envZ

Summary

Gene Symbol: envZ
Description: sensory histidine kinase in two-component regulatory system with OmpR
Alias: ECK3391, JW3367, cpr, ompB, perA, tpo
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Waukau J, Forst S. Molecular analysis of the signaling pathway between EnvZ and OmpR in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1522-7 pubmed
    ..The activity of OmpR is controlled by the inner membrane osmosensor, EnvZ. In order to study the signaling process between EnvZ and OmpR, we analyzed two different envZ strains: the envZ473 ..
  2. Tomomori C, Tanaka T, Dutta R, Park H, Saha S, Zhu Y, et al. Solution structure of the homodimeric core domain of Escherichia coli histidine kinase EnvZ. Nat Struct Biol. 1999;6:729-34 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli osmosensor EnvZ is a protein histidine kinase that plays a central role in osmoregulation, a cellular adaptation process involving the His-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction system...
  3. Tokishita S, Kojima A, Aiba H, Mizuno T. Transmembrane signal transduction and osmoregulation in Escherichia coli. Functional importance of the periplasmic domain of the membrane-located protein kinase, EnvZ. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:6780-5 pubmed
    The EnvZ protein is presumably a membrane-located osmotic sensor which is involved in expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli...
  4. Park H, Inouye M. Mutational analysis of the linker region of EnvZ, an osmosensor in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4382-90 pubmed
    b>EnvZ, a transmembrane signal transducer, is composed of a periplasmic sensor domain, transmembrane domains, and a cytoplasmic signaling domain...
  5. Khorchid A, Inouye M, Ikura M. Structural characterization of Escherichia coli sensor histidine kinase EnvZ: the periplasmic C-terminal core domain is critical for homodimerization. Biochem J. 2005;385:255-64 pubmed
    Escherichia coli EnvZ is a membrane sensor histidine kinase that plays a pivotal role in cell adaptation to changes in extracellular osmolarity...
  6. Wandersman C, Moreno F, Schwartz M. Pleiotropic mutations rendering Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to bacteriophage TP1. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1374-83 pubmed
    ..The tpo mutants were found to be phenotypically identical to the perA mutant recently described by Wanner et al. (J. Bacteriol...
  7. Yoshida T, Cai S, Inouye M. Interaction of EnvZ, a sensory histidine kinase, with phosphorylated OmpR, the cognate response regulator. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:1283-94 pubmed
    b>EnvZ is a sensory histidine kinase in Escherichia coli to regulate the phosphorylation of OmpR, its cognate response regulator, required for the expression of genes for outer membrane porin proteins...
  8. Tanaka T, Saha S, Tomomori C, Ishima R, Liu D, Tong K, et al. NMR structure of the histidine kinase domain of the E. coli osmosensor EnvZ. Nature. 1998;396:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli osmosensor, EnvZ, is a transmembrane protein with histidine kinase activity in its cytoplasmic region...
  9. Cai S, Inouye M. EnvZ-OmpR interaction and osmoregulation in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24155-61 pubmed
    b>EnvZ, a histidine kinase/phosphatase in Escherichia coli, responds to the osmolarity changes in the medium by regulating the phosphorylation state of the transcription factor OmpR, which controls the expression levels of outer membrane ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Mizuno T, Mizushima S. Signal transduction and gene regulation through the phosphorylation of two regulatory components: the molecular basis for the osmotic regulation of the porin genes. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1077-82 pubmed
    ..b>EnvZ and OmpR, which are positive regulatory factors for the transcriptional osmotic regulation of the ompF and ompC ..
  2. Wanner B, Sarthy A, Beckwith J. Escherichia coli pleiotropic mutant that reduces amounts of several periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:229-39 pubmed
    ..In addition, the mutation (termed perA) responsible for this phenotype results in reduced amounts of possibly six or more other periplasmic proteins and ..
  3. Dutta R, Yoshida T, Inouye M. The critical role of the conserved Thr247 residue in the functioning of the osmosensor EnvZ, a histidine Kinase/Phosphatase, in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:38645-53 pubmed
    The histidine kinase/phosphatase EnvZ helps Escherichia coli adapt to osmotic shock by controlling the phosphorylation state of the transcription factor OmpR, which regulates the levels of the outer membrane porin proteins OmpF and OmpC...
  4. Egger L, Inouye M. Purification and characterization of the periplasmic domain of EnvZ osmosensor in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;231:68-72 pubmed
    The EnvZ-OmpR histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay system in E. coli responds to osmolarity by differentially modulating the expression of the major outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC...
  5. Forst S, Roberts D. Signal transduction by the EnvZ-OmpR phosphotransfer system in bacteria. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:363-73 pubmed
  6. Hall M, Silhavy T. The ompB locus and the regulation of the major outer membrane porin proteins of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1981;146:23-43 pubmed
  7. Batchelor E, Walthers D, Kenney L, Goulian M. The Escherichia coli CpxA-CpxR envelope stress response system regulates expression of the porins ompF and ompC. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5723-31 pubmed
    ..It thus appears that two distinct two-component systems, CpxA-CpxR and EnvZ-OmpR, converge at the porin promoters...
  8. Lundrigan M, Earhart C. Reduction in three iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and protein a by the Escherichia coli K-12 perA mutation. J Bacteriol. 1981;146:804-7 pubmed
    ..protein a and the iron-regulated proteins 74K, 81K, and 83K) present in reduced amounts of Escherichia coli K-12 perA strains...
  9. Csonka L, Hanson A. Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606 pubmed
  10. Igo M, Ninfa A, Stock J, Silhavy T. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a bacterial transcriptional activator by a transmembrane receptor. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1725-34 pubmed
    ..We show that in the Omp system, the transmembrane sensor EnvZ, catalyzes both the phosphorylation of OmpR and the dephosphorylation of OmpR-P...
  11. Cavard D, Pages J, Lazdunski C. [A protease of the external membrane of Escherichia coli sensitive to environmental conditions. Its relations with the expression of envZ gene]. C R Seances Acad Sci III. 1982;295:765-70 pubmed
    ..on the genetic map and to phenotypic properties observed in strains tpo, perA or envZ which are altered in the ompB locus...
  12. Shiomi D, Yoshimoto M, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Helical distribution of the bacterial chemoreceptor via colocalization with the Sec protein translocation machinery. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:894-906 pubmed
    ..observed even when the cytoplasmic domain of the double cysteine Tar-GFP mutant was replaced by that of the kinase EnvZ, which does not localize to a pole...
  13. Mizuno T, Mizushima S. Isolation and characterization of deletion mutants of ompR and envZ, regulatory genes for expression of the outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1987;101:387-96 pubmed
    ..is known to be controlled by at least two regulatory genes, ompR and envZ, which together comprise a single ompB operon. We constructed chromosomal mutants with either ompR-envZ deletion or envZ deletion...
  14. Yoshida T, Phadtare S, Inouye M. Functional and structural characterization of EnvZ, an osmosensing histidine kinase of E. coli. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:184-202 pubmed
    b>EnvZ is an osmosensing histidine kinase located in the inner membrane, and one of the most extensively studied Escherichia coli histidine kinases...
  15. Jung K, Hamann K, Revermann A. K+ stimulates specifically the autokinase activity of purified and reconstituted EnvZ of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40896-902 pubmed
    The histidine kinase/response regulator system EnvZ/OmpR of Escherichia coli regulates transcription of the genes ompF and ompC, encoding two porins of the outer membrane...
  16. Zhu Y, Inouye M. The HAMP linker in histidine kinase dimeric receptors is critical for symmetric transmembrane signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48152-8 pubmed
    ..Here, by in vivo complementation experiments with Tar-EnvZ hybrid receptor mutants in which the HAMP linker forms a heterodimer with Tar and EnvZ-type subunits, we found that ..
  17. Forst S, Delgado J, Inouye M. Phosphorylation of OmpR by the osmosensor EnvZ modulates expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6052-6 pubmed
    b>EnvZ and OmpR, the regulatory proteins for ompF and ompC expression in Escherichia coli, belong to a modulator-effector family of regulatory proteins which are essential for the response to environmental signals...
  18. Yoshida T, Qin L, Inouye M. Formation of the stoichiometric complex of EnvZ, a histidine kinase, with its response regulator, OmpR. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:1273-82 pubmed
    b>EnvZ, a histidine kinase, and its cognate response regulator OmpR of Escherichia coli are responsible for adaptation to external osmotic changes by regulating the levels of the outer membrane porin proteins, OmpF and OmpC...
  19. Wurtzel E, Chou M, Inouye M. Osmoregulation of gene expression. I. DNA sequence of the ompR gene of the ompB operon of Escherichia coli and characterization of its gene product. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:13685-91 pubmed
    The ompB region on the Escherichia coli chromosome codes for two genes, ompR and envZ, which are required for the osmolarity sensitive biosynthetic regulation of the outer membrane matrix proteins (porins), OmpF and ompC...
  20. Qin L, Dutta R, Kurokawa H, Ikura M, Inouye M. A monomeric histidine kinase derived from EnvZ, an Escherichia coli osmosensor. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:24-32 pubmed
    Histidine kinases function as dimers. The kinase domain of the osmosensing histidine kinase EnvZ of Escherichia coli consists of two domains: domain A (67 residues) responsible for histidine phosphotransfer and dimerization, and domain B (..
  21. Wang L, Morgan L, Godakumbura P, Kenney L, Anand G. The inner membrane histidine kinase EnvZ senses osmolality via helix-coil transitions in the cytoplasm. EMBO J. 2012;31:2648-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding how input stimuli activate kinase autophosphorylation remains obscure. The EnvZ/OmpR system regulates expression of outer membrane proteins in response to osmotic stress...
  22. Zhu Y, Inouye M. Analysis of the role of the EnvZ linker region in signal transduction using a chimeric Tar/EnvZ receptor protein, Tez1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22812-9 pubmed
    ..the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of Tar, a chemosensor, are fused to the cytoplasmic catalytic domain of EnvZ, an osmosensing histidine kinase, through the EnvZ linker...
  23. Siryaporn A, Goulian M. Cross-talk suppression between the CpxA-CpxR and EnvZ-OmpR two-component systems in E. coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..that suppress cross-talk between these two proteins, which depend on the corresponding cognate partners CpxR and EnvZ and on the bifunctional nature of the histidine kinases CpxA and EnvZ...
  24. Mizuno T. His-Asp phosphotransfer signal transduction. J Biochem. 1998;123:555-63 pubmed
    ..The new concept should be referred to as the "multi-step His-Asp phosphotransfer signaling mechanism." ..
  25. Leatham Jensen M, Frimodt Møller J, Adediran J, Mokszycki M, Banner M, Caughron J, et al. The streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selects Escherichia coli envZ missense mutants that interact with dense and diverse intestinal microbiota. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Infect. Immun. 73:8039-8049, 2005). Here, we report that the 10 to 20% remaining motile E. coli MG1655 are envZ missense mutants that are also better colonizers of the mouse intestine than E. coli MG1655...
  26. Shinar G, Milo R, Martinez M, Alon U. Input output robustness in simple bacterial signaling systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19931-5 pubmed
    ..It explains how specific molecular details can work together to provide robustness. Moreover, it suggests an approach that can help identify a wide family of nonequilibrium mechanisms that potentially have robust input-output relations. ..
  27. Botelho S, Enquist K, von Heijne G, Draheim R. Differential repositioning of the second transmembrane helices from E. coli Tar and EnvZ upon moving the flanking aromatic residues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..has been previously shown to modulate signal output from the aspartate chemoreceptor (Tar) and the major osmosensor EnvZ of Escherichia coli...
  28. Matsubara M, Kitaoka S, Takeda S, Mizuno T. Tuning of the porin expression under anaerobic growth conditions by his-to-Asp cross-phosphorelay through both the EnvZ-osmosensor and ArcB-anaerosensor in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 2000;5:555-69 pubmed
    ..We have addressed this issue, with special reference to the osmo-responsive EnvZ and anaero-responsive ArcB phosphorelay signalling pathways in E. coli...
  29. Levskaya A, Chevalier A, Tabor J, Simpson Z, Lavery L, Levy M, et al. Synthetic biology: engineering Escherichia coli to see light. Nature. 2005;438:441-2 pubmed
    ..This spatial control of bacterial gene expression could be used to 'print' complex biological materials, for example, and to investigate signalling pathways through precise spatial and temporal control of their phosphorylation steps. ..
  30. Ashenberg O, Rozen Gagnon K, Laub M, Keating A. Determinants of homodimerization specificity in histidine kinases. J Mol Biol. 2011;413:222-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the molecular basis of dimerization specificity, focusing on the model histidine kinase EnvZ and RstB, its closest paralog in Escherichia coli...
  31. Cai S, Khorchid A, Ikura M, Inouye M. Probing catalytically essential domain orientation in histidine kinase EnvZ by targeted disulfide crosslinking. J Mol Biol. 2003;328:409-18 pubmed
    b>EnvZ, a dimeric transmembrane histidine kinase, belongs to the family of His-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction systems...
  32. Michalodimitrakis K, Sourjik V, Serrano L. Plasticity in amino acid sensing of the chimeric receptor Taz. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:257-66 pubmed
    ..coli osmosensor EnvZ. Aspartate is one of several attractant ligands normally sensed by Tar and it interacts with Taz to induce OmpR-..
  33. Matsubara M, Mizuno T. EnvZ-independent phosphotransfer signaling pathway of the OmpR-mediated osmoregulatory expression of OmpC and OmpF in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999;63:408-14 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli EnvZ-OmpR regulatory system is a paradigm of intracellular signal transduction mediated by the well-documented phosphotransfer mechanism, by which the expression of the major outer membrane proteins, OmpC and OmpF, is ..
  34. Webb E, Downs D. Characterization of thiL, encoding thiamin-monophosphate kinase, in Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:15702-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast to other thi loci, thiL is not transcriptionally regulated by thiamin pyrophosphate. This result is consistent with a dual role for ThiL in de novo biosynthesis and in salvage of exogenous thiamin. ..
  35. Yang Y, Inouye M. Intermolecular complementation between two defective mutant signal-transducing receptors of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:11057-61 pubmed
    Taz1 is a hybrid signal-transducing membrane receptor between Tar, an aspartate chemoreceptor, and EnvZ, an osmosensor of Escherichia coli that is able to induce ompC expression by phosphorylating OmpR (a transcriptional activator) in ..
  36. Tsui P, Huang L, Freundlich M. Integration host factor binds specifically to multiple sites in the ompB promoter of Escherichia coli and inhibits transcription. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5800-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we showed that IHF is a direct negative effector of the ompB operon of E. coli...
  37. Mizuno T, Wurtzel E, Inouye M. Osmoregulation of gene expression. II. DNA sequence of the envZ gene of the ompB operon of Escherichia coli and characterization of its gene product. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:13692-8 pubmed
  38. Yaku H, Mizuno T. The membrane-located osmosensory kinase, EnvZ, that contains a leucine zipper-like motif functions as a dimer in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1997;417:409-13 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli EnvZ protein is a membrane-located osmosensor, which is a typical member of histidine kinases involved in His-Asp phosphotransfer signaling...
  39. Han K, Park J, Seo H, Ahn K, Lee J. Multiple stressor-induced proteome responses of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). J Proteome Res. 2008;7:1891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative and systematic proteome analyses that we have performed provide more detailed information on E. coli BL21(DE3), a widely used host strain for recombinant protein overexpression. ..
  40. Casino P, Miguel Romero L, Marina A. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3258 pubmed publisher
    ..A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic ..
  41. Graeme Cook K, May G, Bremer E, Higgins C. Osmotic regulation of porin expression: a role for DNA supercoiling. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1287-94 pubmed
    ..The pair of regulatory proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, are required for normal porin expression...
  42. Adediran J, Leatham Jensen M, Mokszycki M, Frimodt Møller J, Krogfelt K, Kazmierczak K, et al. An Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 missense mutant colonizes the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine better than the wild type but is not a better probiotic. Infect Immun. 2014;82:670-82 pubmed publisher
    ..coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants that grew 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and motile E. coli MG1655 envZ missense mutants that grew slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus yet were able to cocolonize with the faster-growing ..
  43. Cavard D, Pages J, Lazdunski C. A protease as a possible sensor of environmental conditions in E. coli outer membrane. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;188:508-12 pubmed
    ..composition of the outer membrane and sensitivity to phages and colicins, are very similar in cpr and in tpo, envZ, perA strains that are affected in the ompB locus...
  44. Kishii R, Falzon L, Yoshida T, Kobayashi H, Inouye M. Structural and functional studies of the HAMP domain of EnvZ, an osmosensing transmembrane histidine kinase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26401-8 pubmed
    ..Here we expressed the EnvZ HAMP domain (Arg(180)-Thr(235)) with the R218K mutation (termed L(RK)) or with L(RK) connected with domain A (Arg(..
  45. Rupprecht K, Gordon G, Lundrigan M, Gayda R, Markovitz A, Earhart C. omp T: Escherichia coli K-12 structural gene for protein a (3b). J Bacteriol. 1983;153:1104-6 pubmed
    ..We designate the genetic locus for protein a, located at approximately 12.5 min of the E. coli chromosome, ompT. ..
  46. Gerken H, Charlson E, Cicirelli E, Kenney L, Misra R. MzrA: a novel modulator of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:1408-22 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype of a DeltabamB DeltadegP strain of Escherichia coli identified a novel protein MzrA and pleiotropic envZ mutations...
  47. Blain K, Kwiatkowski W, Choe S. The functionally active Mistic-fused histidine kinase receptor, EnvZ. Biochemistry. 2010;49:9089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the osmosensing histidine kinase receptor, EnvZ, an E...
  48. Qin L, Cai S, Zhu Y, Inouye M. Cysteine-scanning analysis of the dimerization domain of EnvZ, an osmosensing histidine kinase. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3429-35 pubmed
    b>EnvZ and OmpR are a transmembrane sensor and its cognate response regulator, respectively, regulating the transcription of porin genes in response to medium osmolarity in Escherichia coli...
  49. Xiao H, Kalman M, Ikehara K, Zemel S, Glaser G, Cashel M. Residual guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate synthetic activity of relA null mutants can be eliminated by spoT null mutations. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5980-90 pubmed
    ..We favor the possibility that the SpoT protein is a bifunctional enzyme capable of catalyzing either ppGpp synthesis or degradation...
  50. Zhu Y, Qin L, Yoshida T, Inouye M. Phosphatase activity of histidine kinase EnvZ without kinase catalytic domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7808-13 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic kinase domain of EnvZ, a transmembrane histidine kinase functioning as an osmosensor in Escherichia coli, consists of two distinct ..
  51. Liljestrom P, Laamanen I, Palva E. Structure and expression of the ompB operon, the regulatory locus for the outer membrane porin regulon in Salmonella typhimurium LT-2. J Mol Biol. 1988;201:663-73 pubmed
    The ompB operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a positive transcriptional regulator OmpR and an inner membrane protein EnvZ. Both proteins are needed for the proper expression of the outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF...
  52. Foo Y, Gao Y, Zhang H, Kenney L. Cytoplasmic sensing by the inner membrane histidine kinase EnvZ. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2015;118:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental sensing is typically coupled to gene regulation. The histidine kinase EnvZ and its cognate response regulator OmpR regulate expression of outer membrane proteins (porins) in response to ..
  53. Roberts D, Bennett D, Forst S. Identification of the site of phosphorylation on the osmosensor, EnvZ, of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8728-33 pubmed
    b>EnvZ is a membrane-bound histidine kinase that functions as an osmotic sensor capable of phosphorylating the regulator protein OmpR in Escherichia coli...
  54. Hall M, Silhavy T. Genetic analysis of the ompB locus in Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1981;151:1-15 pubmed
  55. Mizuno T, Wurtzel E, Inouye M. Cloning of the regulatory genes (ompR and envZ) for the matrix proteins of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. J Bacteriol. 1982;150:1462-6 pubmed
    ..cloned the regulatory gene cluster of Escherichia coli which is composed of at least two distinct genes, ompR and envZ. These genes are known to regulate the production of the outer membrane matrix proteins...
  56. Goh E, Siino D, Igo M. The Escherichia coli tppB (ydgR) gene represents a new class of OmpR-regulated genes. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4019-24 pubmed
    The EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulatory system plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli stress response. In this study, we examined the expression of a new OmpR-regulated gene, ydgR...
  57. Matsuyama S, Mizuno T, Mizushima S. Interaction between two regulatory proteins in osmoregulatory expression of ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli: a novel ompR mutation suppresses pleiotropic defects caused by an envZ mutation. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1309-14 pubmed
    The ompR and envZ genes, which together constitute the ompB operon, are involved in osmoregulatory expression of the OmpF and OmpC proteins, major outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli...
  58. Igoshin O, Alves R, Savageau M. Hysteretic and graded responses in bacterial two-component signal transduction. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1196-215 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphatase activity may also be modulated by environmental signals. Using the EnvZ/OmpR system as an example, we constructed mathematical models to examine the steady-state and kinetic properties of ..
  59. Tokishita S, Kojima A, Mizuno T. Transmembrane signal transduction and osmoregulation in Escherichia coli: functional importance of the transmembrane regions of membrane-located protein kinase, EnvZ. J Biochem. 1992;111:707-13 pubmed
    b>EnvZ is a membrane-located protein kinase which modulates expression of the ompF and ompC genes through phosphotransfer signal transduction in Escherichia coli...
  60. Srividhya K, Krishnaswamy S. A simulation model of Escherichia coli osmoregulatory switch using E-CELL system. BMC Microbiol. 2004;4:44 pubmed
    ..Osmoregulation is one of the well-studied two component regulatory systems comprising of the sensor, EnvZ and the cognate response regulator, OmpR, which together control the expression of OmpC and OmpF porins in response ..
  61. Darcan C, Ozkanca R, Idil O, Flint K. Viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Escherichia coli related to EnvZ under the effect of pH, starvation and osmotic stress in sea water. Pol J Microbiol. 2009;58:307-17 pubmed
    ..Under different environmental conditions, porins are important in the survival strategy of bacteria. EnvZ/OmpR work together as regulators of ompF and ompC gene expression...
  62. Porter M, Mitchell P, Roe A, Free A, Smith D, Gally D. Direct and indirect transcriptional activation of virulence genes by an AraC-like protein, PerA from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1117-33 pubmed
    ..Per regulatory locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is generally considered to consist of three genes, perA, perB and perC...
  63. Girgis H, Liu Y, Ryu W, Tavazoie S. A comprehensive genetic characterization of bacterial motility. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:1644-60 pubmed
    ..This unifying framework enables sensitive and comprehensive genetic characterization of complex behaviors across the microbial biosphere. ..
  64. Ashenberg O, Keating A, Laub M. Helix bundle loops determine whether histidine kinases autophosphorylate in cis or in trans. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested this model by replacing the loop from Escherichia coli EnvZ, which autophosphorylates in trans, with the loop from three PhoR orthologs that autophosphorylate in cis...
  65. Cai S, Inouye M. Spontaneous subunit exchange and biochemical evidence for trans-autophosphorylation in a dimer of Escherichia coli histidine kinase (EnvZ). J Mol Biol. 2003;329:495-503 pubmed
    The EnvZ/OmpR histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay (HAP) system in Escherichia coli regulates the expression of ompF and ompC, the major outer membrane porin genes, in response to environmental osmolarity changes...
  66. Baumgartner J, Kim C, Brissette R, Inouye M, Park C, Hazelbauer G. Transmembrane signalling by a hybrid protein: communication from the domain of chemoreceptor Trg that recognizes sugar-binding proteins to the kinase/phosphatase domain of osmosensor EnvZ. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1157-63 pubmed
    Chemoreceptor Trg and osmosensor EnvZ of Escherichia coli share a common transmembrane organization but have essentially unrelated primary structures...
  67. Gerken H, Misra R. MzrA-EnvZ interactions in the periplasm influence the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulon. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6271-8 pubmed publisher
    MzrA was identified as a modulator of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component signal transduction system. Previous evidence indicated that MzrA interacts with EnvZ and modulates its enzymatic activities to influence OmpR phosphate (OmpR?P) levels...
  68. Batchelor E, Goulian M. Imaging OmpR localization in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1767-78 pubmed
    ..We observed foci of increased OmpR-GFP fluorescence that appear to be due to interactions with the histidine kinase EnvZ. We also observed colocalization of OmpR-GFP with clusters of plasmids carrying OmpR binding sites, which enabled ..
  69. Garrett S, Taylor R, Silhavy T, Berman M. Isolation and characterization of delta ompB strains of Escherichia coli by a general method based on gene fusions. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:840-4 pubmed
    We isolated a series of delta ompR delta envZ mutants by inducing a strain carrying a lambda prophage in the closely linked gene malP and screening the bacterial survivors for loss of the major outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC...