Gene Symbol: fliR
Description: flagellar export pore protein
Alias: ECK1948, JW1934, flaP
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Fan F, Ohnishi K, Francis N, Macnab R. The FliP and FliR proteins of Salmonella typhimurium, putative components of the type III flagellar export apparatus, are located in the flagellar basal body. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:1035-46 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that these basal body proteins are FliP (in its mature form after signal peptide cleavage) and FliR respectively. Both of these proteins have homologues in other type III secretion systems...
  2. Minamino T, Saijo Hamano Y, Furukawa Y, González Pedrajo B, Macnab R, Namba K. Domain organization and function of Salmonella FliK, a flagellar hook-length control protein. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:491-502 pubmed
    ..The conformational flexibility of FliK(C) may play a role in interfering with switching at an inappropriate point of flagellar assembly. ..
  3. Fan F, Macnab R. Enzymatic characterization of FliI. An ATPase involved in flagellar assembly in Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31981-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that FliI has a C-terminal ATPase domain and an N-terminal domain that interacts with other components in the flagellum-specific export apparatus. ..
  4. Kubori T, Sukhan A, Aizawa S, Galan J. Molecular characterization and assembly of the needle complex of the Salmonella typhimurium type III protein secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10225-30 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the needle component may establish the specificity of type III secretion systems in delivering proteins into either plant or animal cells. ..
  5. McMurry J, Murphy J, González Pedrajo B. The FliN-FliH interaction mediates localization of flagellar export ATPase FliI to the C ring complex. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11790-8 pubmed
    ..A model incorporating the present findings is presented. ..
  6. Minamino T, Macnab R. Components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and classification of export substrates. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1388-94 pubmed
    ..Hook-capping protein (FlgD) and hook protein (FlgE) required FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR for their export to the periplasm...
  7. Kutsukake K, Minamino T, Yokoseki T. Isolation and characterization of FliK-independent flagellation mutants from Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7625-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of suppression of the fliK defects by the flhB mutations and propose a hypothesis on the export switching machinery of the flagellar proteins. ..
  8. Minamino T, Ferris H, Moriya N, Kihara M, Namba K. Two parts of the T3S4 domain of the hook-length control protein FliK are essential for the substrate specificity switching of the flagellar type III export apparatus. J Mol Biol. 2006;362:1148-58 pubmed
  9. Hasegawa K, Yamashita I, Namba K. Quasi- and nonequivalence in the structure of bacterial flagellar filament. Biophys J. 1998;74:569-75 pubmed

More Information


  1. González Pedrajo B, Fraser G, Minamino T, Macnab R. Molecular dissection of Salmonella FliH, a regulator of the ATPase FliI and the type III flagellar protein export pathway. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:967-82 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, a model is presented for the domain construction and function of FliH in complex with FliI and FliJ. ..
  2. Samatey F, Imada K, Nagashima S, Vonderviszt F, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature. 2001;410:331-7 pubmed
    ..By simulated extension of the protofilament model, we have identified possible switch regions responsible for the bi-stable mechanical switch that generates the 0.8 A difference in repeat distance. ..
  3. Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Namba K. Domain movements of HAP2 in the cap-filament complex formation and growth process of the bacterial flagellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15528-33 pubmed
  4. Zhu K, González Pedrajo B, Macnab R. Interactions among membrane and soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus of Salmonella. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9516-24 pubmed
    ..FliH bound more weakly to FliI carrying the N-terminal double mutation R7C/L12P than it did to wild-type FliI, confirming the importance of the N terminus of FliI for its interaction with FliH. ..
  5. Minamino T, Chu R, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Role of FliJ in flagellar protein export in Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4207-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that FliJ is a general component of the flagellar export apparatus and has a chaperone-like activity for both rod/hook-type and filament-type substrates. ..
  6. Moriya N, Minamino T, Hughes K, Macnab R, Namba K. The type III flagellar export specificity switch is dependent on FliK ruler and a molecular clock. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:466-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that FliK(N) acts as a flexible tape measure, but that hook length is also dependent on the hook elongation rate and a switch timing mechanism. ..
  7. Ferris H, Furukawa Y, Minamino T, Kroetz M, Kihara M, Namba K, et al. FlhB regulates ordered export of flagellar components via autocleavage mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41236-42 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide evidence via peptide analysis and FlhB cleavage variants that the tertiary structure of FlhB plays a significant role in cleavage. Based on these results, we propose that FlhB cleavage is an autocatalytic process. ..
  8. Maki S, Vonderviszt F, Furukawa Y, Imada K, Namba K. Plugging interactions of HAP2 pentamer into the distal end of flagellar filament revealed by electron microscopy. J Mol Biol. 1998;277:771-7 pubmed
    ..This also allows us to model the axial domain arrangement of flagellin subunit in the filament. ..
  9. González Pedrajo B, Minamino T, Kihara M, Namba K. Interactions between C ring proteins and export apparatus components: a possible mechanism for facilitating type III protein export. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:984-98 pubmed
    ..The importance of the C ring as a possible docking site for export substrates, chaperones and FliI through FliH for their efficient delivery to membrane components of the export apparatus is discussed. ..
  10. Kihara M, Minamino T, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Intergenic suppression between the flagellar MS ring protein FliF of Salmonella and FlhA, a membrane component of its export apparatus. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1655-62 pubmed
    ..The data from this study provide genetic support for a model in which at least the FlhA component of the export apparatus physically interacts with the MS ring within which it is housed. ..
  11. Minamino T, Macnab R. Domain structure of Salmonella FlhB, a flagellar export component responsible for substrate specificity switching. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4906-14 pubmed
    ..FliK itself is an export substrate; its binding properties for FlhB(C) resemble those of FlgD and do not provide any evidence for a physical interaction beyond that of the export process. ..
  12. Fraser G, González Pedrajo B, Tame J, Macnab R. Interactions of FliJ with the Salmonella type III flagellar export apparatus. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5546-54 pubmed
    ..We present a model summarizing these multiple interactions. ..
  13. Hirano T, Shibata S, Ohnishi K, Tani T, Aizawa S. N-terminal signal region of FliK is dispensable for length control of the flagellar hook. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:346-60 pubmed
  14. Malakooti J, Ely B, Matsumura P. Molecular characterization, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the fliO, fliP, fliQ, and fliR genes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:189-97 pubmed
    ..A 2.2-kb PstI restriction fragment was shown to complement known mutant alleles of the fliO, fliP, fliQ, and fliR genes, the four remaining genes of the fliL operon...
  15. McMurry J, Van Arnam J, Kihara M, Macnab R. Analysis of the cytoplasmic domains of Salmonella FlhA and interactions with components of the flagellar export machinery. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7586-92 pubmed
    ..via a type III export apparatus which, in part, consists of the membrane proteins FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and is housed within the membrane-supramembrane ring formed by FliF subunits...
  16. Raha M, Sockett H, Macnab R. Characterization of the fliL gene in the flagellar regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2308-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, FliL does not appear to have a major role in flagellar structure or function and is therefore unlikely to be a component of the motor or switch; the effect on motility caused by truncation of the gene is probably an indirect one. ..
  17. Minamino T, Kazetani K, Tahara A, Suzuki H, Furukawa Y, Kihara M, et al. Oligomerization of the bacterial flagellar ATPase FliI is controlled by its extreme N-terminal region. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:510-9 pubmed
  18. Malakooti J, Komeda Y, Matsumura P. DNA sequence analysis, gene product identification, and localization of flagellar motor components of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:2728-34 pubmed
    ..In addition, we subcloned a 2.2-kilobase-pair DNA fragment capable of complementing the remaining four genes of the flaA operon (flbD [fliO], flaR [fliP], flaQ [fliQ], and flaP [fliR]).
  19. Minamino T, González Pedrajo B, Kihara M, Namba K, Macnab R. The ATPase FliI can interact with the type III flagellar protein export apparatus in the absence of its regulator, FliH. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3983-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, FliH, though undoubtedly important, is not essential. ..
  20. Minamino T, Macnab R. FliH, a soluble component of the type III flagellar export apparatus of Salmonella, forms a complex with FliI and inhibits its ATPase activity. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1494-503 pubmed
  21. Ohnishi K, Fan F, Schoenhals G, Kihara M, Macnab R. The FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR proteins of Salmonella typhimurium: putative components for flagellar assembly. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6092-9 pubmed
    The flagellar genes fliO, fliP, fliQ, and fliR of Salmonella typhimurium are contiguous within the fliLMNOPQR operon. They are needed for flagellation but do not encode any known structural or regulatory components...
  22. Thomas J, Stafford G, Hughes C. Docking of cytosolic chaperone-substrate complexes at the membrane ATPase during flagellar type III protein export. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3945-50 pubmed
    ..Our data establish a key event in the type III protein export mechanism, docking of the cytosolic chaperone-substrate complex at the ATPase of the membrane-export apparatus. ..
  23. Claret L, Calder S, Higgins M, Hughes C. Oligomerization and activation of the FliI ATPase central to bacterial flagellum assembly. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1349-55 pubmed
    ..The data reveal central facets of the structure and action of the flagellar assembly ATPase and, by extension, the homologous ATPases of virulence-related type III export systems. ..
  24. Yonekura K, Maki S, Morgan D, DeRosier D, Vonderviszt F, Imada K, et al. The bacterial flagellar cap as the rotary promoter of flagellin self-assembly. Science. 2000;290:2148-52 pubmed
    ..This represents one of the most dynamic movements in protein structures. ..
  25. Minamino T, Macnab R. Interactions among components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and its substrates. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1052-64 pubmed