era

Summary

Gene Symbol: era
Description: membrane-associated, 16S rRNA-binding GTPase
Alias: ECK2564, JW2550, sdgE
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. March P. Membrane-associated GTPases in bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1253-7 pubmed
    ..Obg and Era are not closely related to any GTPase subgroup according to amino acid sequence comparisons, but they are essential ..
  2. Huang Y, Zhang B, Dong K, Zhang X, Hou L, Wang T, et al. Up-regulation of yggG promotes the survival of Escherichia coli cells containing Era-1 mutant protein. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;275:8-15 pubmed
    b>Era is a highly conserved GTPase essential for bacterial growth...
  3. Britton R, Powell B, Court D, Lupski J. Characterization of mutations affecting the Escherichia coli essential GTPase era that suppress two temperature-sensitive dnaG alleles. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4575-82 pubmed
    ..The gene responsible for suppression, era, encodes an essential GTPase of Escherichia coli...
  4. Caldon C, Yoong P, March P. Evolution of a molecular switch: universal bacterial GTPases regulate ribosome function. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:289-97 pubmed
    ..bacteria possess a core of 11 universally conserved GTPases (elongation factor G and Tu, initiation factor 2, LepA, Era, Obg, ThdF/TrmE, Ffh, FtsY, EngA and YchF)...
  5. Inoue K, Chen J, Kato I, Inouye M. Specific growth inhibition by acetate of an Escherichia coli strain expressing Era-dE, a dominant negative Era mutant. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;4:379-88 pubmed
    Escherichia coli Era is a GTP binding protein and essential for cell growth...
  6. Shimamoto T, Inouye M. Mutational analysis of Era, an essential GTP-binding protein of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;136:57-62 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential GTP-binding protein of an unknown function in Escherichia coli. On the basis of its sequence similarities to other GTP-binding proteins such as E...
  7. Lerner C, Gulati P, Inouye M. Cold-sensitive conditional mutations in Era, an essential Escherichia coli GTPase, isolated by localized random polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;126:291-8 pubmed
    Conditional cold-sensitive mutations in Era, an essential Escherichia coli GTPase, were isolated...
  8. Britton R, Powell B, DasGupta S, Sun Q, Margolin W, Lupski J, et al. Cell cycle arrest in Era GTPase mutants: a potential growth rate-regulated checkpoint in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:739-50 pubmed
    b>Era is a low-molecular-weight GTPase essential for Escherichia coli viability. The gene encoding Era is found in the rnc operon, and the synthesis of both RNase III and Era increases with growth rate...
  9. Valencia A, Chardin P, Wittinghofer A, Sander C. The ras protein family: evolutionary tree and role of conserved amino acids. Biochemistry. 1991;30:4637-48 pubmed

More Information

Publications47

  1. Inoue K, Alsina J, Chen J, Inouye M. Suppression of defective ribosome assembly in a rbfA deletion mutant by overexpression of Era, an essential GTPase in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1005-16 pubmed
    b>Era is a small GTP-binding protein and essential for cell growth in Escherichia coli. It consists of two domains: N-terminal GTP-binding and C-terminal RNA-binding KH domains...
  2. Gollop N, March P. A GTP-binding protein (Era) has an essential role in growth rate and cell cycle control in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2265-70 pubmed
    b>Era is a membrane-associated GTP-binding protein which is essential for cell growth in Escherichia coli...
  3. Zhang J, Inouye M. MazG, a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase, interacts with Era, an essential GTPase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5323-9 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential GTPase in Escherichia coli, and Era has been implicated in a number of cellular functions. Homologues of Era have been identified in various bacteria and some eukaryotes...
  4. Ahnn J, March P, Takiff H, Inouye M. A GTP-binding protein of Escherichia coli has homology to yeast RAS proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:8849-53 pubmed
    The DNA sequence of a gene (era) located immediately downstream of the gene (rnc) encoding ribonuclease III of Escherichia coli was determined and found to encode a protein of 316 amino acid residues...
  5. Watt R, Wang J, Leong M, Kung H, Cheah K, Liu D, et al. Visualizing the proteome of Escherichia coli: an efficient and versatile method for labeling chromosomal coding DNA sequences (CDSs) with fluorescent protein genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:e37 pubmed
    ..Our results show that E. coli has an organized and dynamic proteome, and demonstrate that this approach is applicable for tagging and (co-) localizing CDSs on a genome-wide scale. ..
  6. Britton R, Lupski J. Isolation and characterization of suppressors of two Escherichia coli dnaG mutations, dnaG2903 and parB. Genetics. 1997;145:867-75 pubmed
    ..By genetic mapping and complementation, five different classes of suppressors have been assigned; sdgC, sdgD, sdgE, sdgG and sdgH. The genes responsible for suppression in four of the five classes have been determined...
  7. Tu C, Zhou X, Tropea J, Austin B, Waugh D, Court D, et al. Structure of ERA in complex with the 3' end of 16S rRNA: implications for ribosome biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14843-8 pubmed publisher
    b>ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit...
  8. Takiff H, Baker T, Copeland T, Chen S, Court D. Locating essential Escherichia coli genes by using mini-Tn10 transposons: the pdxJ operon. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1544-53 pubmed
    ..These essential genes are the era gene in the rnc operon and the dpj gene in the adjacent pdxJ operon...
  9. Johnstone B, Handler A, Chao D, Nguyen V, Smith M, Ryu S, et al. The widely conserved Era G-protein contains an RNA-binding domain required for Era function in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:1118-31 pubmed
    b>Era is a small G-protein widely conserved in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Although essential for bacterial growth and implicated in diverse cellular processes, its actual function remains unclear...
  10. Matsunaga J, Dyer M, Simons E, Simons R. Expression and regulation of the rnc and pdxJ operons of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:977-89 pubmed
    Escherichia coli rnc-era-recO operon (rnc operon) expression is negatively autoregulated at the level of message stability by ribonuclease III (RNase III), which is encoded by the rnc gene...
  11. Regnier P, Grunberg Manago M. RNase III cleavages in non-coding leaders of Escherichia coli transcripts control mRNA stability and genetic expression. Biochimie. 1990;72:825-34 pubmed
    The primary transcripts of the rpsO-pnp, rnc-era-recO and metY-nusA-infB operons of E coli are each processed by RNase III, upstream of the first translated gene, in hair-pin structures formed by the 5' non-coding leader...
  12. Bunner A, Nord S, Wikström P, Williamson J. The effect of ribosome assembly cofactors on in vitro 30S subunit reconstitution. J Mol Biol. 2010;398:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The essential GTPase Era caused several late-binding proteins to bind rRNA faster when included in a 30S reconstitution...
  13. Inoue K, Chen J, Tan Q, Inouye M. Era and RbfA have overlapping function in ribosome biogenesis in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;11:41-52 pubmed
    ..Recently, we have reported that overexpression of Era, an essential GTP-binding protein, suppresses not only the cold-sensitive cell growth but also defective ribosome ..
  14. Sayed A, Matsuyama S, Inouye M. Era, an essential Escherichia coli small G-protein, binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;264:51-4 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential G-protein in Escherichia coli identified originally as a homologue protein to Ras (E. coli Ras-like protein). It binds to GTP/GDP and contains a low intrinsic GTPase activity...
  15. Chen S, Takiff H, Barber A, DuBois G, Bardwell J, Court D. Expression and characterization of RNase III and Era proteins. Products of the rnc operon of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2888-95 pubmed
    The synthesis rates of ribonuclease III (RNase III) and Era proteins are relatively low, and expression of the era gene is translationally coupled with expression of the rnc gene...
  16. Mittenhuber G. Comparative genomics of prokaryotic GTP-binding proteins (the Era, Obg, EngA, ThdF (TrmE), YchF and YihA families) and their relationship to eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins (the DRG, ARF, RAB, RAN, RAS and RHO families). J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;3:21-35 pubmed
    Several GTP-binding proteins with poorly defined functions were previously identified in Escherichia coli (i.e. Era, ThdF (TrmE)), Bacillus subtilis (i.e. Obg) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (i.e. EngA)...
  17. Pillutla R, Ahnn J, Inouye M. Deletion of the putative effector region of Era, an essential GTP-binding protein in Escherichia coli, causes a dominant-negative phenotype. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;143:47-55 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential gene in E. coli, encoding a GTP-binding protein of unknown function. In the present work, a mutant designated Era-dE, for deletion of effector region is described...
  18. Campbell T, Brown E. Genetic interaction screens with ordered overexpression and deletion clone sets implicate the Escherichia coli GTPase YjeQ in late ribosome biogenesis. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2537-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of 374 clones overexpressing essential genes and genes associated with ribosome function revealed that two GTPases, Era and initiation factor 2, ameliorated the growth and polysome defects of the delta yjeQ strain...
  19. Chen S, Court D. High expression of era gene. Chin J Biotechnol. 1991;7:177-84 pubmed
    For high production of Era protein, lambda Ea8.5 gene has been chosen from Gene Bank because the Ea8...
  20. Gollop N, March P. Localization of the membrane binding sites of Era in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1991;142:301-7 pubmed
    b>Era is a GTP-binding protein that is essential for normal cell growth and division in Escherichia coli...
  21. Meier T, Peery R, McAllister K, Zhao G. Era GTPase of Escherichia coli: binding to 16S rRNA and modulation of GTPase activity by RNA and carbohydrates. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 5):1071-83 pubmed
    b>Era, an essential GTPase, appears to play an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle and protein synthesis of bacteria and mycoplasmas...
  22. Lin Y, Sharer J, March P. GTPase-dependent signaling in bacteria: characterization of a membrane-binding site for era in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:44-9 pubmed
    b>Era is an Escherichia coli GTPase that is essential for cell viability and is peripherally associated with the cytoplasmic membrane...
  23. March P, Ahnn J, Inouye M. The DNA sequence of the gene (rnc) encoding ribonuclease III of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:4677-85 pubmed
    ..In the long leader region a very stable stem-bulge-stem structure was found which closely resembles typical RNase III cleavage sites. This structure may be cleaved by RNase III to auto-regulate the expression of the rnc gene. ..
  24. March P, Lerner C, Ahnn J, Cui X, Inouye M. The Escherichia coli Ras-like protein (Era) has GTPase activity and is essential for cell growth. Oncogene. 1988;2:539-44 pubmed
    The era gene of Escherichia coli encodes a protein (Era) which is similar to the eucaryotic RAS family of proteins. We report here that purified Era possesses both GTP-binding and GTPase activities...
  25. Lerner C, Inouye M. Pleiotropic changes resulting from depletion of Era, an essential GTP-binding protein in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:951-7 pubmed
    Phenotypic analysis of a temperature-sensitive era mutant strain indicates that Escherichia coli cells depleted of Era undergo many physiological changes...
  26. Lu Q, Inouye M. The gene for 16S rRNA methyltransferase (ksgA) functions as a multicopy suppressor for a cold-sensitive mutant of era, an essential RAS-like GTP-binding protein in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5243-6 pubmed
    b>Era, a Ras-like GTP-binding protein in Escherichia coli, has been shown to be essential for growth. However, its cellular functions still remain elusive. In this study, a genetic screening of an E...
  27. Sayed A, Matsuyama S, Inoue K, Alsina J, Cai F, Chen J, et al. ATPase and GTPase activities copurifying with GTP-binding proteins in E. coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;2:261-3 pubmed
    ..Therefore, one should be cautious when NTPase activity is examined in a buffer containing acetate often used for NTPase assay. ..
  28. Nashimoto H, Miura A, Saito H, Uchida H. Suppressors of temperature-sensitive mutations in a ribosomal protein gene, rpsL (S12), of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;199:381-7 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome and one group, named rbaA, mapped at the same locus as the suppressor mutation, showing close linkage to the RNAase III gene. ..
  29. Vercruysse M, Köhrer C, Shen Y, Proulx S, Ghosal A, Davies B, et al. Identification of YbeY-Protein Interactions Involved in 16S rRNA Maturation and Stress Regulation in Escherichia coli. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..several proteins that interact with YbeY, including ribosomal protein S11, the ribosome-associated GTPases Era and Der, YbeZ, and SpoT...
  30. Sullivan S, Mishra R, Neubig R, Maddock J. Analysis of guanine nucleotide binding and exchange kinetics of the Escherichia coli GTPase Era. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3460-6 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential Escherichia coli guanine nucleotide binding protein that appears to play a number of cellular roles...
  31. Inoue K, Basu S, Inouye M. Dissection of 16S rRNA methyltransferase (KsgA) function in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8510-8 pubmed
    ..KsgA orthologs in eukaryotes possess functions in addition to their rRNA methyltransferase activity. E. coli Era is an essential GTP-binding protein...
  32. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gene position, with regard to the C period, and gene function are important factors to incorporate into design criteria for synthetic bacterial genomes. ..
  33. Sood P, Lerner C, Shimamoto T, Lu Q, Inouye M. Characterization of the autophosphorylation of Era, an essential Escherichia coli GTPase. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:201-8 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential protein in Escherichia coli which binds both GTP and GDP and has an intrinsic GTPase activity...
  34. Ji X. Structural insights into cell cycle control by essential GTPase Era. Postepy Biochem. 2016;62:335-342 pubmed
    b>Era (Escherichia coli Ras-like protein), essential for bacterial cell viability, is composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain and a C-terminal KH domain...
  35. Chen X, Chen S, Powell B, Court D, Ji X. Purification, characterization and crystallization of ERA, an essential GTPase from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1999;445:425-30 pubmed
    b>ERA is an essential GTPase widely conserved in bacteria. Homologues of ERA are also present in higher eukaryotic cells. ERA is involved in bacterial cell cycle control at a point preceding cell division...
  36. Pillutla R, Sharer J, Gulati P, Wu E, Yamashita Y, Lerner C, et al. Cross-species complementation of the indispensable Escherichia coli era gene highlights amino acid regions essential for activity. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2194-6 pubmed
    b>Era is an essential GTP binding protein in Escherichia coli. Two homologs of this protein, Sgp from Streptococcus mutans and Era from Coxiella burnetii, can substitute for the essential function of Era in E. coli...
  37. Lerner C, Sood P, Ahnn J, Inouye M. Cold-sensitive growth and decreased GTP-hydrolytic activity from substitution of Pro17 for Val in Era, an essential Escherichia coli GTPase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992;74:137-42 pubmed
    A substitution mutation of Pro17 by Val (P17V) was constructed in the guanine nucleotide binding domain of Era, an essential protein in Escherichia coli...
  38. Chen X, Court D, Ji X. Crystal structure of ERA: a GTPase-dependent cell cycle regulator containing an RNA binding motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:8396-401 pubmed
    b>ERA forms a unique family of GTPase. It is widely conserved and essential in bacteria. ERA functions in cell cycle control by coupling cell division with growth rate. ERA homologues also are found in eukaryotes...