Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: fliF
Description: flagellar basal-body MS-ring and collar protein
Alias: ECK1936, JW1922, flaAII.1, flaBI
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Yakushi T, Yang J, Fukuoka H, Homma M, Blair D. Roles of charged residues of rotor and stator in flagellar rotation: comparative study using H+-driven and Na+-driven motors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1466-72 pubmed..coli motor using both rotor and stator components from V. alginolyticus remained sensitive to mutation. Motor function in V. alginolyticus may be enhanced by the proteins MotX and MotY. ..
- Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Namba K. Domain movements of HAP2 in the cap-filament complex formation and growth process of the bacterial flagellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15528-33 pubmed
- Hauser R, Ceol A, Rajagopala S, Mosca R, Siszler G, Wermke N, et al. A second-generation protein-protein interaction network of Helicobacter pylori. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:1318-29 pubmed publisher..coli of which one third turned out to be conserved in both species. ..
- Kutsukake K, Minamino T, Yokoseki T. Isolation and characterization of FliK-independent flagellation mutants from Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7625-9 pubmed..On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of suppression of the fliK defects by the flhB mutations and propose a hypothesis on the export switching machinery of the flagellar proteins. ..
- Sosinsky G, Francis N, DeRosier D, Wall J, Simon M, Hainfeld J. Mass determination and estimation of subunit stoichiometry of the bacterial hook-basal body flagellar complex of Salmonella typhimurium by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4801-5 pubmed..amp; Aizawa, S.-I. (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 212, 377-387] using quantitative gel electrophoresis. The results of Jones et al., together with ours, account for all proteins in the basal body to within approximately 5% (or 200 kDa). ..
- Samatey F, Imada K, Nagashima S, Vonderviszt F, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature. 2001;410:331-7 pubmed..By simulated extension of the protofilament model, we have identified possible switch regions responsible for the bi-stable mechanical switch that generates the 0.8 A difference in repeat distance. ..
- Blair D, Berg H. Mutations in the MotA protein of Escherichia coli reveal domains critical for proton conduction. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1433-42 pubmed..The clustering of the mutations provides independent support for the suggestion that MotA is a transmembrane proton channel and places significant constraints on models for the molecular mechanism of ion conduction. ..
- Dailey F, Macnab R. Effects of lipoprotein biogenesis mutations on flagellar assembly in Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:771-6 pubmed..These mutants failed to assemble even an MS ring, presumably because of the observed decrease in transcription of fliF. In contrast, temperature-sensitive diacylglycerol transferase [lgt(Ts)] mutants were motile at 42 degrees C, ..
- Chun S, Parkinson J. Bacterial motility: membrane topology of the Escherichia coli MotB protein. Science. 1988;239:276-8 pubmed..Protease treatment of MotB in spheroplasts confirmed this view. The simple transmembrane organization of MotB is difficult to reconcile with a role as a proton conductor. ..
- Minamino T, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Interaction between FliE and FlgB, a proximal rod component of the flagellar basal body of Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3029-36 pubmed..We suggest that FliE subunits constitute a junction zone between the MS ring and the rod and also that the proximal rod structure consists of FlgB subunits. ..
- Kojima S, Blair D. Solubilization and purification of the MotA/MotB complex of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:26-34 pubmed..35)S-radiolabeling showed that MotA and MotB are present in a 2:1 ratio in the complex. Purified MotA/MotB complexes should enable in vitro study of the proton-induced conformational change and other aspects of stator function. ..
- Garza A, Biran R, Wohlschlegel J, Manson M. Mutations in motB suppressible by changes in stator or rotor components of the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1996;258:270-85 pubmed..We suggest that most of the suppressors restore motility by introducing compensatory realignments in MotA or FliG. ..
- Tang H, Braun T, Blair D. Motility protein complexes in the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:209-21 pubmed..Torque generation in the flagellar motor is thus likely to involve interactions between these two protein complexes. ..
- Braun T, Blair D. Targeted disulfide cross-linking of the MotB protein of Escherichia coli: evidence for two H(+) channels in the stator Complex. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13051-9 pubmed..Positions near the middle of the segment were inaccessible to sulhydryl reagents. Positions within 6-8 residues of either end, which includes residues around Asp32, were accessible. ..
- Zhou J, Sharp L, Tang H, Lloyd S, Billings S, Braun T, et al. Function of protonatable residues in the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli: a critical role for Asp 32 of MotB. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2729-35 pubmed..We propose that Asp 32 of MotB functions as a proton-binding site in the bacterial flagellar motor and that no other conserved, protonatable residues function in this capacity. ..
- Khan S, Dapice M, Reese T. Effects of mot gene expression on the structure of the flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1988;202:575-84 pubmed..The concomitant loss of the rings and motility is consistent with the ring particles having a central role in the flagellar motor. ..
- Yamaguchi S, Aizawa S, Kihara M, Isomura M, Jones C, Macnab R. Genetic evidence for a switching and energy-transducing complex in the flagellar motor of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1172-9 pubmed..This switch complex is probably mounted to the base of the flagellar basal body and, via binding of the CheY and CheZ proteins, receives sensory information and uses it to control flagellar operation. ..
- Al Mamun A, Tominaga A, Enomoto M. Cloning and characterization of the region III flagellar operons of the four Shigella subgroups: genetic defects that cause loss of flagella of Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4493-500 pubmed..S. boydii NCTC9733 (strain C5 in this paper) had the 988-bp internal deletion in the fliF gene that encodes a large substructural protein of the basal body...
- Suzuki H, Yonekura K, Namba K. Structure of the rotor of the bacterial flagellar motor revealed by electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle image analysis. J Mol Biol. 2004;337:105-13 pubmedThe FliF ring is the base for self-assembly of the bacterial flagellum and the FliF/FliG ring complex is the core of the rotor of the flagellar motor...
- Jones C, Macnab R, Okino H, Aizawa S. Stoichiometric analysis of the flagellar hook-(basal-body) complex of Salmonella typhimurium. J Mol Biol. 1990;212:377-87 pubmed..The stoichiometries for the ring proteins are approximately 26 subunits each for the M-ring protein (FliF), the P-ring protein (FlgI), and the L-ring protein (FlgH); the protein responsible for the S-ring feature is not ..
- Muller V, Jones C, Kawagishi I, Aizawa S, Macnab R. Characterization of the fliE genes of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and identification of the FliE protein as a component of the flagellar hook-basal body complex. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2298-304 pubmed..fliE was found to be a monocistronic transcriptional unit, adjacent to and divergent from the large fliF operon...
- Thomas D, Morgan D, DeRosier D. Rotational symmetry of the C ring and a mechanism for the flagellar rotary motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10134-9 pubmed..Movement results from the swapping of stud-bound levers with M ring-bound levers. The model predicts that both the M and C rings rotate in the same direction but at different speeds. ..
- Roman S, Frantz B, Matsumura P. Gene sequence, overproduction, purification and determination of the wild-type level of the Escherichia coli flagellar switch protein FliG. Gene. 1993;133:103-8 pubmed..Purified FliG and anti-FliG Ab will be useful for direct biochemical analyses of CheY-switch protein interaction. ..
- Yonekura K, Maki S, Morgan D, DeRosier D, Vonderviszt F, Imada K, et al. The bacterial flagellar cap as the rotary promoter of flagellin self-assembly. Science. 2000;290:2148-52 pubmed..This represents one of the most dynamic movements in protein structures. ..
- Komeda Y. Fusions of flagellar operons to lactose genes on a mu lac bacteriophage. J Bacteriol. 1982;150:16-26 pubmed..These results are discussed with respect to the possible assembly sequence of the fla gene products. ..
- Macnab R. How bacteria assemble flagella. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003;57:77-100 pubmed..Exported substrates diffuse down a narrow channel in the growing structure and assemble at the distal end, often with the help of a capping structure. ..
- Sagi Y, Khan S, Eisenbach M. Binding of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY to the isolated, intact switch complex of the bacterial flagellar motor: lack of cooperativity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25867-71 pubmed..the intact switch complex (constituting the switch proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN and the scaffolding protein FliF) in quantities sufficient for biochemical work and used it to investigate whether the binding of CheY to the switch ..
- Sowa Y, Rowe A, Leake M, Yakushi T, Homma M, Ishijima A, et al. Direct observation of steps in rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Nature. 2005;437:916-9 pubmed..Backwards steps despite the absence of the flagellar switching protein CheY indicate a small change in free energy per step, similar to that of a single ion transit. ..
- Garza A, Bronstein P, Valdez P, Harris Haller L, Manson M. Extragenic suppression of motA missense mutations of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6116-22 pubmed
- Welch M, Oosawa K, Aizawa S, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a signal molecule to the flagellar switch of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8787-91 pubmed..This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule. ..
- Grünenfelder B, Gehrig S, Jenal U. Role of the cytoplasmic C terminus of the FliF motor protein in flagellar assembly and rotation. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1624-33 pubmedTwenty-six FliF monomers assemble into the MS ring, a central motor component of the bacterial flagellum that anchors the structure in the inner membrane...
- Marykwas D, Schmidt S, Berg H. Interacting components of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli revealed by the two-hybrid system in yeast. J Mol Biol. 1996;256:564-76 pubmed..A screen for other components that might interact with FliG revealed interactions with FliF (the MS ring protein) and H-NS (a histone-like protein)...
- Katayama E, Shiraishi T, Oosawa K, Baba N, Aizawa S. Geometry of the flagellar motor in the cytoplasmic membrane of Salmonella typhimurium as determined by stereo-photogrammetry of quick-freeze deep-etch replica images. J Mol Biol. 1996;255:458-75 pubmed..Various dimensions of the MS ring complex and the C ring projecting from the membrane were determined by digital stereo-photogrammetry, and a three-dimensional model of the total basal structure is presented. ..
- Saijo Hamano Y, Uchida N, Namba K, Oosawa K. In vitro characterization of FlgB, FlgC, FlgF, FlgG, and FliE, flagellar basal body proteins of Salmonella. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:423-35 pubmed..These results together with other data indicate that all of the ten flagellar axial proteins share structural characteristics and folding dynamics in relation to the mechanism of their self-assembly into the flagellar axial structure. ..
- Zhou J, Fazzio R, Blair D. Membrane topology of the MotA protein of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:237-42 pubmed..These experiments establish that the main features of the suggested model for MotA topology are correct, furnishing a basis for more detailed structure-function studies of the MotA/MotB proton channel...
- Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed..Differences in the intracellular locations of the che and mot gene prodcuts presumably reflect the functional attributes of these components. ..
- Ueno T, Oosawa K, Aizawa S. M ring, S ring and proximal rod of the flagellar basal body of Salmonella typhimurium are composed of subunits of a single protein, FliF. J Mol Biol. 1992;227:672-7 pubmedThe flagellar basal body, a major part of the flagellar motor, consists of a rod and four rings. When the fliF gene of Salmonella typhimurium, which was previously shown to code for the component protein of the M ring, was cloned and ..
- Braun T, Al Mawsawi L, Kojima S, Blair D. Arrangement of core membrane segments in the MotA/MotB proton-channel complex of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:35-45 pubmed
- Zhou J, Blair D. Residues of the cytoplasmic domain of MotA essential for torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:428-39 pubmed..Possible roles for these residues in torque generation are discussed. ..
- Komeda Y, Kutsukake K, Iino T. Definition of additional flagellar genes in Escherichia coli K12. Genetics. 1980;94:277-90 pubmed..The flB gene was found to be part of an operon: flB-flaI in region II. In region III, a previously unidentified gene flbC was located between hag and flaN. ..
- Zhou J, Lloyd S, Blair D. Electrostatic interactions between rotor and stator in the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6436-41 pubmed..These results identify a functionally important site of interaction between the rotor and stator and suggest a hypothesis for electrostatic interactions at the rotor-stator interface. ..
- Kim E, Price Carter M, Carlquist W, Blair D. Membrane segment organization in the stator complex of the flagellar motor: implications for proton flow and proton-induced conformational change. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11332-9 pubmed publisher..The model indicates a close proximity for certain conserved, functionally important residues. The results are used to develop an explicit model for the proton-induced conformational change in the stator. ..