fnr

Summary

Gene Symbol: fnr
Description: oxygen-sensing anaerobic growth regulon transcriptional regulator FNR; autorepressor
Alias: ECK1330, JW1328, nirA, nirR, ossA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Kang Y, Weber K, Qiu Y, Kiley P, Blattner F. Genome-wide expression analysis indicates that FNR of Escherichia coli K-12 regulates a large number of genes of unknown function. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1135-60 pubmed publisher
    ..physiological switch between aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions in Escherichia coli is the DNA binding protein FNR. To identify genes controlled by FNR, we used Affymetrix Antisense GeneChips to compare global gene expression ..
  2. Green J, Baldwin M. The molecular basis for the differential regulation of the hlyE-encoded haemolysin of Escherichia coli by FNR and HlyX lies in the improved activating region 1 contact of HlyX. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 12):3785-93 pubmed
    The regulator of fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) protein of Escherichia coli is an oxygen-responsive transcription regulator that acts mainly to activate the transcription of genes associated with anaerobic energy generation during ..
  3. Browning D, Cole J, Busby S. Transcription activation by remodelling of a nucleoprotein assembly: the role of NarL at the FNR-dependent Escherichia coli nir promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:203-15 pubmed
    Expression from the Escherichia coli nir promoter is co-dependent on both the FNR protein (an anaerobically triggered transcription activator) and NarL or NarP proteins (transcription activators triggered by nitrite and nitrate)...
  4. Green J, Scott C, Guest J. Functional versatility in the CRP-FNR superfamily of transcription factors: FNR and FLP. Adv Microb Physiol. 2001;44:1-34 pubmed
    ..sometimes known as CAP, the catabolite gene activator protein) and the fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator (FNR) of Escherichia coli are founder members of an expanding superfamily of structurally related transcription factors...
  5. Meng W, Green J, Guest J. FNR-dependent repression of ndh gene expression requires two upstream FNR-binding sites. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 5):1521-32 pubmed
    ..NADH dehydrogenase (NdhII) that is anaerobically repressed by the global transcription regulator, FNR. FNR binds at two sites (centred at -50.5 and -94...
  6. Green J, Sharrocks A, Green B, Geisow M, Guest J. Properties of FNR proteins substituted at each of the five cysteine residues. Mol Microbiol. 1993;8:61-8 pubmed
    b>FNR is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of a number of Escherichia coli genes in response to anoxia...
  7. Sawers G, Suppmann B. Anaerobic induction of pyruvate formate-lyase gene expression is mediated by the ArcA and FNR proteins. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3474-8 pubmed
    ..The FNR protein plays a major role in the anaerobic control of this system...
  8. Boston T, Atlung T. FNR-mediated oxygen-responsive regulation of the nrdDG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5310-3 pubmed
    ..The induction was completely dependent on the transcriptional activator FNR and was independent of the ArcA-ArcB two-component response regulator system...
  9. Cruz Ramos H, Crack J, Wu G, Hughes M, Scott C, Thomson A, et al. NO sensing by FNR: regulation of the Escherichia coli NO-detoxifying flavohaemoglobin, Hmp. EMBO J. 2002;21:3235-44 pubmed
    ..Because hmp gene transcription is repressed by the O(2)-responsive regulator FNR, we investigated whether FNR also senses NO...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Sawers G, Kaiser M, Sirko A, Freundlich M. Transcriptional activation by FNR and CRP: reciprocity of binding-site recognition. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:835-45 pubmed
    Anaerobic expression of the focA pfl operon is dependent on the transcription factors ArcA and FNR and transcription is directed by multiple, anaerobically regulated promoters. A FNR-binding site is centred at -41...
  2. Iuchi S, Aristarkhov A, Dong J, Taylor J, Lin E. Effects of nitrate respiration on expression of the Arc-controlled operons encoding succinate dehydrogenase and flavin-linked L-lactate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1695-701 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, a mutation in the fnr gene (encoding a global regulator involved in anaerobic metabolism) also alleviated the anaerobic repressions...
  3. Khoroshilova N, Popescu C, Munck E, Beinert H, Kiley P. Iron-sulfur cluster disassembly in the FNR protein of Escherichia coli by O2: [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] conversion with loss of biological activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6087-92 pubmed
    The transcription factor FNR (fumarate nitrate reduction) requires the presence of an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster for its function as a global transcription regulator in Escherichia coli when oxygen becomes scarce...
  4. Gerasimova A, Rodionov D, Mironov A, Gel fand M. [Computer analysis of regulatory signals in bacterial genomes. Fnr binding segments]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2001;35:1001-9 pubmed
    ..We applied comparative approach to the analysis of the Fnr regulon of gamma-proteobacteria...
  5. Unden G, Bongaerts J. Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1320:217-34 pubmed
    ..b>FNR is a cytoplasmic O2 responsive regulator with a sensory and a regulatory DNA-binding domain...
  6. Green J, Baldwin M, Richardson J. Downregulation of Escherichia coli yfiD expression by FNR occupying a site at -93.5 involves the AR1-containing face of FNR. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1113-23 pubmed
    The promoter of the FNR-activated yfiD gene of Escherichia coli has an unusual architecture because it contains two FNR sites, an arrangement usually associated with FNR-mediated repression...
  7. Takahashi K, Hattori T, Nakanishi T, Nohno T, Fujita N, Ishihama A, et al. Repression of in vitro transcription of the Escherichia coli fnr and nar X genes by FNR protein. FEBS Lett. 1994;340:59-64 pubmed
    In facultative anaerobes, the anaerobic expression of respiratory genes is regulated by a transcriptional activator, FNR. Transcription in vitro of the E. coli fnr gene was repressed by its product, FNR. The transcription of the E...
  8. Kiley P, Beinert H. Oxygen sensing by the global regulator, FNR: the role of the iron-sulfur cluster. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1998;22:341-52 pubmed
    b>FNR is a global regulator that controls transcription of genes whose functions facilitate adaptation to growth under O2 limiting conditions...
  9. Partridge J, Poole R, Green J. The Escherichia coli yhjA gene, encoding a predicted cytochrome c peroxidase, is regulated by FNR and OxyR. Microbiology. 2007;153:1499-507 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli FNR protein is an oxygen-responsive global transcription factor, and OxyR is a key regulator of the peroxide stress response. Here both FNR and OxyR are shown to regulate expression of the E. coli yhjA gene...
  10. Lee D, Wing H, Savery N, Busby S. Analysis of interactions between Activating Region 1 of Escherichia coli FNR protein and the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit: use of alanine scanning and suppression genetics. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1032-40 pubmed
    Activating Region 1 of Escherichia coli FNR protein is proposed to interact directly with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (alphaCTD) during transcription activation at FNR-regulated promoters...
  11. Bearson S, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Oxygen and nitrate-dependent regulation of dmsABC operon expression in Escherichia coli: sites for Fnr and NarL protein interactions. BMC Microbiol. 2002;2:13 pubmed
    ..that encode the membrane-associated DMSO/TMAO reductase is positively regulated during anaerobic conditions by the Fnr protein and negatively regulated by the NarL protein when nitrate is present...
  12. Mettert E, Kiley P. Contributions of [4Fe-4S]-FNR and integration host factor to fnr transcriptional regulation. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3036-43 pubmed
    Maintaining appropriate levels of the global regulator FNR is critical to its function as an O(2) sensor...
  13. Bates D, Popescu C, Khoroshilova N, Vogt K, Beinert H, Munck E, et al. Substitution of leucine 28 with histidine in the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR results in increased stability of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster to oxygen. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6234-40 pubmed
    ..the role of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster in controlling the activity of the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR (fumarate nitrate reduction) during changes in O(2) availability, we have characterized a mutant FNR protein ..
  14. Govantes F, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon: roles of multiple promoters and the Fnr-1 and Fnr-2 binding sites. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1456-69 pubmed
    ..ArcB-ArcA, is responsible for the microaerobic activation of the cydAB operon, whereas the anaerobic regulator Fnr represses its expression in the absence of oxygen...
  15. Govantes F, Orjalo A, Gunsalus R. Interplay between three global regulatory proteins mediates oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:1061-73 pubmed
    ..is maximally transcribed in microaerobiosis as a result of the combined action of the oxygen-responsive regulators Fnr and ArcA. Here, we report that the histone-like protein H-NS is an aerobic repressor of cydAB expression...
  16. Unden G, Becker S, Bongaerts J, Holighaus G, Schirawski J, Six S. O2-sensing and O2-dependent gene regulation in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 1995;164:81-90 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional regulator FNR of E. Coli controls the expression of many genes required for anaerobic metabolism in response to O2...
  17. Partridge J, Browning D, Xu M, Newnham L, Scott C, Roberts R, et al. Characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 ydhYVWXUT operon: regulation by FNR, NarL and NarP. Microbiology. 2008;154:608-18 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli K-12 the expression of many genes is controlled by the oxygen-responsive transcription factor FNR and the nitrate- and nitrite-responsive two-component systems NarXL and NarPQ...
  18. Stewart V, Bledsoe P. Fnr-, NarP- and NarL-dependent regulation of transcription initiation from the Haemophilus influenzae Rd napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) promoter in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6928-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription initiation from the Escherichia coli napF operon control region is activated by the Fnr protein in response to anaerobiosis and by the NarQ-NarP two-component regulatory system in response to nitrate or ..
  19. Spiro S, Guest J. FNR and its role in oxygen-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1990;6:399-428 pubmed
    ..The other is FNR, the transcriptional regulator which is essential for expressing anaerobic respiratory processes...
  20. Jervis A, Crack J, White G, Artymiuk P, Cheesman M, Thomson A, et al. The O2 sensitivity of the transcription factor FNR is controlled by Ser24 modulating the kinetics of [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] conversion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4659-64 pubmed publisher
    Fumarate and nitrate reduction regulatory (FNR) proteins are bacterial transcription factors that coordinate the switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism...
  21. Crack J, Green J, Le Brun N, Thomson A. Detection of sulfide release from the oxygen-sensing [4Fe-4S] cluster of FNR. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18909-13 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli FNR protein regulates the transcription of >100 genes in response to environmental O2, thereby coordinating the response to anoxia...
  22. Unden G, Guest J. Isolation and characterization of the Fnr protein, the transcriptional regulator of anaerobic electron transport in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1985;146:193-9 pubmed
    The Fnr protein, the transcriptional regulator of the expression of anaerobic respiratory functions in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity from soluble extracts of a strain harbouring the fnr gene in an expression vector...
  23. Lamberg K, Kiley P. FNR-dependent activation of the class II dmsA and narG promoters of Escherichia coli requires FNR-activating regions 1 and 3. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:817-27 pubmed
    ..narGHJI) and dimethyl sulphoxide (dmsABC) terminal reductases is stimulated by the global anaerobic regulator FNR. The ability of FNR to activate transcription initiation has been proposed to be dependent on protein-protein ..
  24. Moore L, Kiley P. Characterization of the dimerization domain in the FNR transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45744-50 pubmed publisher
    The global anaerobic regulator FNR from Escherichia coli is a dimeric Fe-S protein that is inactivated by O(2) through disruption of its [4Fe-4S] cluster and conversion to a monomeric form...
  25. Green J, Crack J, Thomson A, LeBrun N. Bacterial sensors of oxygen. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..When utilizing heme as the sensor, the capacity of O(2) to form a reversible Fe-O(2) bond or alternatively the oxidation of the heme iron atom itself is used to detect O(2) and switch regulators between active and inactive forms. ..
  26. Grainger D, Aiba H, Hurd D, Browning D, Busby S. Transcription factor distribution in Escherichia coli: studies with FNR protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:269-78 pubmed
    ..and high-density microarrays, we have measured the distribution of the global transcription regulator protein, FNR, across the entire Escherichia coli chromosome in exponentially growing cells...
  27. Stewart V, Bledsoe P, Chen L, Cai A. Catabolite repression control of napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:996-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..napFDAGHBC operon encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase results from synergistic transcription activation by the Fnr and phospho-NarP proteins, acting in response to anaerobiosis and nitrate or nitrite, respectively...
  28. Crack J, Green J, Cheesman M, Le Brun N, Thomson A. Superoxide-mediated amplification of the oxygen-induced switch from [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] clusters in the transcriptional regulator FNR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2092-7 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is controlled primarily by FNR (regulator of fumarate and nitrate reduction), the protein that regulates the transcription of >100 genes in response to oxygen...
  29. Browning D, Grainger D, Beatty C, Wolfe A, Cole J, Busby S. Integration of three signals at the Escherichia coli nrf promoter: a role for Fis protein in catabolite repression. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:496-510 pubmed
    ..from the Escherichia coli nrf operon promoter is activated by the anaerobically triggered transcription factor, FNR, and by the nitrate/nitrite ion-controlled response regulators, NarL or NarP, but is repressed by the IHF and Fis ..
  30. Crack J, Green J, Thomson A. Mechanism of oxygen sensing by the bacterial transcription factor fumarate-nitrate reduction (FNR). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9278-86 pubmed
    ..The global transcriptional regulator FNR (fumarate-nitrate reduction) monitors the availability of oxygen in the environment...
  31. Körner H, Sofia H, Zumft W. Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic spectrum by controlling alternative gene programs. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:559-92 pubmed
    The Crp-Fnr regulators, named after the first two identified members, are DNA-binding proteins which predominantly function as positive transcription factors, though roles of repressors are also important...
  32. Overton T, Reid E, Foxall R, Smith H, Busby S, Cole J. Transcription activation at Escherichia coli FNR-dependent promoters by the gonococcal FNR protein: effects of a novel S18F substitution and comparisons with the corresponding substitution in E. coli FNR. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4734-47 pubmed
    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae genome encodes a homologue of the Escherichia coli FNR protein (the fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator). Despite its similarity to E. coli FNR, the gonococcal FNR only partially complemented an E...
  33. Cotter P, Melville S, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Aerobic regulation of cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon expression in Escherichia coli: roles of Fnr and ArcA in repression and activation. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:605-15 pubmed
    ..of the cydAB operon is microaerobically controlled by the ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system and by Fnr. To understand how ArcA and Fnr contribute to this control, a set of cyd-lacZ reporter fusions were constructed and ..
  34. Crack J, Le Brun N, Thomson A, Green J, Jervis A. Reactions of nitric oxide and oxygen with the regulator of fumarate and nitrate reduction, a global transcriptional regulator, during anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 2008;437:191-209 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli fumarate and nitrate reductase (FNR) regulator protein is an important transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of a large regulon of more than 100 genes in response to changes in oxygen availability...
  35. Ravcheev D, Gerasimova A, Mironov A, Gelfand M. Comparative genomic analysis of regulation of anaerobic respiration in ten genomes from three families of gamma-proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:54 pubmed
    ..Thus, in E. coli, global control of respiration is mediated by four transcription factors, Fnr, ArcA, NarL and NarP...
  36. Lazazzera B, Beinert H, Khoroshilova N, Kennedy M, Kiley P. DNA binding and dimerization of the Fe-S-containing FNR protein from Escherichia coli are regulated by oxygen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2762-8 pubmed
    The transcription factor FNR from Escherichia coli regulates transcription of genes in response to oxygen deprivation...
  37. Spiro S. The FNR family of transcriptional regulators. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1994;66:23-36 pubmed
    Homologues of the transcriptional regulator FNR from Escherichia coli have been identified in a variety of taxonomically diverse bacterial species...
  38. Spiro S, Guest J. Inactivation of the FNR protein of Escherichia coli by targeted mutagenesis in the N-terminal region. Mol Microbiol. 1988;2:701-7 pubmed
    The FNR protein of Escherichia coli is a regulatory protein that activates the transcription of its target genes in response to oxygen limitation...
  39. Sutton V, Mettert E, Beinert H, Kiley P. Kinetic analysis of the oxidative conversion of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster of FNR to a [2Fe-2S]2+ Cluster. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8018-25 pubmed
    The ability of FNR to sense and respond to cellular O(2) levels depends on its [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster...
  40. Bell A, Cole J, Busby S. Molecular genetic analysis of an FNR-dependent anaerobically inducible Escherichia coli promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1753-63 pubmed
    ..and three linker-scanner mutations at the Escherichia coli nirB promoter we have located sequences necessary for FNR-dependent induction of activity by anaerobiosis and further nitrite-dependent stimulation of expression...
  41. Constantinidou C, Hobman J, Griffiths L, Patel M, Penn C, Cole J, et al. A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4802-15 pubmed
    The transcription factor FNR, the regulator of fumarate and nitrate reduction, regulates major changes as Escherichia coli adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth...
  42. Salmon K, Hung S, Mekjian K, Baldi P, Hatfield G, Gunsalus R. Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12. The effects of oxygen availability and FNR. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29837-55 pubmed
    ..of a subset of these genes that are regulated by a global regulatory protein for anaerobic metabolism, FNR. Analysis of these data demonstrated that the expression of over one-third of the genes expressed during growth ..
  43. Jackson L, Blake T, Green J. Regulation of ndh expression in Escherichia coli by Fis. Microbiology. 2004;150:407-13 pubmed
    ..The anaerobic transcription factor FNR represses ndh expression by binding at two sites centred at -94.5 and -50.5...
  44. Stewart V. Requirement of Fnr and NarL functions for nitrate reductase expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:1320-5 pubmed
    ..A NarL- mutant apparently lacks a nitrate-specific positive regulatory component. Furthermore, an fnr (nirR) mutation prevented enzyme induction under any conditions...
  45. Crack J, Gaskell A, Green J, Cheesman M, Le Brun N, Thomson A. Influence of the environment on the [4Fe-4S]2+ to [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster switch in the transcriptional regulator FNR. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:1749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..and anaerobic metabolism is primarily controlled by the fumarate and nitrate reduction transcriptional regulator FNR. In the absence of O2, FNR binds a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster, generating a transcriptionally active dimeric form...
  46. Pullan S, Gidley M, Jones R, Barrett J, Stevanin T, Read R, et al. Nitric oxide in chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli is sensed by Fnr and other global regulators: unaltered methionine biosynthesis indicates lack of S nitrosation. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1845-55 pubmed
    ..Anaerobic exposure to NO led to up-regulation of multiple Fnr-repressed genes and down-regulation of Fnr-activated genes, including nrfA, which encodes cytochrome c nitrite ..
  47. Hennecke H. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by metal-protein complexes. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1621-8 pubmed
    ..Other metal-dependent regulatory proteins may function, directly or indirectly, as sensors of the cellular oxygen status, and may even be mediators in light-responsive gene regulation. ..
  48. Li B, Wing H, Lee D, Wu H, Busby S. Transcription activation by Escherichia coli FNR protein: similarities to, and differences from, the CRP paradigm. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2075-81 pubmed
    During transcription activation at FNR-dependent promoters where the DNA site for FNR overlaps the -35 element, a surface-exposed activating region in the upstream subunit of the FNR dimer interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA ..
  49. Yan A, Kiley P. Dissecting the role of the N-terminal region of the Escherichia coli global transcription factor FNR. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8230-3 pubmed publisher
    The role of the N-terminal region of the transcription factor FNR, which immediately precedes the first ligand (Cys20) of the [4Fe-4S] cluster, was investigated...
  50. Cherfils J, Gibrat J, Levin J, Batut J, Kahn D. Model-building of Fnr and FixK DNA-binding domains suggests a basis for specific DNA recognition. J Mol Recognit. 1989;2:114-21 pubmed
    The DNA-binding C-terminal domains of the regulatory proteins Fnr from Escherichia coli and FixK from Rhizobium meliloti have been modelled on the basis of their homologies to the CAP protein from E. coli...
  51. Corker H, Poole R. Nitric oxide formation by Escherichia coli. Dependence on nitrite reductase, the NO-sensing regulator Fnr, and flavohemoglobin Hmp. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31584-92 pubmed
    ..c, leading to the hypothesis that accumulating NO in the absence of Hmp inactivates the global anaerobic regulator Fnr by reaction with the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster (Cruz-Ramos, H., Crack, J., Wu, G., Hughes, M. N., Scott, C., Thomson, A. J...
  52. Barnard A, Lloyd G, Green J, Busby S, Lee D. Location of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain at an FNR-dependent promoter: analysis using an artificial nuclease. FEBS Lett. 2004;558:13-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli FNR protein is a global transcription regulator that activates gene expression via interactions with the RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain. Using preparations of E...
  53. Yan A, Kiley P. Techniques to isolate O2-sensitive proteins: [4Fe-4S]-FNR as an example. Methods Enzymol. 2009;463:787-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we utilize FNR, a regulatory Fe-S protein from Escherichia coli, as an example to describe the techniques essential to purifying O(..
  54. Reyes Ramírez F, Sawers R. Aerobic activation of transcription of the anaerobically inducible Escherichia coli focA-pfl operon by fumarate nitrate regulator. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;255:262-7 pubmed
    ..activated nearly sevenfold relative to wild-type under aerobic growth conditions by increasing the dosage of the fnr gene on a pBR322-based plasmid (pCH21)...
  55. Mettert E, Outten F, Wanta B, Kiley P. The impact of O(2) on the Fe-S cluster biogenesis requirements of Escherichia coli FNR. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:798-811 pubmed publisher
    ..growth conditions were compared by measuring the activity of the Escherichia coli global anaerobic regulator FNR. A [4Fe-4S] cluster is required for FNR activity under anaerobic conditions...
  56. Kim S, Han Y, Kim I, Kim H. Involvement of ArcA and Fnr in expression of Escherichia coli thiol peroxidase gene. IUBMB Life. 1999;48:215-8 pubmed
    ..Anaerobic expression of tpx-lacZ in either (delta)arcA or delta(fnr) strains was 2.5-fold depressed compared with that of the wild-type strain...
  57. Lambden P, Guest J. Mutants of Escherichia coli K12 unable to use fumarate as an anaerobic electron acceptor. J Gen Microbiol. 1976;97:145-60 pubmed
    ..Type III mutants, originally frdB, were designated fnr because they were defective in fumarate and nitrate reduction and impaired in their ability to produce gas...
  58. Gunsalus R, Park S. Aerobic-anaerobic gene regulation in Escherichia coli: control by the ArcAB and Fnr regulons. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:437-50 pubmed
    ..The cell has two distinctly different transcriptional regulators, consisting of the Fnr and the ArcA/ArcB regulatory proteins to accomplish this task...
  59. Vasilieva S, Streltsova D, Moshkovskaya E, Sanina N, Aldoshin S. Fnr[4Fe-4S](2+) protein regulates the aidB gene expression in Escherichia coli cultured under anaerobic conditions. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2010;433:179-82 pubmed publisher
  60. Kurabayashi K, Tanimoto K, Fueki S, Tomita H, Hirakawa H. Elevated Expression of GlpT and UhpT via FNR Activation Contributes to Increased Fosfomycin Susceptibility in Escherichia coli under Anaerobic Conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:6352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevation of expression of these genes during anaerobic growth requires FNR, a global transcriptional regulator that is activated under anaerobic conditions...