Gene Symbol: fimD
Description: fimbrial usher outer membrane porin protein; FimCD chaperone-usher
Alias: ECK4308, JW5780
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Remaut H, Tang C, Henderson N, Pinkner J, Wang T, Hultgren S, et al. Fiber formation across the bacterial outer membrane by the chaperone/usher pathway. Cell. 2008;133:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..of the translocation domain of the P pilus usher PapC and single particle cryo-electron microscopy imaging of the FimD usher bound to a translocating type 1 pilus assembly intermediate...
  2. Saulino E, Thanassi D, Pinkner J, Hultgren S. Ramifications of kinetic partitioning on usher-mediated pilus biogenesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:2177-85 pubmed
    ..The data support a model in which binding of the chaperone-adhesin complex to the usher stabilizes the usher in an assembly-competent conformation and allows initiation of pilus assembly. ..
  3. Pratt L, Kolter R. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:285-93 pubmed
    ..In light of the observations presented here, a working model is discussed that describes the roles of both motility and type I pili in biofilm development. ..
  4. Xu C, Lin X, Ren H, Zhang Y, Wang S, Peng X. Analysis of outer membrane proteome of Escherichia coli related to resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. Proteomics. 2006;6:462-73 pubmed
    ..Among the proteins, 3 were known as antibiotic-resistant proteins, including TolC, OmpC and YhiU, while FimD precursor, LamB, Tsx, YfiO, OmpW, NlpB were first reported here to be antibiotic-resistance-related proteins...
  5. Blomfield I, McClain M, Eisenstein B. Type 1 fimbriae mutants of Escherichia coli K12: characterization of recognized afimbriate strains and construction of new fim deletion mutants. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:1439-45 pubmed
    ..To increase the utility of the new deletion strains we also isolated recA derivatives of each mutant. These strains facilitate the isolation, characterization, and manipulation of cloned fimbriae genes from diverse sources. ..
  6. Zhang D, Jiang B, Xiang Z, Wang S. Functional characterisation of altered outer membrane proteins for tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, upregulation of FimD, Tsx, OmpW, OmpC and TolC and downregulation of LamB in response to tetracycline were detected and confirmed by two-..
  7. Chu D, Blomfield I. Orientational control is an efficient control mechanism for phase switching in the E. coli fim system. J Theor Biol. 2007;244:541-51 pubmed
    ..The main reason for the efficiency of orientational control in regulation of fimbriation levels is that it keeps the system far from its steady state. ..
  8. Munera D, Hultgren S, Fernández L. Recognition of the N-terminal lectin domain of FimH adhesin by the usher FimD is required for type 1 pilus biogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:333-46 pubmed
    In this work we discover that a specific recognition of the N-terminal lectin domain of FimH adhesin by the usher FimD is essential for the biogenesis of type 1 pili in Escherichia coli...
  9. Dove S, Smith S, Dorman C. Control of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial gene expression in stationary phase: a negative role for RpoS. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:13-20 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that RpoS has a negative regulatory role which may be indirect, at both the fimA and the fimB promoters. ..

More Information


  1. Farabella I, Pham T, Henderson N, Geibel S, Phan G, Thanassi D, et al. Allosteric signalling in the outer membrane translocation domain of PapC usher. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..This study illuminates the gating mechanism of PapC ushers and its importance in maintaining outer-membrane permeability. ..
  2. Thanassi D, Saulino E, Hultgren S. The chaperone/usher pathway: a major terminal branch of the general secretory pathway. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1998;1:223-31 pubmed
    ..Signaling events controlling pilus biogenesis have begun to emerge and investigations of the usher have yielded insights into pilus translocation across the outer membrane. ..
  3. Barnhart M, Sauer F, Pinkner J, Hultgren S. Chaperone-subunit-usher interactions required for donor strand exchange during bacterial pilus assembly. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2723-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the donor strand exchange assembly mechanism between subunits was found to be necessary for subunit translocation across the outer membrane usher. ..
  4. Klemm P, Jørgensen B, Van Die I, De Ree H, Bergmans H. The fim genes responsible for synthesis of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli, cloning and genetic organization. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;199:410-4 pubmed
    ..5 kd, 23 kd, 26 kd, and 89 kd, the 16.6 kd polypeptide being the fimbrial subunit. The order to the genes was found to be: fimB, fimA, fimC, and fimD, organized in three transcriptional units.
  5. Thanassi D. Ushers and secretins: channels for the secretion of folded proteins across the bacterial outer membrane. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;4:11-20 pubmed
    ..This review will discuss the usher and secretin families of integral outer membrane proteins, which function to allow the secretion of folded proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  6. Kuehn M, Jacob Dubuisson F, Dodson K, Slonim L, Striker R, Hultgren S. Genetic, biochemical, and structural studies of biogenesis of adhesive pili in bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 1994;236:282-306 pubmed
  7. Eidam O, Dworkowski F, Glockshuber R, Grutter M, Capitani G. Crystal structure of the ternary FimC-FimF(t)-FimD(N) complex indicates conserved pilus chaperone-subunit complex recognition by the usher FimD. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:651-5 pubmed publisher
    Type 1 pili, anchored to the outer membrane protein FimD, enable uropathogenic Escherichia coli to attach to host cells...
  8. Kostakioti M, Newman C, Thanassi D, Stathopoulos C. Mechanisms of protein export across the bacterial outer membrane. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4306-14 pubmed
  9. Munera D, Palomino C, Fernández L. Specific residues in the N-terminal domain of FimH stimulate type 1 fimbriae assembly in Escherichia coli following the initial binding of the adhesin to FimD usher. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:911-25 pubmed publisher
    ..complexes formed between fimbrial subunits and the FimC chaperone are recruited by the outer membrane protein FimD (the usher) for their ordered polymerization and export...
  10. Schwan W, Seifert H, Duncan J. Analysis of the fimB promoter region involved in type 1 pilus phase variation in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;242:623-30 pubmed
    ..This putative binding protein may be involved in the regulation of fimB, perhaps by acting as a transcriptional activator. ..
  11. Nishiyama M, Horst R, Eidam O, Herrmann T, Ignatov O, Vetsch M, et al. Structural basis of chaperone-subunit complex recognition by the type 1 pilus assembly platform FimD. EMBO J. 2005;24:2075-86 pubmed
    ..from uropathogenic Escherichia coli are filamentous protein complexes that are attached to the assembly platform FimD in the outer membrane...
  12. Henderson N, Ng T, Talukder I, Thanassi D. Function of the usher N-terminus in catalysing pilus assembly. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:954-67 pubmed publisher of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we show that a conserved N-terminal disulphide region of the PapC and FimD ushers, as well as residue F4 of FimD, are required for the catalytic activity of the ushers...
  13. Thanassi D, Saulino E, Lombardo M, Roth R, Heuser J, Hultgren S. The PapC usher forms an oligomeric channel: implications for pilus biogenesis across the outer membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3146-51 pubmed
    ..The usher complex appears to be similar to complexes formed by members of the PulD/pIV family of OM proteins, and thus these two protein families, previously thought to be unrelated, may share structural and functional homologies. ..
  14. Ng T, Akman L, Osisami M, Thanassi D. The usher N terminus is the initial targeting site for chaperone-subunit complexes and participates in subsequent pilus biogenesis events. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5321-31 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis of the P pilus usher PapC and the type 1 pilus usher FimD was undertaken to elucidate the initial stages of pilus biogenesis at the OM...
  15. Nishiyama M, Vetsch M, Puorger C, Jelesarov I, Glockshuber R. Identification and characterization of the chaperone-subunit complex-binding domain from the type 1 pilus assembly platform FimD. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:513-25 pubmed
    The outer membrane protein FimD represents the assembly platform of adhesive type 1 pili from Escherichia coli. FimD forms ring-shaped oligomers of 91...
  16. Capitani G, Eidam O, Grutter M. Evidence for a novel domain of bacterial outer membrane ushers. Proteins. 2006;65:816-23 pubmed
    ..Several mutations reported to abolish in vivo pilus formation cluster in this region, underlining its functional importance. ..
  17. Saulino E, Bullitt E, Hultgren S. Snapshots of usher-mediated protein secretion and ordered pilus assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9240-5 pubmed
    ..Specialized pilin subunits play unique roles both in this multimerization and in the final ultrastructure of the adhesive pilus. ..
  18. Palomino C, Marín E, Fernández L. The fimbrial usher FimD follows the SurA-BamB pathway for its assembly in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..the ?-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex (BamA, BamB, BamC, and BamE) in the folding of the Escherichia coli FimD usher...
  19. Nishiyama M, Ishikawa T, Rechsteiner H, Glockshuber R. Reconstitution of pilus assembly reveals a bacterial outer membrane catalyst. Science. 2008;320:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We reconstituted type 1 pilus biogenesis from purified pilus proteins. The usher FimD acted as a catalyst to accelerate the ordered assembly of protein subunits independently of cellular energy...
  20. Klemm P, Christiansen G. The fimD gene required for cell surface localization of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;220:334-8 pubmed
    The fimD gene of Escherichia coli K12 was shown to be necessary for surface localization of type 1 fimbriae, since deletion of the gene resulted in a virtually bald phenotype. The FimD protein was found to be located in the outer membrane...
  21. Li H, Qian L, Chen Z, Thibault D, Liu G, Liu T, et al. The outer membrane usher forms a twin-pore secretion complex. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:1397-407 pubmed
    ..The overall molecular size (11 nm), pore size (2 nm), and twin-pore configuration of PapC resemble that of the Tom40 complex, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein translocase. ..
  22. Thanassi D, Stathopoulos C, Karkal A, Li H. Protein secretion in the absence of ATP: the autotransporter, two-partner secretion and chaperone/usher pathways of gram-negative bacteria (review). Mol Membr Biol. 2005;22:63-72 pubmed
    ..This review will present overviews of these 'self-sufficient' pathways, focusing on recent advances and secretion mechanisms. Similarities among the pathways and with other protein translocation mechanisms will be highlighted. ..
  23. Thanassi D, Hultgren S. Multiple pathways allow protein secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:420-30 pubmed
    ..Recent work is beginning to reveal the structure and function of various secretion components and the molecular mechanisms of secretion. ..
  24. Thanassi D, Hultgren S. Assembly of complex organelles: pilus biogenesis in gram-negative bacteria as a model system. Methods. 2000;20:111-26 pubmed
    ..This review discusses these approaches as they relate to pilus assembly, with an emphasis on newer techniques. ..
  25. Sauer F, Remaut H, Hultgren S, Waksman G. Fiber assembly by the chaperone-usher pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1694:259-67 pubmed
    ..Chaperone dissociation releases the folding energy that drives subunit incorporation into the fiber, which grows through a pore formed by the outer-membrane usher. ..
  26. So S, Thanassi D. Analysis of the requirements for pilus biogenesis at the outer membrane usher and the function of the usher C-terminus. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:364-75 pubmed
  27. Thanassi D, Stathopoulos C, Dodson K, Geiger D, Hultgren S. Bacterial outer membrane ushers contain distinct targeting and assembly domains for pilus biogenesis. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6260-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that chaperone-subunit complexes target an N-terminal domain of the usher and that subunit assembly into pili depends on a subsequent function provided by the usher C terminus. ..