Gene Symbol: ECs5151
Description: FtsH protease regulator HflC
Species: Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai

Top Publications

  1. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Different pathways for protein degradation by the FtsH/HflKC membrane-embedded protease complex: an implication from the interference by a mutant form of a new substrate protein, YccA. J Mol Biol. 1998;279:175-88 pubmed
    ..From these results we suggest that there are at least two pathways for FtsH-dependent protein degradation, only one of which (probably for membrane proteins) is subject to the HflKC-dependent interference by the YccA11 mutant substrate. ..
  2. Cheng H, Echols H. A class of Escherichia coli proteins controlled by the hflA locus. J Mol Biol. 1987;196:737-40 pubmed
    ..coli proteins in cya- strains unable to synthesize cAMP. Some of the same proteins found in hflA- are elicited by the addition of cAMP to cya- cells. ..
  3. Schumann W. FtsH--a single-chain charonin?. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1999;23:1-11 pubmed
    ..Therefore, FtsH may serve to maintain quality control of some cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. Such ATP-dependent proteases with intrinsic chaperone activity have been designated charonins. ..
  4. Hoyt M, Knight D, Das A, Miller H, Echols H. Control of phage lambda development by stability and synthesis of cII protein: role of the viral cIII and host hflA, himA and himD genes. Cell. 1982;31:565-73 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of cII appears to be under the positive control of the host himA and himD genes. We conclude that posttranscriptional regulation of cII by host and viral genes is critical for the choice of a developmental pathway. ..
  5. Young R, Davis R. Efficient isolation of genes by using antibody probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1194-8 pubmed
    ..Antibodies produced against the portion of the hybrid encoded by foreign DNA could in turn be used to isolate the native polypeptide from eukaryotic cells. ..
  6. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. A protease complex in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane: HflKC (HflA) forms a complex with FtsH (HflB), regulating its proteolytic activity against SecY. EMBO J. 1996;15:6122-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, purified HflKC protein inhibited the SecY-degrading activity of purified FtsH protein in vitro. These results indicate that the proteolytic activity of FtsH is modulated negatively by its association with HflKC. ..
  7. Banuett F, Herskowitz I. Identification of polypeptides encoded by an Escherichia coli locus (hflA) that governs the lysis-lysogeny decision of bacteriophage lambda. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4076-85 pubmed
    ..Last, we describe evidence that hflA contains an additional gene, hflX, encoding a 50,000-dalton polypeptide. ..
  8. Noble J, Innis M, Koonin E, Rudd K, Banuett F, Herskowitz I. The Escherichia coli hflA locus encodes a putative GTP-binding protein and two membrane proteins, one of which contains a protease-like domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10866-70 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that HflK and HflC constitute a distinct membrane-bound protease whose activity may be modulated by HflX GTPase. ..
  9. Connolly D, Winkler M. Structure of Escherichia coli K-12 miaA and characterization of the mutator phenotype caused by miaA insertion mutations. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1711-21 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations support the idea that the ms2i6A-37 tRNA modification acts as a physiological switch that modulates spontaneous mutation frequency and other metabolic functions. ..

More Information


  1. Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Host regulation of lysogenic decision in bacteriophage lambda: transmembrane modulation of FtsH (HflB), the cII degrading protease, by HflKC (HflA). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5544-9 pubmed
    ..This study necessitates a revision of the prevailing view about the host control over lambda lysogenic decision. ..
  2. Tsui H, Feng G, Winkler M. Transcription of the mutL repair, miaA tRNA modification, hfq pleiotropic regulator, and hflA region protease genes of Escherichia coli K-12 from clustered Esigma32-specific promoters during heat shock. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5719-31 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that there is a class of E sigma(32) promoters that functions mainly at high temperatures to ensure E. coli function and survival. ..
  3. Zorick T, Echols H. Membrane localization of the HflA regulatory protease of Escherichia coli by immunoelectron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6307-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HflA protease is localized in the cell membrane. The membrane location for HflA protein may serve as a component of a targeting mechanism to limit the action of the regulatory protease to selected cytoplasmic proteins. ..
  4. Banuett F, Hoyt M, McFarlane L, Echols H, Herskowitz I. hflB, a new Escherichia coli locus regulating lysogeny and the level of bacteriophage lambda cII protein. J Mol Biol. 1986;187:213-24 pubmed
    ..These observations reinforce the view that the level of cII is a key factor in the lysis-lysogeny decision of lambda. ..
  5. Herman C, Ogura T, Tomoyasu T, Hiraga S, Akiyama Y, Ito K, et al. Cell growth and lambda phage development controlled by the same essential Escherichia coli gene, ftsH/hflB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10861-5 pubmed
    ..Suppressor mutations of ftsH1 temperature-sensitive lethality, located in the fur gene (coding for the ferric uptake regulator), did not restore FtsH/HflB activity with respect to lambda lysogenization. ..
  6. Tsui H, Winkler M. Transcriptional patterns of the mutL-miaA superoperon of Escherichia coli K-12 suggest a model for posttranscriptional regulation. Biochimie. 1994;76:1168-77 pubmed
    ..A model is presented for RNase E-mediated posttranscriptional regulation that may coordinate mutL expression with replication and miaA with tRNA amounts under different growth conditions, especially during nutrient upshifts. ..
  7. Cheng H, Muhlrad P, Hoyt M, Echols H. Cleavage of the cII protein of phage lambda by purified HflA protease: control of the switch between lysis and lysogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7882-6 pubmed
    ..The HflA protease activity cleaves cII to small fragments. We conclude that the switch between lambda developmental pathways involves regulated cleavage of cII by the specific protease HflA. ..
  8. Kajitani M, Ishihama A. Identification and sequence determination of the host factor gene for bacteriophage Q beta. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:1063-6 pubmed
    ..Sequence determination of the cloned hfq gene indicated that HF-I is a small protein of Mr 11,166 consisting of 102 amino acid residues. ..
  9. Kihara A, Ito K. Translocation, folding, and stability of the HflKC complex with signal anchor topogenic sequences. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29770-5 pubmed
    ..We characterized several hflA alleles isolated in early studies; they alter the HflK or the HflC sequence and destabilize the HflKC complex. ..