Gene Symbol: fliA
Description: RNA polymerase, sigma 28 (sigma F) factor
Alias: ECK1921, JW1907, flaD, rpoF
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     fliA

Top Publications

  1. Barker C, Prüss B, Matsumura P. Increased motility of Escherichia coli by insertion sequence element integration into the regulatory region of the flhD operon. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7529-37 pubmed
    ..For a motile derivative, levels of flhD transcript had increased 2.7-fold, leading to a 32-fold increase in fliA transcript and a 65-fold increase in flhB::luxCDABE expression from a promoter probe vector...
  2. Kundu T, Kusano S, Ishihama A. Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigmaF holoenzyme involved in transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4264-9 pubmed
    The rpoF gene of Escherichia coli codes for the RNA polymerase sigmaF (or sigma28) subunit, which is involved in transcription of the flagellar and chemotaxis genes...
  3. Yu H, Kibler D, Tan M. In silico prediction and functional validation of sigma28-regulated genes in Chlamydia and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:8206-12 pubmed
    ..coli. ..
  4. Hollands K, Lee D, Lloyd G, Busby S. Activation of sigma 28-dependent transcription in Escherichia coli by the cyclic AMP receptor protein requires an unusual promoter organization. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..The organization of the different promoter elements and the activator binding site at the trg promoter is the same as at the aer promoter, suggesting a common activation mechanism. ..
  5. Soutourina O, Bertin P. Regulation cascade of flagellar expression in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:505-23 pubmed
    ..The remarkable parallelism in the functional organisation of flagellar systems suggests an evolutionary conservation of regulatory mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  6. Sperandio V, Torres A, Kaper J. Quorum sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C (QseBC): a novel two-component regulatory system involved in the regulation of flagella and motility by quorum sensing in E. coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:809-21 pubmed
    ..Transcription of flhD, fliA, motA and fliC::lacZ fusions was decreased in the qseC mutant, suggesting that qseBC is a transcriptional regulator ..
  7. Chilcott G, Hughes K. Coupling of flagellar gene expression to flagellar assembly in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000;64:694-708 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle control and flagellar development are codependent. We discuss how all these levels of regulation ensure efficient assembly of the flagellum in response to environmental stimuli. ..
  8. Koo B, Rhodius V, Campbell E, Gross C. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli sigma28 and its target promoters reveals recognition of a composite -10 region, comprised of an 'extended -10' motif and a core -10 element. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:830-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Sigma28 is the second Group 3 sigma shown to use an extended -10 region in promoter recognition, raising the possibility that other Group 3 sigmas will do so as well. ..
  9. Yu H, Di Russo E, Rounds M, Tan M. Mutational analysis of the promoter recognized by Chlamydia and Escherichia coli sigma(28) RNA polymerase. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5524-31 pubmed
    ..The preferred sigma(28) promoter that we defined in the context of the hctB promoter is TAAAGwwy-n(11/12)-ryCGAwrn, where w is A or T, r is a purine, y is a pyrimidine, n is any nucleotide, and n(11/12) is a spacer of 11 or 12 nt. ..

More Information


  1. Liu X, Matsumura P. An alternative sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar class-III operons in Escherichia coli: gene sequence, overproduction, purification and characterization. Gene. 1995;164:81-4 pubmed
    Based on the studies of the FliA protein in Bacillus subtilis (Bs) and Salmonella typhimurium (St), the Escherichia coli (Ec) fliA gene has been proposed to encode a flagellar-specific sigma factor, sigma 28...
  2. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  3. Barembruch C, Hengge R. Cellular levels and activity of the flagellar sigma factor FliA of Escherichia coli are controlled by FlgM-modulated proteolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:76-89 pubmed
    ..The flagellar sigma factor FliA (sigma(28)) is responsible for class 3 expression and, in the early phase of flagellar assembly, is inhibited by ..
  4. Kalir S, Alon U. Using a quantitative blueprint to reprogram the dynamics of the flagella gene network. Cell. 2004;117:713-20 pubmed
    ..numbers on the arrows, finding different hierarchies of activation coefficients for the two regulators, FlhDC and FliA; and (2) cis-regulatory input functions, which summate the input from the two regulators (SUM gates)...
  5. Liu X, Matsumura P. Differential regulation of multiple overlapping promoters in flagellar class II operons in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;21:613-20 pubmed
    ..Among the three class II operons examined, the fliA and fliL operons, but not the flhB operon, could be transcribed by both sigma 70 RNA polymerase holoenzyme with ..
  6. Komeda Y. Transcriptional control of flagellar genes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1315-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that the flaU gene is a repressor and the flaD gene is an activator of transcription of the hag, flaS, and Mocha operons...
  7. Koo B, Rhodius V, Nonaka G, deHaseth P, Gross C. Reduced capacity of alternative sigmas to melt promoters ensures stringent promoter recognition. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Divergent sigmas may generally use a nonoptimal Region 2.3 to increase promoter stringency, enabling them to mount a focused response to altered conditions. ..
  8. Lonetto M, Gribskov M, Gross C. The sigma 70 family: sequence conservation and evolutionary relationships. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3843-9 pubmed
  9. Partridge J, Bodenmiller D, Humphrys M, Spiro S. NsrR targets in the Escherichia coli genome: new insights into DNA sequence requirements for binding and a role for NsrR in the regulation of motility. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:680-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Reporter fusion assays confirmed that NsrR negatively regulates the fliA and fliL promoters...
  10. Okada K, Ichihara H, Takahashi H, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Hakoshima T. Preparation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals of bacterial flagellar sigma factor sigma 28 in complex with the sigma 28-binding region of its antisigma factor, FlgM. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:196-9 pubmed
    ..7 (2), c = 51.74 (3) A, containing one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An X-ray intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. ..
  11. Herrgard M, Palsson B. Flagellar biosynthesis in silico: building quantitative models of regulatory networks. Cell. 2004;117:689-90 pubmed
    ..The work by provides a general approach for building detailed models of transcriptional regulatory networks. ..
  12. Kagawa H, Ono N, Enomoto M, Komeda Y. Bacteriophage chi sensitivity and motility of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium Fla- mutants possessing the hook structure. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:649-54 pubmed
    ..All except one mutant produced significant amounts of progeny phages. A flaD flaE double mutant was that exception which did not yield significant amounts of progeny by the phage propagation ..
  13. Barrios A, Zuo R, Ren D, Wood T. Hha, YbaJ, and OmpA regulate Escherichia coli K12 biofilm formation and conjugation plasmids abolish motility. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;93:188-200 pubmed
    ..This increase in motility due to deleting hha/ybaJ was found to be due to 8-fold induction of fliA transcription...
  14. Busby S. More pieces in the promoter jigsaw: recognition of -10 regions by alternative sigma factors. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:809-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of genetics, biochemistry and bioinformatics is used to show that determinants in two adjacent domains of the sigma proteins contact discrete sequence elements in the -10 regions. ..
  15. Bertin P, Terao E, Lee E, Lejeune P, Colson C, Danchin A, et al. The H-NS protein is involved in the biogenesis of flagella in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5537-40 pubmed
    ..A decrease in the level of transcription of the flhD and fliA genes, which are both required for the synthesis of flagella, was observed in the presence of an hns mutation...
  16. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  17. Ishihama A. Protein-protein communication within the transcription apparatus. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2483-9 pubmed
  18. Suzuki T, Komeda Y. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:1036-41 pubmed
    ..Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure...
  19. Kato Y, Sugiura M, Mizuno T, Aiba H. Effect of the arcA mutation on the expression of flagella genes in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:77-83 pubmed
    ..b>fliA, one of the class 2 genes, encodes flagellum-specific sigma factor (FliA/Sigma F/Sigma-28), which is necessary for ..
  20. Komeda Y, Ono N, Kagawa H. Synthesis of flagellin and hook subunit protein in flagellar mutants of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:49-51 pubmed
    ..Hook subunit protein was found in most mutants including those defective in genes flaA , flaB , flaC, flaD , flaE , flaG , flaH , flaL , flaM , flaN , flaO , flaP, flaQ , flaR , flaS , flaT, flaU , flaV , flaW , flaX, flaY ..
  21. Feklistov A, Darst S. Promoter recognition by bacterial alternative sigma factors: the price of high selectivity?. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2426-2436) show that introducing the primary sigma melting residues into alternative sigmas relaxes their promoter specificity, pointing to a trade-off of reduced promoter melting capacity for increased promoter stringency. ..
  22. Lemke J, Durfee T, Gourse R. DksA and ppGpp directly regulate transcription of the Escherichia coli flagellar cascade. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, DksA/ppGpp inhibits the flhDC promoter and the sigma(70)-dependent fliA promoter transcribing the gene for sigma(28)...
  23. Fitzgerald D, Bonocora R, Wade J. Comprehensive mapping of the Escherichia coli flagellar regulatory network. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004649 pubmed publisher
    ..of a number of genes, including some flagellar genes and the gene encoding the alternative Sigma factor FliA. Genes whose expression is required late in flagellar assembly are primarily transcribed by FliA, imparting ..
  24. Mytelka D, Chamberlin M. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:24-34 pubmed
    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY...
  25. Wood T, Gonzalez Barrios A, Herzberg M, Lee J. Motility influences biofilm architecture in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:361-7 pubmed
    ..BW25113, MG1655 qseB, and MG1655 fliA had poor biofilms (surface coverage less than 5%)...
  26. Komeda Y, Kutsukake K, Iino T. Definition of additional flagellar genes in Escherichia coli K12. Genetics. 1980;94:277-90 pubmed
    ..The flB gene was found to be part of an operon: flB-flaI in region II. In region III, a previously unidentified gene flbC was located between hag and flaN. ..
  27. Kalir S, Mangan S, Alon U. A coherent feed-forward loop with a SUM input function prolongs flagella expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2005;1:2005.0006 pubmed
    ..In this system, the master regulator FlhDC activates a second regulator, FliA, and both activate in an additive fashion the operons that produce the flagella motor...
  28. Dong T, Yu R, Schellhorn H. Antagonistic regulation of motility and transcriptome expression by RpoN and RpoS in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the flagellar ?(F) factor (FliA), another ?(70) family protein, is controlled positively by RpoN but negatively by RpoS...
  29. Jishage M, Iwata A, Ueda S, Ishihama A. Regulation of RNA polymerase sigma subunit synthesis in Escherichia coli: intracellular levels of four species of sigma subunit under various growth conditions. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5447-51 pubmed
    ..product), and of two minor sigma subunits, sigma 54 (sigma N, the rpoN gene product) and sigma 28 (sigma F, the rpoF gene product), were determined in two Escherichia coli strains, W3110 and MC4100...
  30. Fontaine F, Stewart E, Lindner A, Taddei F. Mutations in two global regulators lower individual mortality in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:2-14 pubmed
    ..in the model organism Escherichia coli, we identify two mutants with lower frequencies of mortality: rssB and fliA. Intriguingly, these two genes both affect the levels of different sigma factors within the cell...