E, Ito K. Length recognition at the N-terminal tail for the initiation of FtsH-mediated proteolysis. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:47-52 pubmed
    b>FtsH-mediated proteolysis against membrane proteins is processive, and presumably involves dislocation of the substrate into the cytosol where the enzymatic domains of FtsH reside...
  19. Griffith K, Shah I, Wolf R. Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1801-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, SoxS appeared to be nearly completely stable in a lon ftsH double mutant...
  20. Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Mori H, Ogura T, Ito K. Roles of the periplasmic domain of Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB) in protein interactions and activity modulation. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22326-33 pubmed
    b>FtsH is a membrane-bound and ATP-dependent protease of Escherichia coli, known to degrade SecY, a membrane protein for protein translocation, and CII, a soluble transcription factor for lysis/lysogeny decision of phage lambda...
  21. Granger L, O Hara E, Wang R, Meffen F, Armstrong K, Yancey S, et al. The Escherichia coli mrsC gene is required for cell growth and mRNA decay. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1920-8 pubmed
    ..Originally designated mrsC (mRNA stability), the mrsC505 mutation described here is, in fact, an allele of the hflB/ftsH locus (R.-F. Wang et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:1929-1938, 1998)...
  22. Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Tokuda H, Ito K. FtsH (HflB) is an ATP-dependent protease selectively acting on SecY and some other membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31196-201 pubmed
    The FtsH protein is a membrane-bound ATPase of Escherichia coli that was proposed to be involved in membrane protein assembly as well as degradation of some unstable proteins...
  23. Ito K, Akiyama Y. Cellular functions, mechanism of action, and regulation of FtsH protease. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:211-31 pubmed
    b>FtsH is a cytoplasmic membrane protein that has N-terminally located transmembrane segments and a main cytosolic region consisting of AAA-ATPase and Zn2+-metalloprotease domains...
  24. Srinivasan R, Rajeswari H, Ajitkumar P. Analysis of degradation of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ by the ATP-dependent zinc-metalloprotease FtsH in vitro. Microbiol Res. 2008;163:21-30 pubmed
    ..However, we had earlier demonstrated that Escherichia coli metalloprotease FtsH degrades E. coli cell division protein FtsZ in an ATP- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner in vitro...
  25. Chauleau M, Mora L, Serba J, de Zamaroczy M. FtsH-dependent processing of RNase colicins D and E3 means that only the cytotoxic domains are imported into the cytoplasm. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the inner membrane protease FtsH is necessary for the processing of colicins D and E3 during their import...
  26. Ogura T, Tomoyasu T, Yuki T, Morimura S, Begg K, Donachie W, et al. Structure and function of the ftsH gene in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1991;142:279-82 pubmed
    The ftsH mutant Y16 shows thermosensitive filamentation with reduced amounts of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) (Ferreira et al., 1987)...
  27. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Dislocation of membrane proteins in FtsH-mediated proteolysis. EMBO J. 1999;18:2970-81 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH degrades several integral membrane proteins, including YccA, having seven transmembrane segments, a cytosolic N-terminus and a periplasmic C-terminus...
  28. Rouquette C, Serre M, Lane D. Protective role for H-NS protein in IS1 transposition. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2091-8 pubmed
    ..A mutation in lon, but not in ftsH or clpP, restored InsAB' synthesis in the hns strain, and a mutation in ssrA partially restored it, implying that ..
  29. Makui H, Roig E, Cole S, Helmann J, Gros P, Cellier M. Identification of the Escherichia coli K-12 Nramp orthologue (MntH) as a selective divalent metal ion transporter. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1065-78 pubmed
    ..coli. This study indicates that proton-dependent divalent metal ion uptake has been preserved in the Nramp family from bacteria to humans. ..
  30. Tomoyasu T, Arsene F, Ogura T, Bukau B. The C terminus of sigma(32) is not essential for degradation by FtsH. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5911-7 pubmed
    ..degradation of the heat shock promoter-specific sigma(32) subunit of RNA polymerase by the AAA protease, FtsH. Previous studies implicated the C termini of protein substrates, including sigma(32), as degradation signals for ..
  31. Halder S, Datta A, Parrack P. Probing the antiprotease activity of lambdaCIII, an inhibitor of the Escherichia coli metalloprotease HflB (FtsH). J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8130-8 pubmed
    ..encoded by the temperate coliphage lambda acts as an inhibitor of the ubiquitous Escherichia coli metalloprotease HflB (FtsH)...
  32. Ogura T, Matsushita Ishiodori Y, Johjima A, Nishizono M, Nishikori S, Esaki M, et al. From the common molecular basis of the AAA protein to various energy-dependent and -independent activities of AAA proteins. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:68-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of casein by the Escherichia coli AAA protease, FtsH, strictly requires ATP hydrolysis...
  33. Okuno T, Yamanaka K, Ogura T. An AAA protease FtsH can initiate proteolysis from internal sites of a model substrate, apo-flavodoxin. Genes Cells. 2006;11:261-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH, which belongs to the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family, is an ATP-dependent and membrane-bound protease...
  34. Okuno T, Yamanaka K, Ogura T. Flavodoxin, a new fluorescent substrate for monitoring proteolytic activity of FtsH lacking a robust unfolding activity. J Struct Biol. 2006;156:115-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH, which belongs to the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family, is an ATP-dependent and membrane-bound protease...
  35. Okuno T, Yamanaka K, Ogura T. Characterization of mutants of the Escherichia coli AAA protease, FtsH, carrying a mutation in the central pore region. J Struct Biol. 2006;156:109-14 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH is an ATP-dependent and membrane-bound protease, which belongs to the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities family...
  36. Jayasekera M, Foltin S, Olson E, Holler T. Escherichia coli requires the protease activity of FtsH for growth. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;380:103-7 pubmed
    b>FtsH protease, the product of the essential ftsH gene, is a membrane-bound ATP-dependent metalloprotease of Escherichia coli that has been shown to be involved in the rapid turnover of key proteins, secretion of proteins into and through ..
  37. Akiyama Y, Shirai Y, Ito K. Involvement of FtsH in protein assembly into and through the membrane. II. Dominant mutations affecting FtsH functions. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5225-9 pubmed
    b>FtsH is an Escherichia coli protein with its amino-terminal region anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane and with its cytoplasmic domain significantly homologous to the members of an ATPase family found in eukaryotic cells...
  38. Wang R, O Hara E, Aldea M, Bargmann C, Gromley H, Kushner S. Escherichia coli mrsC is an allele of hflB, encoding a membrane-associated ATPase and protease that is required for mRNA decay. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1929-38 pubmed
    ..In addition, the mrsC505 allele conferred a temperature-sensitive HflB phenotype, while the hflB29 mutation promoted mRNA stability at both 30 and 44 degrees C, suggesting that the ..
  39. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gene position, with regard to the C period, and gene function are important factors to incorporate into design criteria for synthetic bacterial genomes. ..
  40. Katz C, Ron E. Dual role of FtsH in regulating lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7117-22 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, FtsH (HflB) is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloendoprotease belonging to the AAA family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities)...
  41. Carmona M, de Lorenzo V. Involvement of the FtsH (HflB) protease in the activity of sigma 54 promoters. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:261-70 pubmed
    The effect of FtsH, an essential inner membrane-bound protease, in the regulation of the sigma 54-dependent Pu promoter has been examined in vivo...
  42. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Host regulation of lysogenic decision in bacteriophage lambda: transmembrane modulation of FtsH (HflB), the cII degrading protease, by HflKC (HflA). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5544-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the other host gene, ftsH (hflB) encoding an integral membrane ATPase/protease, is positively required for degradation of cII, since loss of its ..
  43. Akiyama Y, Yoshihisa T, Ito K. FtsH, a membrane-bound ATPase, forms a complex in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23485-90 pubmed
    The FtsH (HflB) protein of Escherichia coli is integrated into the membrane with two N-terminally located transmembrane segments, while its large cytoplasmic domain is homologous to the AAA family of ATPases...
  44. Krzywda S, Brzozowski A, Verma C, Karata K, Ogura T, Wilkinson A. The crystal structure of the AAA domain of the ATP-dependent protease FtsH of Escherichia coli at 1.5 A resolution. Structure. 2002;10:1073-83 pubmed
    ..The bacterial protease FtsH also degrades an interesting subset of cytoplasmic regulatory proteins, including sigma(32), LpxC, and lambda CII...
  45. Dougan D, Mogk A, Zeth K, Turgay K, Bukau B. AAA+ proteins and substrate recognition, it all depends on their partner in crime. FEBS Lett. 2002;529:6-10 pubmed
  46. Obrist M, Milek S, Klauck E, Hengge R, Narberhaus F. Region 2.1 of the Escherichia coli heat-shock sigma factor RpoH (sigma32) is necessary but not sufficient for degradation by the FtsH protease. Microbiology. 2007;153:2560-71 pubmed
    ..RpoH (sigma32) is negatively controlled by chaperone-mediated proteolysis through the essential metalloprotease FtsH. Point mutations in the highly conserved region 2.1 stabilize RpoH in vivo...
  47. Bruckner R, Gunyuzlu P, Stein R. Coupled kinetics of ATP and peptide hydrolysis by Escherichia coli FtsH protease. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10843-52 pubmed
    b>FtsH from Escherichia coli is an ATP- and Zn(2+)-dependent integral membrane protease that is involved in the degradation of regulatory proteins such as sigma(32) and uncomplexed subunits of membrane protein complexes such as secY of the ..
  48. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Different pathways for protein degradation by the FtsH/HflKC membrane-embedded protease complex: an implication from the interference by a mutant form of a new substrate protein, YccA. J Mol Biol. 1998;279:175-88 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB) is a membrane-bound and ATP-dependent zinc-metalloproteinase, which forms a complex with a pair of periplasmically exposed membrane proteins, HflK and HflC...
  49. Shotland Y, Shifrin A, Ziv T, Teff D, Koby S, Kobiler O, et al. Proteolysis of bacteriophage lambda CII by Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB). J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3111-6 pubmed
    b>FtsH (HflB) is a conserved, highly specific, ATP-dependent protease for which a number of substrates are known...
  50. Shimohata N, Chiba S, Saikawa N, Ito K, Akiyama Y. The Cpx stress response system of Escherichia coli senses plasma membrane proteins and controls HtpX, a membrane protease with a cytosolic active site. Genes Cells. 2002;7:653-62 pubmed
    ..We now show that an abnormality in the plasma membrane proteins, due either to the impairment of FtsH, a protease acting against integral membrane proteins, or to the overproduction of a substrate membrane protein of ..
  51. Nagai H, Yuzawa H, Kanemori M, Yura T. A distinct segment of the sigma 32 polypeptide is involved in DnaK-mediated negative control of the heat shock response in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10280-4 pubmed
    ..The control may be exerted during or after completion of sigma 32 synthesis mediated by interaction between nascent or mature sigma 32 and DnaK/DnaJ proteins. ..
  52. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Revisiting the lysogenization control of bacteriophage lambda. Identification and characterization of a new host component, HflD. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13695-700 pubmed
    ..that the HflD function is required for the rapid in vivo degradation of CII, although it interfered with FtsH-mediated CII proteolysis in an in vitro reaction system using detergent-solubilized components...
  53. Herman C, Thevenet D, Bouloc P, Walker G, D Ari R. Degradation of carboxy-terminal-tagged cytoplasmic proteins by the Escherichia coli protease HflB (FtsH). Genes Dev. 1998;12:1348-55 pubmed
    ..We show here that the ATP-dependent zinc protease HflB (FtsH) is involved in the degradation of four unstable derivatives of the amino-terminal domain of the lambdacI repressor:..
  54. Inwood W, Hall J, Kim K, Demirkhanyan L, Wemmer D, Zgurskaya H, et al. Epistatic effects of the protease/chaperone HflB on some damaged forms of the Escherichia coli ammonium channel AmtB. Genetics. 2009;183:1327-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We here provide genetic evidence that inactivation depends on the essential protease HflB, which appears to cause inactivation not as a protease but as a chaperone...
  55. Holland I, Darby V. Genetical and physiological studies on a thermosensitive mutant of Escherichia coli defective in cell division. J Gen Microbiol. 1976;92:156-66 pubmed
    ..A genetic locus designated ftsH, apparently controlling both temperature sensitivity and filament formation, was provisionally mapped at minute 80 ..
  56. Singh S, Darwin A. FtsH-dependent degradation of phage shock protein C in Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have discovered that the cytoplasmic membrane protease FtsH is involved in this phenomenon. FtsH destabilizes PspC in Y...
  57. Kobiler O, Koby S, Teff D, Court D, Oppenheim A. The phage lambda CII transcriptional activator carries a C-terminal domain signaling for rapid proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14964-9 pubmed
    ATP-dependent proteases, like FtsH (HflB), recognize specific protein substrates. One of these is the lambda CII protein, which plays a key role in the phage lysis-lysogeny decision...
  58. Saikawa N, Ito K, Akiyama Y. Identification of glutamic acid 479 as the gluzincin coordinator of zinc in FtsH (HflB). Biochemistry. 2002;41:1861-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB) is a membrane-bound and ATP-dependent metalloprotease. Its cytoplasmic domain contains a zinc-binding motif, H(417)EXXH, whose histidine residues have been shown to be functionally important...
  59. Akiyama Y, Ito K. Roles of multimerization and membrane association in the proteolytic functions of FtsH (HflB). EMBO J. 2000;19:3888-95 pubmed
    FtsH (HflB) is an Escherichia coli ATP-dependent protease that degrades some integral membrane and cytoplasmic proteins...
  60. Qu J, Makino S, Adachi H, Koyama Y, Akiyama Y, Ito K, et al. The tolZ gene of Escherichia coli is identified as the ftsH gene. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:3457-61 pubmed
    Escherichia coli tolZ mutants are tolerant to colicins E2, E3, D, Ia, and Ib (Tol-), can grow on glucose but not on succinate or other nonfermentable carbon sources (Nfc-), and show temperature-sensitive growth (Ts). A 1...
  61. Sch kermann M, Langklotz S, Narberhaus F. FtsH-mediated coordination of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli correlates with the growth rate and the alarmone (p)ppGpp. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1912-9 pubmed publisher
    ..step in LPS biosynthesis, is adjusted by proteolysis carried out by the essential and membrane-bound protease FtsH. Here, we demonstrate that LpxC is degraded in a growth rate-dependent manner with half-lives between 4 min and >2 ..
  62. Santos D, de Almeida D. Isolation and characterization of a new temperature-sensitive cell division mutant of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1975;124:1502-7 pubmed
    ..The mutation has been mapped between argG and bgl. A close linkage has been observed between ftsH and argG, thereby locating the new mutation near 61 min on the map of E...
  63. Teff D, Koby S, Shotland Y, Ogura T, Oppenheim A. A colicin-tolerant Escherichia coli mutant that confers hfl phenotype carries two mutations in the region coding for the C-terminal domain of FtsH (HflB). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;183:115-7 pubmed
    ..isolated for colicin tolerance, was found to carry two amino acid changes in the C-terminal portion of FtsH (HflB)...
  64. Krzywda S, Brzozowski A, Karata K, Ogura T, Wilkinson A. Crystallization of the AAA domain of the ATP-dependent protease FtsH of Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:1066-7 pubmed
    b>FtsH is a membrane-anchored ATP-dependent protease that degrades misfolded or misassembled membrane proteins as well as a subset of cytoplasmic regulatory proteins...
  65. Karata K, Inagawa T, Wilkinson A, Tatsuta T, Ogura T. Dissecting the role of a conserved motif (the second region of homology) in the AAA family of ATPases. Site-directed mutagenesis of the ATP-dependent protease FtsH. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26225-32 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH is an ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the AAA protein family...
  66. Kanemori M, Yanagi H, Yura T. Marked instability of the sigma(32) heat shock transcription factor at high temperature. Implications for heat shock regulation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22002-7 pubmed
    ..Although the membrane-bound ATP-dependent protease FtsH (HflB) plays an important role in degradation of sigma(32), our previous results suggested that several cytosolic ..
  67. Blaszczak A, Georgopoulos C, Liberek K. On the mechanism of FtsH-dependent degradation of the sigma 32 transcriptional regulator of Escherichia coli and the role of the Dnak chaperone machine. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:157-66 pubmed
    ..coli sigma 32 transcriptional regulator has been shown to be degraded both in vivo and in vitro by the FtsH (HflB) protease, a member of the AAA protein family...
  68. Tomoyasu T, Ogura T, Tatsuta T, Bukau B. Levels of DnaK and DnaJ provide tight control of heat shock gene expression and protein repair in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:567-81 pubmed
    ..Modulators are the DnaK chaperone system, which inactivates and destabilizes sigma32, and the FtsH protease, which is largely responsible for sigma32 degradation...
  69. Tomoyasu T, Gamer J, Bukau B, Kanemori M, Mori H, Rutman A, et al. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32. EMBO J. 1995;14:2551-60 pubmed
    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome...
  70. Führer F, Langklotz S, Narberhaus F. The C-terminal end of LpxC is required for degradation by the FtsH protease. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1025-36 pubmed
    ..The membrane-bound protease FtsH controls the level of LpxC via proteolysis making FtsH the only essential protease of Escherichia coli...
  71. Obrist M, Langklotz S, Milek S, Führer F, Narberhaus F. Region C of the Escherichia coli heat shock sigma factor RpoH (sigma 32) contains a turnover element for proteolysis by the FtsH protease. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;290:199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..At physiological temperatures, RpoH is rapidly degraded by chaperone-mediated FtsH-dependent proteolysis. Several RpoH residues critical for degradation are located in the highly conserved region 2...
  72. Narberhaus F, Obrist M, Führer F, Langklotz S. Degradation of cytoplasmic substrates by FtsH, a membrane-anchored protease with many talents. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:652-9 pubmed publisher
    Control of cellular processes by regulated proteolysis is conserved among all organisms. FtsH, the only membrane-anchored AAA protease in bacteria, fulfills a variety of regulatory functions...
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    ..A new Escherichia coli locus (hflB) has been identified in which a mutation (hflB29) leads to high frequency of lysogeny by lambda...