Gene Symbol: fliD
Description: flagellar filament capping protein
Alias: ECK1923, JW1909, flbC, rfs
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     fliD

Top Publications

  1. Yokoseki T, Kutsukake K, Ohnishi K, Iino T. Functional analysis of the flagellar genes in the fliD operon of Salmonella typhimurium. Microbiology. 1995;141 ( Pt 7):1715-22 pubmed
    The fliD genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli encode the filament-cap protein of the flagellar apparatus, which facilitates the polymerization of endogenous flagellin at the tips of the growing filaments...
  2. Chance M, Fiser A, Sali A, Pieper U, Eswar N, Xu G, et al. High-throughput computational and experimental techniques in structural genomics. Genome Res. 2004;14:2145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This projected resource will provide structural biology information important to understanding the function of most proteins of the cell...
  3. Kutsukake K, Minamino T, Yokoseki T. Isolation and characterization of FliK-independent flagellation mutants from Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7625-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of suppression of the fliK defects by the flhB mutations and propose a hypothesis on the export switching machinery of the flagellar proteins. ..
  4. Samatey F, Imada K, Nagashima S, Vonderviszt F, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature. 2001;410:331-7 pubmed
    ..By simulated extension of the protofilament model, we have identified possible switch regions responsible for the bi-stable mechanical switch that generates the 0.8 A difference in repeat distance. ..
  5. Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Namba K. Domain movements of HAP2 in the cap-filament complex formation and growth process of the bacterial flagellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15528-33 pubmed
  6. Juhas M, Evans L, Frost J, Davenport P, Yarkoni O, Fraser G, et al. Escherichia coli flagellar genes as target sites for integration and expression of genetic circuits. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111451 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterised integration and expression at four candidate loci, fliD, fliS, fliT, and fliY, of the E. coli flagellar region 3a...
  7. Hanafusa T, Sakai A, Tominaga A, Enomoto M. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli hag operator mutants whose hag48 expression has become repressible by a Salmonella H1 repressor. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;216:44-50 pubmed
    ..The sequence analysis also revealed a repetitive extragenic palindrome (REP) consensus sequence and a transcriptional terminator of hag48 in a small, functionally unknown open reading frame (ORF). ..
  8. Szekely E, Simon M. DNA sequence adjacent to flagellar genes and evolution of flagellar-phase variation. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:74-81 pubmed
    ..To understand gene expression and the origin of these relationships, we have compared the DNA sequence adjacent to all three flagellin genes. The sequence data suggest a mechanism for the evolution of the hin-H2 locus. ..
  9. Homma M, Fujita H, Yamaguchi S, Iino T. Excretion of unassembled flagellin by Salmonella typhimurium mutants deficient in hook-associated proteins. J Bacteriol. 1984;159:1056-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hasegawa K, Yamashita I, Namba K. Quasi- and nonequivalence in the structure of bacterial flagellar filament. Biophys J. 1998;74:569-75 pubmed
  2. Maki S, Vonderviszt F, Furukawa Y, Imada K, Namba K. Plugging interactions of HAP2 pentamer into the distal end of flagellar filament revealed by electron microscopy. J Mol Biol. 1998;277:771-7 pubmed
    ..The cap is an oligomeric assembly of HAP2 protein (also called FliD) and plays an essential role in the filament growth in vivo by preventing flagellin monomers from leaking out ..
  3. Yonekura K, Maki S, Morgan D, DeRosier D, Vonderviszt F, Imada K, et al. The bacterial flagellar cap as the rotary promoter of flagellin self-assembly. Science. 2000;290:2148-52 pubmed
    ..This represents one of the most dynamic movements in protein structures. ..
  4. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  5. Kawagishi I, Muller V, Williams A, Irikura V, Macnab R. Subdivision of flagellar region III of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chromosomes and identification of two additional flagellar genes. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:1051-65 pubmed
    ..coli there is almost 7 kb of DNA between the filament cap gene, fliD, and the next known flagellar gene, fliE; a similar situation occurs in S. typhimurium...
  6. Song W, Cho S, Hong H, Park S, Yoon S. Self-Oligomerizing Structure of the Flagellar Cap Protein FliD and Its Implication in Filament Assembly. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:847-857 pubmed publisher
    b>FliD is a self-oligomerizing structural protein that caps the growing end of the bacterial flagellar filament. FliD also plays a key role in the flagellar system by continuously adding a new flagellin protein to the tip of the filament...