Gene Symbol: fliI
Description: flagellum-specific ATP synthase
Alias: ECK1939, JW1925, flaC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. González Pedrajo B, Minamino T, Kihara M, Namba K. Interactions between C ring proteins and export apparatus components: a possible mechanism for facilitating type III protein export. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:984-98 pubmed
    ..FliN was found to associate with FliH, a flagellar export component that regulates the ATPase activity of FliI. The binding of FliM to FliN does not interfere with this FliN-FliH interaction...
  2. Moriya N, Minamino T, Hughes K, Macnab R, Namba K. The type III flagellar export specificity switch is dependent on FliK ruler and a molecular clock. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:466-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that FliK(N) acts as a flexible tape measure, but that hook length is also dependent on the hook elongation rate and a switch timing mechanism. ..
  3. Hasegawa K, Yamashita I, Namba K. Quasi- and nonequivalence in the structure of bacterial flagellar filament. Biophys J. 1998;74:569-75 pubmed
  4. Maki S, Vonderviszt F, Furukawa Y, Imada K, Namba K. Plugging interactions of HAP2 pentamer into the distal end of flagellar filament revealed by electron microscopy. J Mol Biol. 1998;277:771-7 pubmed
    ..This also allows us to model the axial domain arrangement of flagellin subunit in the filament. ..
  5. Kutsukake K, Minamino T, Yokoseki T. Isolation and characterization of FliK-independent flagellation mutants from Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7625-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of suppression of the fliK defects by the flhB mutations and propose a hypothesis on the export switching machinery of the flagellar proteins. ..
  6. Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Namba K. Domain movements of HAP2 in the cap-filament complex formation and growth process of the bacterial flagellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15528-33 pubmed
  7. Minamino T, Chu R, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Role of FliJ in flagellar protein export in Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4207-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that FliJ is a general component of the flagellar export apparatus and has a chaperone-like activity for both rod/hook-type and filament-type substrates. ..
  8. González Pedrajo B, Fraser G, Minamino T, Macnab R. Molecular dissection of Salmonella FliH, a regulator of the ATPase FliI and the type III flagellar protein export pathway. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:967-82 pubmed
    FliH is a soluble component of the flagellar export apparatus that binds to the ATPase FliI, and negatively regulates its activity. The 235-amino-acid FliH dimerizes and interacts with FliI to form a hetero-trimeric (FliH)2FliI complex...
  9. Bartlett D, Matsumura P. Identification of Escherichia coli region III flagellar gene products and description of two new flagellar genes. J Bacteriol. 1984;160:577-85 pubmed
    ..flagellar mutants and code for polypeptides, we made the following gene product assignments: flaB 1, 60 kilodaltons; flaB 11, 38 kilodaltons; flaB111, 28 kilodaltons; flaC, 56 kilodaltons; fla0, 16 kilodaltons; and flaE, 54 kilodaltons.

More Information


  1. Samatey F, Imada K, Nagashima S, Vonderviszt F, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature. 2001;410:331-7 pubmed
    ..By simulated extension of the protofilament model, we have identified possible switch regions responsible for the bi-stable mechanical switch that generates the 0.8 A difference in repeat distance. ..
  2. Zhu K, González Pedrajo B, Macnab R. Interactions among membrane and soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus of Salmonella. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9516-24 pubmed
    ..examined were two integral membrane proteins, FlhA and FlhB, and two soluble components, FliH and the ATPase FliI. Affinity chromatography and affinity blotting demonstrated a heterologous interaction between FlhA and FlhB but ..
  3. McMurry J, Murphy J, González Pedrajo B. The FliN-FliH interaction mediates localization of flagellar export ATPase FliI to the C ring complex. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11790-8 pubmed
    FliH regulates the flagellar export ATPase FliI, preventing nonproductive ATP hydrolysis. FliH has been shown to stably associate with the C ring protein FliN...
  4. Ferris H, Furukawa Y, Minamino T, Kroetz M, Kihara M, Namba K, et al. FlhB regulates ordered export of flagellar components via autocleavage mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41236-42 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide evidence via peptide analysis and FlhB cleavage variants that the tertiary structure of FlhB plays a significant role in cleavage. Based on these results, we propose that FlhB cleavage is an autocatalytic process. ..
  5. Fan F, Macnab R. Enzymatic characterization of FliI. An ATPase involved in flagellar assembly in Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31981-8 pubmed
    b>FliI is a protein needed for flagellar assembly in Salmonella typhimurium...
  6. Minamino T, Tame J, Namba K, Macnab R. Proteolytic analysis of the FliH/FliI complex, the ATPase component of the type III flagellar export apparatus of Salmonella. J Mol Biol. 2001;312:1027-36 pubmed
    The ATPase FliI of the Salmonella type III flagellar protein export apparatus is a 456 amino acid residue cytoplasmic protein consisting of two regions, an N-terminal flagellum-specific region and a C-terminal ATPase region...
  7. Auvray F, Ozin A, Claret L, Hughes C. Intrinsic membrane targeting of the flagellar export ATPase FliI: interaction with acidic phospholipids and FliH. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:941-50 pubmed
    The specialised ATPase FliI is central to export of flagellar axial protein subunits during flagellum assembly...
  8. Kubori T, Sukhan A, Aizawa S, Galan J. Molecular characterization and assembly of the needle complex of the Salmonella typhimurium type III protein secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10225-30 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the needle component may establish the specificity of type III secretion systems in delivering proteins into either plant or animal cells. ..
  9. Minamino T, Ferris H, Moriya N, Kihara M, Namba K. Two parts of the T3S4 domain of the hook-length control protein FliK are essential for the substrate specificity switching of the flagellar type III export apparatus. J Mol Biol. 2006;362:1148-58 pubmed
  10. Minamino T, Saijo Hamano Y, Furukawa Y, González Pedrajo B, Macnab R, Namba K. Domain organization and function of Salmonella FliK, a flagellar hook-length control protein. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:491-502 pubmed
    ..The conformational flexibility of FliK(C) may play a role in interfering with switching at an inappropriate point of flagellar assembly. ..
  11. Al Mamun A, Tominaga A, Enomoto M. Cloning and characterization of the region III flagellar operons of the four Shigella subgroups: genetic defects that cause loss of flagella of Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4493-500 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the process of loss of flagella in relation to transposition of IS elements and alterations of the noncoding region, which were found to be common to at least three subgroups...
  12. Minamino T, Macnab R. Components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and classification of export substrates. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1388-94 pubmed
    ..Hook-capping protein (FlgD) and hook protein (FlgE) required FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR for their export to the periplasm...
  13. Yonekura K, Maki S, Morgan D, DeRosier D, Vonderviszt F, Imada K, et al. The bacterial flagellar cap as the rotary promoter of flagellin self-assembly. Science. 2000;290:2148-52 pubmed
    ..This represents one of the most dynamic movements in protein structures. ..
  14. Claret L, Calder S, Higgins M, Hughes C. Oligomerization and activation of the FliI ATPase central to bacterial flagellum assembly. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1349-55 pubmed
    b>FliI is the peripheral membrane ATPase pivotal to the type III protein export mechanism underlying the assembly of the bacterial flagellum...
  15. Minamino T, Macnab R. Interactions among components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and its substrates. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1052-64 pubmed
    We have examined the cytoplasmic components (FliH, FliI and FliJ) of the type III flagellar protein export apparatus, plus the cytoplasmic domains (FlhAC and FlhBC) of two of its six membrane components...
  16. Thomas J, Stafford G, Hughes C. Docking of cytosolic chaperone-substrate complexes at the membrane ATPase during flagellar type III protein export. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3945-50 pubmed
    ..mutants lacking specific flagellar export components but depended on the presence of the membrane-associated ATPase FliI. After expression of the variant chaperones in Salmonella, a stalled intermediate export complex, which contained ..
  17. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  18. Minamino T, Imada K, Tahara A, Kihara M, Macnab R, Namba K. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Salmonella FliI, the ATPase component of the type III flagellar protein-export apparatus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:973-5 pubmed
    ..b>FliI is the ATPase that drives flagellar protein export using the energy of ATP hydrolysis...
  19. Marykwas D, Schmidt S, Berg H. Interacting components of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli revealed by the two-hybrid system in yeast. J Mol Biol. 1996;256:564-76 pubmed
    ..Regions of proteins important for several of these interactions were identified by mutational analysis. The implications for motor assembly and function are discussed. ..
  20. Minamino T, Kazetani K, Tahara A, Suzuki H, Furukawa Y, Kihara M, et al. Oligomerization of the bacterial flagellar ATPase FliI is controlled by its extreme N-terminal region. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:510-9 pubmed
    Salmonella FliI is the flagellar ATPase which converts the energy of ATP hydrolysis into the export of flagellar proteins. It forms a ring-shaped oligomer in the presence of ATP, its analogs, or phospholipids...
  21. Hirano T, Shibata S, Ohnishi K, Tani T, Aizawa S. N-terminal signal region of FliK is dispensable for length control of the flagellar hook. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:346-60 pubmed
  22. Fraser G, González Pedrajo B, Tame J, Macnab R. Interactions of FliJ with the Salmonella type III flagellar export apparatus. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5546-54 pubmed
    ..from previous studies that FliJ interacts with the N-terminal region of FliH, a negative regulator of the ATPase FliI. Using both truncation and deletion versions of FliJ, we now show that it is its C-terminal region that is ..
  23. Minamino T, González Pedrajo B, Kihara M, Namba K, Macnab R. The ATPase FliI can interact with the type III flagellar protein export apparatus in the absence of its regulator, FliH. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3983-8 pubmed
    Salmonella FliI is the ATPase that drives flagellar protein export. It normally exists as a complex together with the regulatory protein FliH...
  24. Kihara M, Minamino T, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Intergenic suppression between the flagellar MS ring protein FliF of Salmonella and FlhA, a membrane component of its export apparatus. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1655-62 pubmed
    ..The data from this study provide genetic support for a model in which at least the FlhA component of the export apparatus physically interacts with the MS ring within which it is housed. ..
  25. McMurry J, Van Arnam J, Kihara M, Macnab R. Analysis of the cytoplasmic domains of Salmonella FlhA and interactions with components of the flagellar export machinery. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7586-92 pubmed
    ..Affinity blotting showed that FlhA interacts with several other export apparatus membrane proteins. The implications of these findings are discussed, and a model of FlhA within the export apparatus is presented. ..
  26. Minamino T, Macnab R. Domain structure of Salmonella FlhB, a flagellar export component responsible for substrate specificity switching. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4906-14 pubmed
    ..FliK itself is an export substrate; its binding properties for FlhB(C) resemble those of FlgD and do not provide any evidence for a physical interaction beyond that of the export process. ..
  27. Minamino T, Macnab R. FliH, a soluble component of the type III flagellar export apparatus of Salmonella, forms a complex with FliI and inhibits its ATPase activity. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1494-503 pubmed
    Both FliH and the ATPase FliI are cytoplasmic components of the Salmonella type III flagellar export apparatus...