Gene Symbol: flgM
Description: anti-sigma factor for FliA (sigma 28)
Alias: ECK1056, JW1058, mviS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Barembruch C, Hengge R. Cellular levels and activity of the flagellar sigma factor FliA of Escherichia coli are controlled by FlgM-modulated proteolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:76-89 pubmed
    ..for class 3 expression and, in the early phase of flagellar assembly, is inhibited by its anti-sigma factor FlgM. The flagellar hook basal body forms a type III secretion system capable of secreting both flagellar subunits and ..
  2. Carsiotis M, Stocker B, Weinstein D, O Brien A. A Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene linked to flg. Infect Immun. 1989;57:3276-80 pubmed
    ..We concluded that a hitherto unknown virulence gene, which we have named mviS, occurs adjacent to the flg genes and that its absence in delta flgABCDE25 mutants, rather than the nonflagellate ..
  3. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  4. Hughes K, Gillen K, Semon M, Karlinsey J. Sensing structural intermediates in bacterial flagellar assembly by export of a negative regulator. Science. 1993;262:1277-80 pubmed
    ..In response to a defective hook-basal body complex, the anti-sigma 28 FlgM protein inhibits flagellin transcription...
  5. Schmitt C, Darnell S, Tesh V, Stocker B, O Brien A. Mutation of flgM attenuates virulence of Salmonella typhimurium, and mutation of fliA represses the attenuated phenotype. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:368-77 pubmed
    ..In flagellum-defective strains, the flgM gene product of S...
  6. Soutourina O, Bertin P. Regulation cascade of flagellar expression in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:505-23 pubmed
    ..The remarkable parallelism in the functional organisation of flagellar systems suggests an evolutionary conservation of regulatory mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  7. Daughdrill G, Chadsey M, Karlinsey J, Hughes K, Dahlquist F. The C-terminal half of the anti-sigma factor, FlgM, becomes structured when bound to its target, sigma 28. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:285-91 pubmed
    The interaction between the flagellum specific sigma factor, sigma 28, and its inhibitor, FlgM, was examined using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR...
  8. Chilcott G, Hughes K. Coupling of flagellar gene expression to flagellar assembly in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000;64:694-708 pubmed
    ..One transcriptional regulatory mechanism involves a regulatory protein, FlgM, that escapes from the cell (and thus can no longer act) through a complete flagellum and is held inside when the ..
  9. Ohnishi K, Kutsukake K, Suzuki H, Lino T. A novel transcriptional regulation mechanism in the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium: an antisigma factor inhibits the activity of the flagellum-specific sigma factor, sigma F. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:3149-57 pubmed
    We have studied the molecular mechanism of the negative regulation by flgM of the late operons of the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium. A 7...

More Information


  1. Hughes K, Mathee K. The anti-sigma factors. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1998;52:231-86 pubmed
    ..The class includes AsiA form bacteriophage T4, which inhibits Escherichia coli sigma 70; FlgM, present in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which inhibits the flagella sigma factor sigma 28; ..
  2. Okada K, Ichihara H, Takahashi H, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Hakoshima T. Preparation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals of bacterial flagellar sigma factor sigma 28 in complex with the sigma 28-binding region of its antisigma factor, FlgM. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:196-9 pubmed
    ..Its antisigma factor, FlgM, binds sigma28 factor and inhibits its activity as a transcription factor...
  3. Brown K, Hughes K. The role of anti-sigma factors in gene regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1995;16:397-404 pubmed
    ..In B. subtilis, anti anti-sigma factors regulate anti-sigma factors by preventing an anti-sigma factor from interacting with its cognate sigma factors, thereby allowing transcription to occur. ..
  4. Karlinsey J, Tanaka S, Bettenworth V, Yamaguchi S, Boos W, Aizawa S, et al. Completion of the hook-basal body complex of the Salmonella typhimurium flagellum is coupled to FlgM secretion and fliC transcription. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1220-31 pubmed
    ..After addition of tetracycline, the class 1 flhDC operon was transcribed immediately. Transcription of flgM (which is transcribed from both class 2 and class 3 promoters) began 15 min after induction...
  5. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  6. Thiem S, Sourjik V. Stochastic assembly of chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon subsequent anchorage to defined lateral sites, clusters grow with rates that inversely depend on their size, and become polar upon several rounds of cell division. ..
  7. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  8. Dedmon M, Patel C, Young G, Pielak G. FlgM gains structure in living cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12681-4 pubmed
    Intrinsically disordered proteins such as FlgM play important roles in biology, but little is known about their structure in cells...
  9. Kutsukake K. Hook-length control of the export-switching machinery involves a double-locked gate in Salmonella typhimurium flagellar morphogenesis. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1268-73 pubmed
    ..coupling of gene expression to morphogenesis is achieved by exporting the flagellum-specific anti-sigma factor, FlgM, out of the cell through the mature hook-basal body structure...
  10. Pallen M, Penn C, Chaudhuri R. Bacterial flagellar diversity in the post-genomic era. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:143-9 pubmed
    ..Numerous previously unrecognized homologues of flagellar components were discovered, including novel FlgM, FlgN, FliK and FliO homologues...
  11. Kutsukake K. Excretion of the anti-sigma factor through a flagellar substructure couples flagellar gene expression with flagellar assembly in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;243:605-12 pubmed
    ..A negative regulatory gene, flgM, which is responsible for the coupling of expression of class-3 operons to flagellar assembly, encodes an anti-..