Gene Symbol: fdhF
Description: formate dehydrogenase-H, selenopolypeptide subunit
Alias: ECK4072, JW4040
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Hakobyan M, Sargsyan H, Bagramyan K. Proton translocation coupled to formate oxidation in anaerobically grown fermenting Escherichia coli. Biophys Chem. 2005;115:55-61 pubmed
    ..coli under respiration. We conclude that the hydrogen production by hydrogenase 3 is coupled to formate-dependent proton pumping that regulates 2H(+)-K(+) exchange in fermenting bacteria. ..
  2. Trchounian A, Bagramyan K, Poladian A. Formate hydrogenlyase is needed for proton-potassium exchange through the F0F1-ATPase and the TrkA system in anaerobically grown and glycolysing Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 1997;35:201-6 pubmed
    ..Formate and NADH can serve as a donor and an acceptor of reducing equivalent respectively, for operation of such supercomplexes. ..
  3. Raaijmakers H, Romão M. Formate-reduced E. coli formate dehydrogenase H: The reinterpretation of the crystal structure suggests a new reaction mechanism. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006;11:849-54 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our new interpretation, we have revised and proposed a new reaction mechanism, which reconciles the new X-ray model with previous biochemical and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data. ..
  4. Wu L, Mandrand Berthelot M. Characterization of the product of the cloned fdhF gene of Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1987;133:2421-6 pubmed
    ..insertions of mini-MudII1734 lac gene fusion bacteriophage were constructed on plasmid pLW06, which carries the fdhF gene coding for benzyl-viologen-linked formate dehydrogenase...
  5. Jin Y, Stephanopoulos G. Multi-dimensional gene target search for improving lycopene biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2007;9:337-47 pubmed
    ..single (delta gdhA, or delta aceE), double (delta gdhA delta aceE), and triple (delta gdhA delta aceE delta fdhF) knockouts, were constructed and evaluated for lycopene production...
  6. Zinoni F, Birkmann A, Stadtman T, Bock A. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the selenocysteine-containing polypeptide of formate dehydrogenase (formate-hydrogen-lyase-linked) from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:4650-4 pubmed
    The gene (fdhF) coding for the selenopolypeptide of the benzylviologen-linked formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined...
  7. Wang H, Gunsalus R. Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5076-85 pubmed
    Escherichia coli possesses three distinct formate dehydrogenase enzymes encoded by the fdnGHI, fdhF, and fdoGHI operons...
  8. Trchunian A, Durgar ian S, Ogandzhanian E, Ter Nikogosian V, Vardanian A. [The capacity of anaerobically grown bacteria to exchange the 2H+ of the cell for the K+ of the medium and to maintain a high K+ distribution between cell and medium]. Nauchnye Doki Vyss Shkoly Biol Nauki. 1986;:82-8 pubmed
  9. Zinoni F, Heider J, Bock A. Features of the formate dehydrogenase mRNA necessary for decoding of the UGA codon as selenocysteine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4660-4 pubmed
    The fdhF gene encoding the 80-kDa selenopolypeptide subunit of formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli contains an in-frame TGA codon at amino acid position 140, which encodes selenocysteine...

More Information


  1. Axley M, Grahame D, Stadtman T. Escherichia coli formate-hydrogen lyase. Purification and properties of the selenium-dependent formate dehydrogenase component. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:18213-8 pubmed
    ..3-6.4 and highly unstable above pH 7.5. Nitrate and nitrite salts caused a drastic reduction in activity. Although azide inhibited FDHH activity, it also protected the enzyme from inactivation by oxygen. ..
  2. Trchunian A, Ogandzhanian E, Mironova G, Martirosov S. [K+-dependent enzyme activity of H+-ATPase in the E. coli membrane]. Biofizika. 1991;36:102-4 pubmed
    ..coli depended on K+ activity. F1F0 include two additional proteins which correspond to the Trk system. The data improve the possibility to form supercomplex (F1F0-Trk) functioning as the H(+)-K(+)-pump. ..
  3. Boyington J, Gladyshev V, Khangulov S, Stadtman T, Sun P. Crystal structure of formate dehydrogenase H: catalysis involving Mo, molybdopterin, selenocysteine, and an Fe4S4 cluster. Science. 1997;275:1305-8 pubmed
    ..These structures suggest a reaction mechanism that directly involves SeCys140 and His141 in proton abstraction and the molybdenum, molybdopterin, Lys44, and the Fe4S4 cluster in electron transfer. ..
  4. Axley M, Bock A, Stadtman T. Catalytic properties of an Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase mutant in which sulfur replaces selenium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:8450-4 pubmed
    ..The observed differences in kinetic properties may help explain the evolutionary conservation of selenocysteine at the enzyme's active site. ..
  5. Zinoni F, Birkmann A, Leinfelder W, Bock A. Cotranslational insertion of selenocysteine into formate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli directed by a UGA codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:3156-60 pubmed
    The structural gene (fdhF) for the 80-kDa selenopolypeptide of formate dehydrogenase (formate:benzyl viologen oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.--.--) from Escherichia coli contains an in-frame UGA codon at amino acid position 140 that is translated...
  6. Pecher A, Zinoni F, Bock A. The seleno-polypeptide of formic dehydrogenase (formate hydrogen-lyase linked) from Escherichia coli: genetic analysis. Arch Microbiol. 1985;141:359-63 pubmed
    ..The location of the gene for the 80 kd seleno-polypeptide was mapped at 92.4 min of the Escherichia coli chromosome. ..
  7. Pecher A, Zinoni F, Jatisatienr C, Wirth R, Hennecke H, Bock A. On the redox control of synthesis of anaerobically induced enzymes in enterobacteriaceae. Arch Microbiol. 1983;136:131-6 pubmed
    ..At high concentrations formate reverses the repression by nitrate and fumarate but not that by oxygen. ..
  8. Mnatsakanyan N, Bagramyan K, Trchounian A. Hydrogenase 3 but not hydrogenase 4 is major in hydrogen gas production by Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase at acidic pH and in the presence of external formate. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004;41:357-66 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that Hyd-3 has a major role in H2 production at acidic pH independently on the F(0)F(1)-ATPase. ..
  9. Baron C, Heider J, Bock A. Interaction of translation factor SELB with the formate dehydrogenase H selenopolypeptide mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:4181-5 pubmed
    ..SELB complex at the mRNA in the immediate neighborhood of the UGA codon. ..
  10. Abaibou H, Giordano G, Mandrand Berthelot M. Suppression of Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase activity by trimethylamine N-oxide is due to drainage of the inducer formate. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 8):2657-64 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, expression of lacZ operon fusions with the fdhF and hycB structural genes specifying FDH-H and HYD3 was reduced sevenfold and eightfold, respectively, leading to ..
  11. Khangulov S, Gladyshev V, Dismukes G, Stadtman T. Selenium-containing formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli: a molybdopterin enzyme that catalyzes formate oxidation without oxygen transfer. Biochemistry. 1998;37:3518-28 pubmed
  12. Barker H, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O Connor C. Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1518-29 pubmed
    ..Additionally, protective quantities of formate are secreted by E. coli and Salmonella during growth suggesting that such compounds are important determinants of bacterial survival in the host. ..
  13. Heider J, Baron C, Bock A. Coding from a distance: dissection of the mRNA determinants required for the incorporation of selenocysteine into protein. EMBO J. 1992;11:3759-66 pubmed
    ..for recognition of the selenocysteine codon have been investigated by analysing the effect of mutations in fdhF, the gene for formate dehydrogenase H of Escherichia coli, on selenocysteine incorporation...
  14. Trchounian A, Bagramyan K, Vassilian A, Poladian A. Relationship between formate hydrogen lyase and proton-potassium pump under heterolactic fermentation in Escherichia coli: functional multienzyme associations in the cell membrane. Membr Cell Biol. 2000;13:511-26 pubmed
    ..with the fixed (2H+/K+) stoichiometry of the initial DCC-sensitive fluxes were lost in mutants with the deleted fdhF gene or the hycA-H operon responsible for the biosynthesis of formate dehydrogenase H (FDH,H) or hydrogenase 3 (H3),..
  15. Mnatsakanyan N, Vassilian A, Navasardyan L, Bagramyan K, Trchounian A. Regulation of Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase activity by formate at alkaline pH. Curr Microbiol. 2002;45:281-6 pubmed
    ..1, the activity of Fdh-H raised 3.5-fold, and the production of H(2) became mostly Hyd-3 dependent. These results suggest that at alkaline pH formate increases an activity of Fdh-H and of Hyd-3 both but not of Hyd-4. ..
  16. Trchounian A, Vassilian A. Relationship between the F0F1-ATPase and the K(+)-transport system within the membrane of anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase activity in mutants with defects in K(+)-transport. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1994;26:563-71 pubmed
    ..The trkG gene is most probably not functional in anaerobically grown bacteria. ..
  17. Takahata M, Tamura T, Abe K, Mihara H, Kurokawa S, Yamamoto Y, et al. Selenite assimilation into formate dehydrogenase H depends on thioredoxin reductase in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 2008;143:467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study reports for the first time the physiological involvement of thioredoxin reductase in the reductive assimilation of selenite in E. coli. ..
  18. Cox J, Edwards E, DeMoss J. Resolution of distinct selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:1317-24 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the two formate dehydrogenases are distinguishable on the basis of their artificial electron acceptor specificity, their cellular localization, and the size of their respective selenoprotein components. ..
  19. Axley M, Stadtman T. Anaerobic induction of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase (hydrogenase-linked) is enhanced by gyrase inactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1023-7 pubmed
    ..supercoiled for expression, we have found that inhibition of DNA gyrase activity enhances expression from the gene (fdhF) encoding the selenopolypeptide of FDHH...
  20. Birkmann A, Zinoni F, Sawers G, Bock A. Factors affecting transcriptional regulation of the formate-hydrogen-lyase pathway of Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1987;148:44-51 pubmed
    The regulatory elements involved in expression of the gene (fdhF) for the selenopolypeptide of formate dehydrogenase and of a gene (or transcriptional unit) (hyd) specifically responsible for the formation of the gas-evolving hydrogenase (..
  21. Axley M, Grahame D. Kinetics for formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli formate-hydrogenlyase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13731-6 pubmed
    ..2-4.5. Sodium nitrate was found to inhibit enzyme activity in a competitive manner with respect to formate, with a Ki of 7.1 mM. Sodium azide is a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of about 80 microM. ..
  22. Chen G, Fang L, Inouye M. Effect of the relative position of the UGA codon to the unique secondary structure in the fdhF mRNA on its decoding by selenocysteinyl tRNA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23128-31 pubmed
    The fdhF mRNA for formate dehydrogenase H of Escherichia coli contains a UGA codon at position 140. This termination codon is decoded by selenocysteinyl tRNA (the selC product) with the aid of its own specific elongation factor, SelB...
  23. Gladyshev V, Khangulov S, Axley M, Stadtman T. Coordination of selenium to molybdenum in formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7708-11 pubmed
    ..This ligand could be the Se of a selenocysteine residue, sulfur of a cysteine residue, or, in the case of a serine residue, oxygen. ..
  24. Lloyd J, Cole J, Macaskie L. Reduction and removal of heptavalent technetium from solution by Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2014-21 pubmed
    ..coli. This appears to be the first report of Hyc functioning as an H2-oxidizing hydrogenase or as a dissimilatory metal ion reductase in enteric bacteria. ..
  25. Rosentel J, Healy F, Maupin Furlow J, Lee J, Shanmugam K. Molybdate and regulation of mod (molybdate transport), fdhF, and hyc (formate hydrogenlyase) operons in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4857-64 pubmed
    ..isolated and analyzed for the effects of particular mutations on the regulation of the mod operon as well as the fdhF and hyc operons which code for the components of the formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex...
  26. Leopoldini M, Chiodo S, Toscano M, Russo N. Reaction mechanism of molybdoenzyme formate dehydrogenase. Chemistry. 2008;14:8674-81 pubmed publisher
  27. Trchunian A, Ogandzhanian E, Martirosov S. [N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive K+-dependent ATPase activity in Escherichia coli]. Nauchnye Doki Vyss Shkoly Biol Nauki. 1989;:90-5 pubmed
  28. Bagramyan K, Martirosov S. Formation of an ion transport supercomplex in Escherichia coli. An experimental model of direct transduction of energy. FEBS Lett. 1989;246:149-52 pubmed
    ..Within this supercomplex direct transduction of energy is accomplished via oxidation of 2 SH to S-S. ..
  29. Zhang Y, Gladyshev V. An algorithm for identification of bacterial selenocysteine insertion sequence elements and selenoprotein genes. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:2580-9 pubmed
    ..The availability of the bacterial SECIS consensus and the tool for identification of these structures should help in correct annotation of selenoprotein genes and characterization of bacterial selenoproteomes. ..
  30. Busch A, Will S, Backofen R. SECISDesign: a server to design SECIS-elements within the coding sequence. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:3312-3 pubmed
    ..The designed sequence can be used for recombinant expression of selenoproteins in Escherichia coli. The server is available at http://www.bio.inf.uni-jena.de/Software/SECISDesign/index.html. ..
  31. McDowall J, Murphy B, Haumann M, Palmer T, Armstrong F, Sargent F. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E3948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG...
  32. Mansell J, Guevremont D, Poole E, Tate W. A dynamic competition between release factor 2 and the tRNA(Sec) decoding UGA at the recoding site of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase H. EMBO J. 2001;20:7284-93 pubmed
    Factors affecting competition between termination and elongation in vivo during translation of the fdhF selenocysteine recoding site (UGA) were studied with wild-type and modified fdhF sequences...
  33. Huttenhofer A, Heider J, Bock A. Interaction of the Escherichia coli fdhF mRNA hairpin promoting selenocysteine incorporation with the ribosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:3903-10 pubmed
    The codon UGA located 5' adjacent to an mRNA hairpin within fdhF mRNA promotes the incorporation of the amino acid selenocysteine into formate dehydrogenase H of Escherichia coli...
  34. Sawers G. The hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1994;66:57-88 pubmed
    ..This article aims to review the current state of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and physiology of these enzymes. ..
  35. Chen G, Axley M, Hacia J, Inouye M. Overproduction of a selenocysteine-containing polypeptide in Escherichia coli: the fdhF gene product. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:781-5 pubmed
    The fdhF gene of Escherichia coli codes for the selenocysteine-including protein subunit of formate dehydrogenase H...
  36. Wu L, Mandrand Berthelot M. Regulation of the fdhF gene encoding the selenopolypeptide for benzyl viologen-linked formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;209:129-34 pubmed
    ..Their mutation mapped between the ssb and melA genes at 92 min on the genome, at a site recently designated fdhF by Pecher et al. (1985). The direction of transcription of gene fdhF was found to be counterclockwise on the E...