Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: flgI
Description: putative flagellar basal body protein
Alias: ECK1065, JW1067, flaM
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed..Differences in the intracellular locations of the che and mot gene prodcuts presumably reflect the functional attributes of these components. ..
- Zhou J, Blair D. Residues of the cytoplasmic domain of MotA essential for torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:428-39 pubmed..Possible roles for these residues in torque generation are discussed. ..
- Fahrner K, Block S, Krishnaswamy S, Parkinson J, Berg H. A mutant hook-associated protein (HAP3) facilitates torsionally induced transformations of the flagellar filament of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1994;238:173-86 pubmed..The N-terminal sequence of HAP3 was found to be similar to the N-terminal sequence of flagellin, and the possibility that it provides a nucleation site for the C-terminal region of flagellin is discussed. ..
- Jones C, Homma M, Macnab R. Identification of proteins of the outer (L and P) rings of the flagellar basal body of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:1489-92 pubmed..Gene-polypeptide correlations from other studies enabled us to complete gene-polypeptide-structure correspondences for these two proteins as flaM----39-kilodalton protein----P ring and flaY----26-kilodalton protein----L ring.
- Braun T, Al Mawsawi L, Kojima S, Blair D. Arrangement of core membrane segments in the MotA/MotB proton-channel complex of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:35-45 pubmed
- Yamaguchi S, Aizawa S, Kihara M, Isomura M, Jones C, Macnab R. Genetic evidence for a switching and energy-transducing complex in the flagellar motor of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1172-9 pubmed..This switch complex is probably mounted to the base of the flagellar basal body and, via binding of the CheY and CheZ proteins, receives sensory information and uses it to control flagellar operation. ..
- Sowa Y, Rowe A, Leake M, Yakushi T, Homma M, Ishijima A, et al. Direct observation of steps in rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Nature. 2005;437:916-9 pubmed..Backwards steps despite the absence of the flagellar switching protein CheY indicate a small change in free energy per step, similar to that of a single ion transit. ..
- Garza A, Harris Haller L, Stoebner R, Manson M. Motility protein interactions in the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1970-4 pubmed..This finding suggests that the postulated Mot-protein complex may be in close proximity to FliG at the stator-rotor interface of the flagellar motor. ..
- Garza A, Biran R, Wohlschlegel J, Manson M. Mutations in motB suppressible by changes in stator or rotor components of the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1996;258:270-85 pubmed..We suggest that most of the suppressors restore motility by introducing compensatory realignments in MotA or FliG. ..
- Blair D, Berg H. Mutations in the MotA protein of Escherichia coli reveal domains critical for proton conduction. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1433-42 pubmed..The clustering of the mutations provides independent support for the suggestion that MotA is a transmembrane proton channel and places significant constraints on models for the molecular mechanism of ion conduction. ..
- Komeda Y, Silverman M, Simon M. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 region I flagellar mutants. J Bacteriol. 1977;131:801-8 pubmed..Region I was shown to include at least six cistrons, flaV, flaK, flaL, flaM, flaS, and flaT. Mu-induced and deletion fla mutants were also isolated...
- Suzuki H, Yonekura K, Murata K, Hirai T, Oosawa K, Namba K. A structural feature in the central channel of the bacterial flagellar FliF ring complex is implicated in type III protein export. J Struct Biol. 1998;124:104-14 pubmed..This suggests that a domain of FliF partially occupies the central channel to be involved in the export and gate mechanism, and the domain changes its conformation depending on the ionic strength. ..
- Minamino T, Yamaguchi S, Macnab R. Interaction between FliE and FlgB, a proximal rod component of the flagellar basal body of Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3029-36 pubmed..We suggest that FliE subunits constitute a junction zone between the MS ring and the rod and also that the proximal rod structure consists of FlgB subunits. ..
- Grünenfelder B, Gehrig S, Jenal U. Role of the cytoplasmic C terminus of the FliF motor protein in flagellar assembly and rotation. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1624-33 pubmed..These results provide genetic support for a model in which only a short stretch of amino acids at the immediate C terminus of FliF is required for flagellar assembly through stable interaction with the FliG switch protein. ..
- Welch M, Oosawa K, Aizawa S, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a signal molecule to the flagellar switch of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8787-91 pubmed..This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule. ..
- Kutsukake K, Minamino T, Yokoseki T. Isolation and characterization of FliK-independent flagellation mutants from Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7625-9 pubmed..On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of suppression of the fliK defects by the flhB mutations and propose a hypothesis on the export switching machinery of the flagellar proteins. ..
- Kim E, Price Carter M, Carlquist W, Blair D. Membrane segment organization in the stator complex of the flagellar motor: implications for proton flow and proton-induced conformational change. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11332-9 pubmed publisher..The model indicates a close proximity for certain conserved, functionally important residues. The results are used to develop an explicit model for the proton-induced conformational change in the stator. ..
- Braun T, Blair D. Targeted disulfide cross-linking of the MotB protein of Escherichia coli: evidence for two H(+) channels in the stator Complex. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13051-9 pubmed..Positions near the middle of the segment were inaccessible to sulhydryl reagents. Positions within 6-8 residues of either end, which includes residues around Asp32, were accessible. ..
- Samatey F, Imada K, Nagashima S, Vonderviszt F, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structure of the bacterial flagellar protofilament and implications for a switch for supercoiling. Nature. 2001;410:331-7 pubmed..By simulated extension of the protofilament model, we have identified possible switch regions responsible for the bi-stable mechanical switch that generates the 0.8 A difference in repeat distance. ..
- Hiniker A, Bardwell J. In vivo substrate specificity of periplasmic disulfide oxidoreductases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12967-73 pubmed..10 cysteine-containing periplasmic proteins that are substrates of the disulfide oxidase DsbA, including PhoA and FlgI, previously established DsbA substrates...
- Juhas M, Ajioka J. Identification and validation of novel chromosomal integration and expression loci in Escherichia coli flagellar region 1. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123007 pubmed publisher..We analyzed five open reading frames of the flagellar region 1, flgA, flgF, flgG, flgI, and flgJ, that are well-conserved among commonly-used E. coli strains, such as MG1655, W3110, DH10B and BL21-DE3...
- Maki Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Namba K. Domain movements of HAP2 in the cap-filament complex formation and growth process of the bacterial flagellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15528-33 pubmed
- Hizukuri Y, Kojima S, Homma M. Disulphide cross-linking between the stator and the bearing components in the bacterial flagellar motor. J Biochem. 2010;148:309-18 pubmed publisher..evidence suggesting that the periplasmic region of the stator component MotB interacts with the P-ring component FlgI, which functions as a bearing for the rotor along with the L-ring protein FlgH, from a site-directed disulphide ..
- Khan S, Dapice M, Reese T. Effects of mot gene expression on the structure of the flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1988;202:575-84 pubmed..The concomitant loss of the rings and motility is consistent with the ring particles having a central role in the flagellar motor. ..
- Thomas D, Morgan D, DeRosier D. Rotational symmetry of the C ring and a mechanism for the flagellar rotary motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10134-9 pubmed..Movement results from the swapping of stud-bound levers with M ring-bound levers. The model predicts that both the M and C rings rotate in the same direction but at different speeds. ..
- Tang H, Braun T, Blair D. Motility protein complexes in the bacterial flagellar motor. J Mol Biol. 1996;261:209-21 pubmed..Torque generation in the flagellar motor is thus likely to involve interactions between these two protein complexes. ..
- Maki S, Vonderviszt F, Furukawa Y, Imada K, Namba K. Plugging interactions of HAP2 pentamer into the distal end of flagellar filament revealed by electron microscopy. J Mol Biol. 1998;277:771-7 pubmed..This also allows us to model the axial domain arrangement of flagellin subunit in the filament. ..
- Garza A, Bronstein P, Valdez P, Harris Haller L, Manson M. Extragenic suppression of motA missense mutations of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6116-22 pubmed
- Nambu T, Kutsukake K. The Salmonella FlgA protein, a putativeve periplasmic chaperone essential for flagellar P ring formation. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 5):1171-8 pubmed..Two flagellar genes, flgA and flgI, are known to be indispensable for P ring formation. The flgI gene encodes the component protein of the P ring...
- Hizukuri Y, Kojima S, Yakushi T, Kawagishi I, Homma M. Systematic Cys mutagenesis of FlgI, the flagellar P-ring component of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2008;154:810-7 pubmed publisher..In this work, we characterized 32 cysteine-substituted Escherichia coli P-ring protein FlgI variants which were designed to substitute every 10th residue in the 346 aa mature form of FlgI...
- Zhou J, Fazzio R, Blair D. Membrane topology of the MotA protein of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:237-42 pubmed..These experiments establish that the main features of the suggested model for MotA topology are correct, furnishing a basis for more detailed structure-function studies of the MotA/MotB proton channel...
- Yakushi T, Yang J, Fukuoka H, Homma M, Blair D. Roles of charged residues of rotor and stator in flagellar rotation: comparative study using H+-driven and Na+-driven motors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1466-72 pubmed..coli motor using both rotor and stator components from V. alginolyticus remained sensitive to mutation. Motor function in V. alginolyticus may be enhanced by the proteins MotX and MotY. ..
- Zhou J, Sharp L, Tang H, Lloyd S, Billings S, Braun T, et al. Function of protonatable residues in the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli: a critical role for Asp 32 of MotB. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2729-35 pubmed..We propose that Asp 32 of MotB functions as a proton-binding site in the bacterial flagellar motor and that no other conserved, protonatable residues function in this capacity. ..
- Yonekura K, Maki S, Morgan D, DeRosier D, Vonderviszt F, Imada K, et al. The bacterial flagellar cap as the rotary promoter of flagellin self-assembly. Science. 2000;290:2148-52 pubmed..This represents one of the most dynamic movements in protein structures. ..
- Hasegawa K, Yamashita I, Namba K. Quasi- and nonequivalence in the structure of bacterial flagellar filament. Biophys J. 1998;74:569-75 pubmed
- Suzuki H, Yonekura K, Namba K. Structure of the rotor of the bacterial flagellar motor revealed by electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle image analysis. J Mol Biol. 2004;337:105-13 pubmed
- Katayama E, Shiraishi T, Oosawa K, Baba N, Aizawa S. Geometry of the flagellar motor in the cytoplasmic membrane of Salmonella typhimurium as determined by stereo-photogrammetry of quick-freeze deep-etch replica images. J Mol Biol. 1996;255:458-75 pubmed..Various dimensions of the MS ring complex and the C ring projecting from the membrane were determined by digital stereo-photogrammetry, and a three-dimensional model of the total basal structure is presented. ..
- Macnab R. How bacteria assemble flagella. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003;57:77-100 pubmed..Exported substrates diffuse down a narrow channel in the growing structure and assemble at the distal end, often with the help of a capping structure. ..
- Komeda Y, Silverman M, Matsumura P, Simon M. Genes for the hook-basal body proteins of the flagellar apparatus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;134:655-67 pubmed..of polypeptides with the following apparent molecular weights: flaV, 11,000; flaK, 42,000; flaL, 30,000 and 27,000; flaM, 38,000; flS, 60,000; and flaT, 35,000. Plasmid ColE1-E...
- Zhou J, Lloyd S, Blair D. Electrostatic interactions between rotor and stator in the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6436-41 pubmed..These results identify a functionally important site of interaction between the rotor and stator and suggest a hypothesis for electrostatic interactions at the rotor-stator interface. ..
- Chun S, Parkinson J. Bacterial motility: membrane topology of the Escherichia coli MotB protein. Science. 1988;239:276-8 pubmed..Protease treatment of MotB in spheroplasts confirmed this view. The simple transmembrane organization of MotB is difficult to reconcile with a role as a proton conductor. ..