Gene Symbol: fes
Description: enterobactin/ferrienterobactin esterase
Alias: ECK0577, JW0576
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Dorsey C, Tolmasky M, Crosa J, Actis L. Genetic organization of an Acinetobacter baumannii chromosomal region harbouring genes related to siderophore biosynthesis and transport. Microbiology. 2003;149:1227-38 pubmed
    ..Genes encoding deduced proteins related to the E. coli Fes and the Bacillus subtilis DhbF proteins, and a putative Yersinia pestis phosphopantetheinyl transferase, all of ..
  2. Fleming T, Nahlik M, Neilands J, McIntosh M. Physical and genetic characterization of cloned enterobactin genomic sequences from Escherichia coli K-12. Gene. 1985;34:47-54 pubmed
    We have cloned genes responsible for enterobactin synthesis (entD) and transport (fepA,fes) from Escherichia coli K-12. Relevant recombinant plasmids enabled EntD- and transport-defective mutants to grow on iron-limiting medium...
  3. Hunt M, Pettis G, McIntosh M. Promoter and operator determinants for fur-mediated iron regulation in the bidirectional fepA-fes control region of the Escherichia coli enterobactin gene system. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3944-55 pubmed
    The fepA-entD and fes-entF operons in the enterobactin synthesis and transport system are divergently transcribed from overlapping promoters, and both are inhibited by the Fur repressor protein under iron-replete conditions...
  4. Matos C, Robinson C, Di Cola A. The Tat system proofreads FeS protein substrates and directly initiates the disposal of rejected molecules. EMBO J. 2008;27:2055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane, including FeS proteins that receive their cofactors in the cytoplasm...
  5. Greenwood K, Luke R. Enzymatic hydrolysis of enterochelin and its iron complex in Escherichia Coli K-12. Properties of enterochelin esterase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978;525:209-18 pubmed
    ..Enzymatic activity is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and is lost rapidly at 37 degrees C. Activity is stabilized in the presence of ferric-enterochelin, enterochelin, dithiothreitol or certain protein fractions. ..
  6. Vinella D, Albrecht C, Cashel M, D Ari R. Iron limitation induces SpoT-dependent accumulation of ppGpp in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:958-70 pubmed
    ..The mutant has an insertion in the fes gene, coding for enterochelin esterase...
  7. Rauscher L, Expert D, Matzanke B, Trautwein A. Chrysobactin-dependent iron acquisition in Erwinia chrysanthemi. Functional study of a homolog of the Escherichia coli ferric enterobactin esterase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2385-95 pubmed
    ..The CbsH protein may therefore be regarded as a peptidase that prevents the bacterial cells from being intracellularly iron-depleted by chrysobactin...
  8. O Brien I, Cox G, Gibson F. Enterochelin hydrolysis and iron metabolism in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971;237:537-49 pubmed
  9. Porra R, Langman L, Young I, Gibson F. The role of ferric enterochelin esterase in enterochelin-mediated iron transport and ferrochelatase activity in Escherichia coli. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;153:74-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Wayne R, Frick K, Neilands J. Siderophore protection against colicins M, B, V, and Ia in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:7-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, enterobactin specifically protects against colicin B in fes- mutants (able to accumulate but unable to utilize enterobactin) as predicted by our proposal that the colicin B ..
  2. Laird A, Young I. Tn5 mutagenesis of the enterochelin gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1980;11:359-66 pubmed
    ..The order of the genes was established as entD, fes, entF, fep, and entCAGBE and the nine genes were shown to be distributed across 26 kb of DNA...
  3. Laird A, Ribbons D, Woodrow G, Young I. Bacteriophage Mu-mediated gene transposition and in vitro cloning of the enterochelin gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1980;11:347-57 pubmed
    ..The partial gene order (entD, fes), entF, fep, entC, ent(ABEG).....
  4. Schubert S, Fischer D, Heesemann J. Ferric enterochelin transport in Yersinia enterocolitica: molecular and evolutionary aspects. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6387-95 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report on the molecular and functional characterization of the Yersinia fep-fes gene cluster orthologous to the Escherichia coli ferrienterochelin transport genes (fepA, fepDGC, and fepB) and the ..
  5. Escolar L, Perez Martin J, de Lorenzo V. Coordinated repression in vitro of the divergent fepA-fes promoters of Escherichia coli by the iron uptake regulation (Fur) protein. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2579-82 pubmed
    The mechanism involved in transcriptional repression of the fepA-fes divergent promoters of Escherichia coli by the Fur (ferric uptake regulation) protein has been examined in vitro...
  6. Winkelmann G, Cansier A, Beck W, Jung G. HPLC separation of enterobactin and linear 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine derivatives: a study on mutants of Escherichia coli defective in regulation (fur), esterase (fes) and transport (fepA). Biometals. 1994;7:149-54 pubmed
    ..in the regulation of enterobactin biosynthesis (fur), enterobactin transport (fepA) and enterobactin esterase (fes)...
  7. Langman L, Young I, Frost G, Rosenberg H, Gibson F. Enterochelin system of iron transport in Escherichia coli: mutations affecting ferric-enterochelin esterase. J Bacteriol. 1972;112:1142-9 pubmed
    ..The mutants (designated fes(-)) were shown to be unaffected in enterochelin biosynthesis, capable of enterochelin-mediated iron uptake, and ..
  8. Pettis G, McIntosh M. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin cistron entF and coupled expression of entF and the fes gene. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4154-62 pubmed
    ..clone (pITS312) containing the identical entF-lacZ fusion and a larger region upstream of entF including the entire fes gene and extending into the fepA gene (whose transcription is in the opposite direction relative to entF) expressed ..
  9. Plaha D, Rogers H. Effect of osmotic shock and shearing forces on ferric enterochelin transport in Escherichia coli K12. J Gen Microbiol. 1987;133:1227-34 pubmed
    The fes mutation in Escherichia coli K12, which inactivates enterochelin esterase, allows the cell to accumulate ferric enterochelin...
  10. Brickman T, McIntosh M. Overexpression and purification of ferric enterobactin esterase from Escherichia coli. Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis of enterobactin and its iron complex. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:12350-5 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli ferric enterobactin esterase gene (fes) was cloned into the vector pGEM3Z under the control of the T7 gene 10 promoter and overexpressed to approximately 15% of the total cellular protein...
  11. Konisky J, Soucek S, Frick K, Davies J, Hammond C. Relationship between the transport of iron and the amount of specific colicin Ia membrane receptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976;127:249-57 pubmed
    ..coli K-12 defective in their ability to utilize exogenously supplied iron due to genetic defects in the entF, tonB, fes, or fep gene exhibited elevated levels of the specific outer-membrane receptor for colicin Ia when compared with ..
  12. Hoerter J, Pierce A, Troupe C, Epperson J, Eisenstark A. Role of enterobactin and intracellular iron in cell lethality during near-UV irradiation in Escherichia coli. Photochem Photobiol. 1996;64:537-41 pubmed
    ..A fes mutant, which is unable to reduce and release iron from enterobactin, is significantly more sensitive to NUV ..
  13. Pettis G, Brickman T, McIntosh M. Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli fepA-fes enterobactin region. Identification of a unique iron-regulated bidirectional promoter. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:18857-63 pubmed
    The iron-controlled fepA and fes-entF transcripts from the Escherichia coli enterobactin gene complex are expressed divergently from a limited genetic region, thereby suggesting the existence of a single, possibly overlapping promoter ..