frr

Summary

Gene Symbol: frr
Description: ribosome recycling factor
Alias: ECK0171, JW0167, rrf
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Fujiwara T, Ito K, Yamami T, Nakamura Y. Ribosome recycling factor disassembles the post-termination ribosomal complex independent of the ribosomal translocase activity of elongation factor G. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:517-28 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) disassembles post-termination ribosomal complexes in concert with elongation factor EF-G freeing the ribosome for a new round of polypeptide synthesis...
  2. Fujiwara T, Ito K, Nakayashiki T, Nakamura Y. Amber mutations in ribosome recycling factors of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus: evidence for C-terminal modulator element. FEBS Lett. 1999;447:297-302 pubmed
    ..In this study, we isolated a conditionally lethal amber mutation, named frr-3, in the Escherichia coli RRF gene at amino acid position 161, showing that the truncation of the C-terminal 25 ..
  3. Janosi L, Mottagui Tabar S, Isaksson L, Sekine Y, Ohtsubo E, Zhang S, et al. Evidence for in vivo ribosome recycling, the fourth step in protein biosynthesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:1141-51 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) catalyzes the fourth step of protein synthesis in vitro: disassembly of the post-termination complex of ribosomes, mRNA and tRNA...
  4. Barat C, Datta P, Raj V, Sharma M, Kaji H, Kaji A, et al. Progression of the ribosome recycling factor through the ribosome dissociates the two ribosomal subunits. Mol Cell. 2007;27:250-61 pubmed
    ..the ribosome, mRNA, and a deacylated tRNA, is processed by the concerted action of the ribosome-recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G), and GTP to prepare the ribosome for a fresh round of protein synthesis...
  5. Hirashima A, Kaji A. Purification and properties of ribosome-releasing factor. Biochemistry. 1972;11:4037-44 pubmed
  6. Seo H, Kiel M, Pan D, Raj V, Kaji A, Cooperman B. Kinetics and thermodynamics of RRF, EF-G, and thiostrepton interaction on the Escherichia coli ribosome. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12728-40 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor-G (EF-G) are jointly essential for recycling bacterial ribosomes following termination of protein synthesis...
  7. Janosi L, Ricker R, Kaji A. Dual functions of ribosome recycling factor in protein biosynthesis: disassembling the termination complex and preventing translational errors. Biochimie. 1996;78:959-69 pubmed
    We summarize in this communication the data supporting the two functions of ribosome recycling factor (RRF, originally called ribosome releasing factor)...
  8. Hirokawa G, Kiel M, Muto A, Selmer M, Raj V, Liljas A, et al. Post-termination complex disassembly by ribosome recycling factor, a functional tRNA mimic. EMBO J. 2002;21:2272-81 pubmed publisher
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) together with elongation factor G (EF-G) disassembles the post- termination ribosomal complex...
  9. Lancaster L, Kiel M, Kaji A, Noller H. Orientation of ribosome recycling factor in the ribosome from directed hydroxyl radical probing. Cell. 2002;111:129-40 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) disassembles posttermination complexes in conjunction with elongation factor EF-G, liberating ribosomes for further rounds of translation...

More Information

Publications60

  1. Rao A, Varshney U. Specific interaction between the ribosome recycling factor and the elongation factor G from Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates peptidyl-tRNA release and ribosome recycling in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2001;20:2977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The ribosome recycling factor (RRF) plays a vital role in dissociating this complex...
  2. Pavlov M, Freistroffer D, Heurgué Hamard V, Buckingham R, Ehrenberg M. Release factor RF3 abolishes competition between release factor RF1 and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) for a ribosome binding site. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:389-401 pubmed
    ..and then back to initiation) on the concentrations of release factor RF1 and the ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has been studied in vitro...
  3. Wilson D, Schluenzen F, Harms J, Yoshida T, Ohkubo T, Albrecht R, et al. X-ray crystallography study on ribosome recycling: the mechanism of binding and action of RRF on the 50S ribosomal subunit. EMBO J. 2005;24:251-60 pubmed publisher
    This study presents the crystal structure of domain I of the Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor (RRF) bound to the Deinococcus radiodurans 50S subunit...
  4. Nakamura Y, Ito K, Isaksson L. Emerging understanding of translation termination. Cell. 1996;87:147-50 pubmed
  5. Agrawal R, Sharma M, Kiel M, Hirokawa G, Booth T, Spahn C, et al. Visualization of ribosome-recycling factor on the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome: functional implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8900-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The ribosome-recycling factor (RRF), together with elongation factor G (EF-G), disassembles this posttermination complex into mRNA, tRNA, and the ..
  6. Heurgué Hamard V, Karimi R, Mora L, MacDougall J, Leboeuf C, Grentzmann G, et al. Ribosome release factor RF4 and termination factor RF3 are involved in dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosome. EMBO J. 1998;17:808-16 pubmed
    ..Transposon insertions upstream of the frr gene, which encodes RF4 (ribosome release or recycling factor), restored growth to this mutant...
  7. Dincbas V, Heurgué Hamard V, Buckingham R, Karimi R, Ehrenberg M. Shutdown in protein synthesis due to the expression of mini-genes in bacteria. J Mol Biol. 1999;291:745-59 pubmed
    ..Previous observations that RRF, EF-G and RF3 stimulated drop-off were confirmed and extended; stimulation by these factors can reach 30-fold...
  8. Pai R, Zhang W, Schuwirth B, Hirokawa G, Kaji H, Kaji A, et al. Structural Insights into ribosome recycling factor interactions with the 70S ribosome. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:1334-47 pubmed publisher
    At the end of translation in bacteria, ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is used together with elongation factor G to recycle the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits for the next round of translation...
  9. Shimizu I, Kaji A. Identification of the promoter region of the ribosome-releasing factor cistron (frr). J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5181-7 pubmed
    Previous studies of the structure and expression of the ribosome-releasing factor (RRF) cistron (frr) have suggested that an efficient promoter region is located in the RRF cistron...
  10. Karimi R, Pavlov M, Buckingham R, Ehrenberg M. Novel roles for classical factors at the interface between translation termination and initiation. Mol Cell. 1999;3:601-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we elucidate two essential steps and describe the roles played by the three translation factors EF-G, RRF, and IF3...
  11. Hirokawa G, Kiel M, Muto A, Kawai G, Igarashi K, Kaji H, et al. Binding of ribosome recycling factor to ribosomes, comparison with tRNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35847-52 pubmed publisher
    The prokaryotic post-termination ribosomal complex is disassembled by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G...
  12. Atarashi K, Kaji A. Inhibitory effect of heterologous ribosome recycling factor on growth of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6154-60 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) of Thermotoga maritima was expressed in Escherichia coli from the cloned T. maritima RRF gene and purified. Expression of T. maritima RRF inhibited growth of the E...
  13. Nakano H, Uchiyama S, Yoshida T, Ohkubo T, Kato H, Yamagata Y, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a mutant of ribosome recycling factor from Escherichia coli, Arg132Gly. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:124-6 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) plays a central role during the recycling of ribosomes in the final step of protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and is therefore a favourable target for the development of new antibiotics...
  14. Ito K, Fujiwara T, Toyoda T, Nakamura Y. Elongation factor G participates in ribosome disassembly by interacting with ribosome recycling factor at their tRNA-mimicry domains. Mol Cell. 2002;9:1263-72 pubmed
    ..function that drives two target molecules, a tRNA in the translating ribosome and the ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in the post-termination complex. How G protein motor action is transmitted to RRF is unknown...
  15. Janosi L, Hara H, Zhang S, Kaji A. Ribosome recycling by ribosome recycling factor (RRF)--an important but overlooked step of protein biosynthesis. Adv Biophys. 1996;32:121-201 pubmed
  16. Singh N, Ahmad R, Sangeetha R, Varshney U. Recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled at the step of elongation in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a ribosome recycling factor (RRF)-mediated process rescues the host from the AGA-minigene toxicity by releasing the peptidyl-tRNA(Arg4) from the ..
  17. Kim K, Min K, Suh S. Crystal structure of the ribosome recycling factor from Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2000;19:2362-70 pubmed publisher
    We have determined the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor (RRF), which catalyzes the disassembly of the termination complex in protein synthesis...
  18. Pavlov M, Freistroffer D, MacDougall J, Buckingham R, Ehrenberg M. Fast recycling of Escherichia coli ribosomes requires both ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and release factor RF3. EMBO J. 1997;16:4134-41 pubmed
    ..The system has been used to study the influence of release factor RF3 and of ribosome recycling factor RRF on the rate of recycling of ribosomes. In the absence of both RF3 and RRF, the recycling time is approximately 40 s...
  19. Ryoji M, Berland R, Kaji A. Reinitiation of translation from the triplet next to the amber termination codon in the absence of ribosome-releasing factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:5973-7 pubmed
  20. Yun J, Kim W, Ha S, Eom S, Suh S, Kim K. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of ribosome recycling factor from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2000;56:84-5 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) catalyzes the disassembly of a termination complex during the final stage of protein synthesis. RRF from Escherichia coli has been crystallized with PEG 400 as precipitant at 287 K...
  21. Herring C, Blattner F. Conditional lethal amber mutations in essential Escherichia coli genes. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2673-81 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate the method with the genes frr, gcpE, lpxC, map, murA, ppa, and rpsA. We were unable to isolate an amber mutation in ftsZ...
  22. Ryoji M, Karpen J, Kaji A. Further characterization of ribosome releasing factor and evidence that it prevents ribosomes from reading through a termination codon. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:5798-801 pubmed
  23. Todorova R, Saihara Y. Specific binding of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) with the Escherichia coli ribosomes by BIACORE. Mol Biol Rep. 2003;30:113-9 pubmed
    The direct assays on Biacore with immobilised RRF and purified L11 from E. coli in the flow trough have shown unspecific binding between the both proteins. The interaction of RRF with GTPase domain of E...
  24. Kaji A, Kiel M, Hirokawa G, Muto A, Inokuchi Y, Kaji H. The fourth step of protein synthesis: disassembly of the posttermination complex is catalyzed by elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, a near-perfect mimic of tRNA. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2001;66:515-29 pubmed
  25. Singh N, Das G, Seshadri A, Sangeetha R, Varshney U. Evidence for a role of initiation factor 3 in recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled on mRNAs in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5591-601 pubmed
    Specific interactions between ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor-G (EFG) mediate disassembly of post-termination ribosomal complexes for new rounds of initiation...
  26. Ichikawa S, Kaji A. Molecular cloning and expression of ribosome releasing factor. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:20054-9 pubmed
    Ribosome releasing factor (RRF) is responsible for the release of ribosomes from messenger RNA at the termination of Escherichia coli protein biosynthesis (Hirashima, A., and Kaji, A. (1972) Biochemistry 11, 4037-4044)...
  27. Uehara Y, Hori M, Umezawa H. Specific inhibition of the termination process of protein synthesis by negamycin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976;442:251-62 pubmed
    ..coli cells was sensitive to negamycin. These results indicate that the inhbitory effect of negamycin on the termination reaction is specific to negamycin and distinct from that of tetracycline and streptomycin. ..
  28. Seshadri A, Dubey B, Weber M, Varshney U. Impact of rRNA methylations on ribosome recycling and fidelity of initiation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:795-808 pubmed publisher
    ..As the activity of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in separating the large and the small subunits of the ribosome involves disruption of intersubunit bridges, we ..
  29. Qin B, Yamamoto H, Ueda T, Varshney U, Nierhaus K. The Termination Phase in Protein Synthesis is not Obligatorily Followed by the RRF/EF-G-Dependent Recycling Phase. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:3577-87 pubmed publisher
    ..protein synthesis is obligatorily followed by recycling governed by the factors ribosomal recycling factor (RRF), EF-G, and IF3, where the ribosome dissociates into its subunits...
  30. Ishino T, Atarashi K, Uchiyama S, Yamami T, Saihara Y, Yoshida T, et al. Interaction of ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor EF-G with E. coli ribosomes studied by the surface plasmon resonance technique. Genes Cells. 2000;5:953-63 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), in concert with elongation factor EF-G, is required for disassembly of the post-termination complex of a ribosome after the release of polypeptides. How RRF dissociates the complex has long been puzzling...
  31. Yoshida T, Oka S, Uchiyama S, Nakano H, Kawasaki T, Ohkubo T, et al. Characteristic domain motion in the ribosome recycling factor revealed by 15N NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4101-7 pubmed
    The backbone dynamics of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) from Escherichia coli in water were characterized by (15)N NMR relaxation analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
  32. Kung H, Treadwell B, Spears C, Tai P, Weissbach H. DNA-directed synthesis in vitro of beta-galactosidase: requirement for a ribosome release factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:3217-21 pubmed
    ..It is thus clear that the ribosome release factor has a physiological function in translation. It may also affect transcription, because it stimulated total RNA synthesis up to 50% in this in vitro system. ..
  33. Ogawa K, Kaji A. Ribosome run through of the termination codon in the absence of the ribosome releasing factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;402:288-96 pubmed
    ..No such differential effect of suppressor tRNA was observed in the absence of RR factor. This suggests that the ribosome has to be released from mRNA by RR factor in order for the amber mutation to be effective. ..
  34. Hirokawa G, Iwakura N, Kaji A, Kaji H. The role of GTP in transient splitting of 70S ribosomes by RRF (ribosome recycling factor) and EF-G (elongation factor G). Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6676-87 pubmed publisher
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP split 70S ribosomes into subunits...
  35. Guo P, Zhang L, Zhang H, Feng Y, Jing G. Domain II plays a crucial role in the function of ribosome recycling factor. Biochem J. 2006;393:767-77 pubmed
    b>RRF (ribosome recycling factor) consists of two domains, and in concert with EF-G (elongation factor-G), triggers dissociation of the post-termination ribosomal complex...
  36. Hirokawa G, Inokuchi H, Kaji H, Igarashi K, Kaji A. In vivo effect of inactivation of ribosome recycling factor - fate of ribosomes after unscheduled translation downstream of open reading frame. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1011-21 pubmed
    The post-termination ribosomal complex is disassembled by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G. Without RRF, the ribosome is not released from mRNA at the termination codon and reinitiates translation downstream...
  37. Fujiwara T, Ito K, Nakamura Y. Functional mapping of ribosome-contact sites in the ribosome recycling factor: a structural view from a tRNA mimic. RNA. 2001;7:64-70 pubmed
    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is required for disassembly of the posttermination complex of the ribosome after release of polypeptides...
  38. Yoshida T, Kijima H, Oka S, Uchiyama S, Nakano H, Ohkubo T, et al. Backbone NMR assignments of ribosome recycling factors (RRFs) from Escherichia coli and Tthermotoga maritima. J Biomol NMR. 2002;22:195-6 pubmed
  39. MacDougall J, Holst Hansen P, Mortensen K, Freistroffer D, Pavlov M, Ehrenberg M, et al. Purification of active Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor (RRF) from an osmo-regulated expression system. Biochimie. 1997;79:243-6 pubmed
    Ribosome release factor (RRF) from Escherichia coli was overproduced from an osmo-expression vector. More than 40% of cell protein was RRF after 6 h of induction...
  40. Janosi L, Shimizu I, Kaji A. Ribosome recycling factor (ribosome releasing factor) is essential for bacterial growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4249-53 pubmed
    Ribosome releasing factor, product of the frr gene in Escherichia coli, is responsible for dissociation of ribosomes from mRNA after the termination of translation...
  41. Asano K, Kurita D, Takada K, Konno T, Muto A, Himeno H. Competition between trans-translation and termination or elongation of translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5544-52 pubmed
    The effects of tRNA, RF1 and RRF on trans-translation by tmRNA were examined using a stalled complex of ribosome prepared using a synthetic mRNA and pure Escherichia coli translation factors...
  42. Janosi L, Mori H, Sekine Y, Abragan J, Janosi R, Hirokawa G, et al. Mutations influencing the frr gene coding for ribosome recycling factor (RRF). J Mol Biol. 2000;295:815-29 pubmed
    A total of 52 null, six reversion, and five silent mutations of frr (the gene encoding for ribosome recycling factor (RRF)) of Escherichia coli are discussed along with 12 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations and 14 intergenic suppressor ..
  43. Zhang L, Guo P, Zhang H, Jing G. Cooperative unfolding of Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor originating from its domain-domain interaction and its implication for function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;450:191-202 pubmed
    Cooperative unfolding of Escherichia coli ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and its implication for function were investigated by comparing the in vitro unfolding and the in vivo activity of wild-type E...
  44. Ichikawa S, Ryoji M, Siegfried Z, Kaji A. Localization of the ribosome-releasing factor gene in the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3689-95 pubmed
    The ribosome-releasing factor (RRF) gene was localized at a position between 2 and 6 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome by measuring the gene-dosage-dependent production of RRF in various E. coli F' merozygotes...
  45. Rolland N, Janosi L, Block M, Shuda M, Teyssier E, Mi ge C, et al. Plant ribosome recycling factor homologue is a chloroplastic protein and is bactericidal in escherichia coli carrying temperature-sensitive ribosome recycling factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5464-9 pubmed
    ..that shows 46% sequence identity and 66% sequence homology with ribosome recycling factor (RRF) of Escherichia coli. RRF recycles ribosomes through disassembly of the posttermination complex...
  46. Otaka T, Kaji A. Mode of action of bottromycin A2: effect of bottromycin A2 on polysomes. FEBS Lett. 1983;153:53-9 pubmed
    ..Thus bottromycin specifically interferes with proper functioning of the A sites of polysomes. This is consistent with the results obtained using the model system with synthetic polynucleotides. ..
  47. Gong M, Cruz Vera L, Yanofsky C. Ribosome recycling factor and release factor 3 action promotes TnaC-peptidyl-tRNA Dropoff and relieves ribosome stalling during tryptophan induction of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3147-55 pubmed
    ..containing the chromosomal tna operon and lacking a tnaC plasmid, the overproduction of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and release factor 3 (RF3) reduced tna operon expression...
  48. Ryoji M, Yamane T, Gordon M, Kaji A. Two modes of amber codon read-through in vitro. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985;238:636-41 pubmed
    ..Despite the presence of termination factors as well as ribosome-releasing factor (RRF) which prevent the read-through translation [M. Ryoji, J. W. Karpen, and A. Kaji (1981) J. Biol. Chem...
  49. Yamanaka K, Ogura T, Niki H, Hiraga S. Identification and characterization of the smbA gene, a suppressor of the mukB null mutant of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7517-26 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome, between the tsf and frr genes. The smbA gene is essential for cell proliferation in the range from 22 to 42 degrees C...
  50. Inokuchi Y, Hirashima A, Sekine Y, Janosi L, Kaji A. Role of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in translational coupling. EMBO J. 2000;19:3788-98 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of ribosome recycling factor (RRF), which normally releases ribosomes at the termination codon, did not influence the expression of the reporter gene ..
  51. Janssen B, Hayes C. Kinetics of paused ribosome recycling in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:251-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptidyl-tRNA turnover from nonstop-paused ribosomes in DeltatmRNA cells suggests the existence of another uncharacterized ribosome rescue pathway. ..