Gene Symbol: flhC
Description: flagellar class II regulon transcriptional activator, with FlhD
Alias: ECK1892, JW1880, flaI
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Soutourina O, Bertin P. Regulation cascade of flagellar expression in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:505-23 pubmed
    ..The remarkable parallelism in the functional organisation of flagellar systems suggests an evolutionary conservation of regulatory mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  2. Liu X, Matsumura P. The FlhD/FlhC complex, a transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli flagellar class II operons. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7345-51 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli flhD operon encodes two genes, flhD and flhC. Both gene products were overproduced and purified. The purified proteins formed a complex consisting of two FlhD and two FlhC molecules...
  3. Prüss B, Liu X, Hendrickson W, Matsumura P. FlhD/FlhC-regulated promoters analyzed by gene array and lacZ gene fusions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;197:91-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory complex FlhD/FlhC, initially identified as a flagella-specific activator, is a global regulator involved in many cellular processes...
  4. Shin S, Park C. Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4696-702 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that the phosphorylated OmpR, generated by either osmolarity change or the internal level of acetyl phosphate, negatively regulates the expression of flagella. ..
  5. Barker C, Prüss B, Matsumura P. Increased motility of Escherichia coli by insertion sequence element integration into the regulatory region of the flhD operon. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7529-37 pubmed
    ..We suggest that IS element insertion may activate transcription of the flhD operon by reducing transcriptional repression. ..
  6. Prüss B, Campbell J, Van Dyk T, Zhu C, Kogan Y, Matsumura P. FlhD/FlhC is a regulator of anaerobic respiration and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway through induction of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein Aer. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:534-43 pubmed
    The regulation by two transcriptional activators of flagellar expression (FlhD and FlhC) and the chemotaxis methyl-accepting protein Aer was studied with glass slide DNA microarrays...
  7. Stafford G, Ogi T, Hughes C. Binding and transcriptional activation of non-flagellar genes by the Escherichia coli flagellar master regulator FlhD2C2. Microbiology. 2005;151:1779-88 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a wider FlhD(2)C(2) regulon, in which non-flagellar genes are bound and activated directly, albeit less strongly, by the same mechanism as that regulating the flagella gene hierarchy. ..
  8. Lehnen D, Blumer C, Polen T, Wackwitz B, Wendisch V, Unden G. LrhA as a new transcriptional key regulator of flagella, motility and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:521-32 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that LrhA is a key regulator controlling the transcription of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes by regulating the synthesis and concentration of FlhD(2)C(2). ..
  9. Sperandio V, Torres A, Kaper J. Quorum sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C (QseBC): a novel two-component regulatory system involved in the regulation of flagella and motility by quorum sensing in E. coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:809-21 pubmed

More Information


  1. Wang S, Fleming R, Westbrook E, Matsumura P, McKay D. Structure of the Escherichia coli FlhDC complex, a prokaryotic heteromeric regulator of transcription. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:798-808 pubmed
    The hetero-oligomeric complex of the FlhD and FlhC proteins (FlhDC) regulates transcription from several flagellar and non-flagellar operons in bacteria...
  2. Campos A, Matsumura P. Extensive alanine scanning reveals protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction surfaces in the global regulator FlhD from Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:581-94 pubmed
    FlhD and FlhC are the transcriptional activators of the flagellar regulon. The heterotetrameric complex formed by these two proteins activates the transcription of the class II flagellar genes...
  3. Soutourina O, Kolb A, Krin E, Laurent Winter C, Rimsky S, Danchin A, et al. Multiple control of flagellum biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: role of H-NS protein and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in transcription of the flhDC master operon. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7500-8 pubmed
  4. Lee C, Park C. Mutations upregulating the flhDC operon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Microbiol. 2013;51:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, it was found that effects of the cis- and trans-acting mutations were acting in parallel, suggesting their apparently independent regulation of flagellar expression. ..
  5. Chilcott G, Hughes K. Coupling of flagellar gene expression to flagellar assembly in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000;64:694-708 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle control and flagellar development are codependent. We discuss how all these levels of regulation ensure efficient assembly of the flagellum in response to environmental stimuli. ..
  6. Wang X, Wood T. IS5 inserts upstream of the master motility operon flhDC in a quasi-Lamarckian way. ISME J. 2011;5:1517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the cells appear to 'sense' whether motility is feasible before a sub-population undergoes a mutation to become hypermotile; this sensing appears related to the master transcription regulator, FlhDC. ..
  7. Yakhnin A, Baker C, Vakulskas C, Yakhnin H, Berezin I, Romeo T, et al. CsrA activates flhDC expression by protecting flhDC mRNA from RNase E-mediated cleavage. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:851-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from mRNA decay studies and quantitative primer extension assays support a model in which bound CsrA activates flhDC expression by inhibiting the 5' end-dependent RNase E cleavage pathway. ..
  8. Liu X, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Matsumura P. The C-terminal region of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is required for transcriptional activation of the flagellar level II operons by the FlhD/FlhC complex. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5186-8 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that the FlhD/FlhC complex, a transcription activator of the Escherichia coli flagellar regulon, requires the C-terminal domain of the ..
  9. Kalir S, Alon U. Using a quantitative blueprint to reprogram the dynamics of the flagella gene network. Cell. 2004;117:713-20 pubmed
    ..The present approach can be used to define blueprints of other gene networks and to quantitatively reprogram their dynamics. ..
  10. Smith T, Hoover T. Deciphering bacterial flagellar gene regulatory networks in the genomic era. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2009;67:257-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we review the prominent systems that utilize sigma(28) and its antagonist, the anti-sigma(28) factor FlgM, along with some systems that utilize alternative mechanisms for regulating flagellar gene expression. ..
  11. Gauger E, Leatham M, Mercado Lubo R, Laux D, Conway T, Cohen P. Role of motility and the flhDC Operon in Escherichia coli MG1655 colonization of the mouse intestine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3315-24 pubmed
    ..Second, energy normally used to synthesize flagella and turn the flagellar motor is redirected to growth. ..
  12. Lemke J, Durfee T, Gourse R. DksA and ppGpp directly regulate transcription of the Escherichia coli flagellar cascade. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1368-79 pubmed publisher
  13. Herrgard M, Palsson B. Flagellar biosynthesis in silico: building quantitative models of regulatory networks. Cell. 2004;117:689-90 pubmed
    ..The work by provides a general approach for building detailed models of transcriptional regulatory networks. ..
  14. Claret L, Hughes C. Interaction of the atypical prokaryotic transcription activator FlhD2C2 with early promoters of the flagellar gene hierarchy. J Mol Biol. 2002;321:185-99 pubmed
    ..DNaseI hypersensitivity indicated that binding may cause a conformational change in the promoter regions. Only the FlhC subunit can bind DNA independently, but the specificity and stability of the interaction is strengthened by FlhD...
  15. Wang S, Matsumura P, Westbrook E. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of FlhD/FlhC complex from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2001;57:734-6 pubmed
    The heterotetrameric (C(2)D(2)) FlhD/FlhC complex was first discovered as a transcriptional activator of the flagellar genes in Escherichia coli...
  16. Francez Charlot A, Laugel B, Van Gemert A, Dubarry N, Wiorowski F, Castanie Cornet M, et al. RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay system negatively regulates the flhDC operon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:823-32 pubmed
    ..The binding of RcsB and RcsA to this site was demonstrated by gel retardation and DNase I protection assays. In addition, mutation analysis suggests that RcsA-specific determinants lie in the right part of the 'RcsAB box'. ..
  17. Zhang Z, Kukita C, Humayun M, Saier M. Environment-directed activation of the Escherichia coliflhDC operon by transposons. Microbiology. 2017;163:554-569 pubmed publisher
  18. Ikebe T, Iyoda S, Kutsukake K. Promoter analysis of the class 2 flagellar operons of Salmonella. Genes Genet Syst. 1999;74:179-83 pubmed
    ..Expression of the class 2 operons requires the class 1 gene products, FlhD and FlhC, and is enhanced by an unknown mechanism in the presence of the class 3-specific sigma factor, FliA, and in the ..
  19. Wei B, Brun Zinkernagel A, Simecka J, Prüss B, Babitzke P, Romeo T. Positive regulation of motility and flhDC expression by the RNA-binding protein CsrA of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:245-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, CsrA stimulates flhDC gene expression by a post-transcriptional mechanism reminiscent of its function in the repression of glycogen biosynthesis. ..
  20. Reiss D, Baliga N, Bonneau R. Integrated biclustering of heterogeneous genome-wide datasets for the inference of global regulatory networks. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:280 pubmed
    ..We have performed a thorough comparison of cMonkey results against other clustering methods, and find that cMonkey biclusters are more parsimonious with all available evidence for co-regulation. ..
  21. Leatham M, Stevenson S, Gauger E, Krogfelt K, Lins J, Haddock T, et al. Mouse intestine selects nonmotile flhDC mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655 with increased colonizing ability and better utilization of carbon sources. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8039-49 pubmed
    ..e., they grow better than their respective parents on sugars as sole carbon sources and are better colonizers of the mouse intestine. ..
  22. Bartlett D, Frantz B, Matsumura P. Flagellar transcriptional activators FlbB and FlaI: gene sequences and 5' consensus sequences of operons under FlbB and FlaI control. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1575-81 pubmed
    ..Komeda, J. Bacteriol. 168: 1315-1318). The master operon, flbB, has been sequenced, and one of its gene products (FlaI) has been identified...
  23. Yamamoto S, Kutsukake K. FliT acts as an anti-FlhD2C2 factor in the transcriptional control of the flagellar regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The class 1 gene products FlhD and FlhC act together in an FlhD(2)C(2) heterotetramer, which binds upstream of the class 2 promoters to facilitate binding ..
  24. Hobman J, Patel M, Hidalgo Arroyo G, Cariss S, Avison M, Penn C, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization detects secondary chromosomal deletions in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 mutants and highlights instability in the flhDC region. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8786-92 pubmed
  25. Horne S, Mattson K, Prüss B. An Escherichia coli aer mutant exhibits a reduced ability to colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2009;95:149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..While Aer seems to be important during the initiation phase of colonization, FlhD/FlhC appears to be of disadvantage during maintenance phase...
  26. Ko M, Park C. H-NS-Dependent regulation of flagellar synthesis is mediated by a LysR family protein. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4670-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the expression of the hdfR gene was shown to be negatively regulated by H-NS. ..
  27. Sharma V, Bearson B. Hha controls Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by differential regulation of global transcriptional regulators FlhDC and CsgD. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:2384-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Hha regulates biofilm formation in EHEC O157:H7 by differential regulation of FlhDC and CsgD, the global regulators of motility and curli production, respectively...
  28. Bertin P, Terao E, Lee E, Lejeune P, Colson C, Danchin A, et al. The H-NS protein is involved in the biogenesis of flagella in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5537-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the H-NS protein acts as a positive regulator of genes involved in the biogenesis of flagella by a mechanism independent of the cAMP-CAP pathway. ..
  29. Kalir S, Mangan S, Alon U. A coherent feed-forward loop with a SUM input function prolongs flagella expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2005;1:2005.0006 pubmed
    ..The SUM-FFL in this system works as theoretically predicted despite being embedded in at least two additional feedback loops. The present function might be carried out by the SUM-FFL in systems found across organisms. ..
  30. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  31. Campos A, Zhang R, Alkire R, Matsumura P, Westbrook E. Crystal structure of the global regulator FlhD from Escherichia coli at 1.8 A resolution. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:567-80 pubmed
    ..FlhD activates the transcription of class II operons in the flagellar regulon when complexed with a second protein FlhC (21.5 kDa). FlhD also regulates other expression systems in Escherichia coli...
  32. Sule P, Horne S, Logue C, Prüss B. Regulation of cell division, biofilm formation, and virulence by FlhC in Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown on meat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Since FlhD/FlhC of E...
  33. Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Tokuda H, Ito K. FtsH (HflB) is an ATP-dependent protease selectively acting on SecY and some other membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31196-201 pubmed
    ..FtsH-dependent proteolysis was also demonstrated for SecY in crude membrane extracts, whereas a majority of other membrane proteins were not degraded, indicating that FtsH has high selectivity in protein degradation. ..
  34. Fitzgerald D, Bonocora R, Wade J. Comprehensive mapping of the Escherichia coli flagellar regulatory network. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004649 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data redefine the E. coli flagellar regulatory network, and provide new insight into the temporal orchestration of gene expression that coordinates the flagellar assembly process. ..