Gene Symbol: ECs5113
Description: lysine decarboxylase 1
Species: Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai

Top Publications

  1. Takayama M, Ohyama T, Igarashi K, Kobayashi H. Escherichia coli cad operon functions as a supplier of carbon dioxide. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:913-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, our present results suggested that the physiological role of the cad operon is to supply carbon dioxide when its internal level is lowered under O2-limiting conditions at a low pH. ..
  2. Prüss B, Markovic D, Matsumura P. The Escherichia coli flagellar transcriptional activator flhD regulates cell division through induction of the acid response gene cadA. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3818-21 pubmed
    ..Under different growth conditions, the cell division rate correlated with the level of expression of cadA. ..
  3. Meng S, Bennett G. Regulation of the Escherichia coli cad operon: location of a site required for acid induction. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2670-8 pubmed
    ..This work defines essential sequences for acid induction of this system involved in neutralization of extracellular acid. ..
  4. Maurelli A, Fernandez R, Bloch C, Rode C, Fasano A. "Black holes" and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3943-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, understanding the role of black holes in pathogen evolution may yield clues to new treatments of infectious diseases. ..
  5. Sabo D, Fischer E. Chemical properties of Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase including a segment of its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site. Biochemistry. 1974;13:670-6 pubmed
  6. Casalino M, Latella M, Prosseda G, Colonna B. CadC is the preferential target of a convergent evolution driving enteroinvasive Escherichia coli toward a lysine decarboxylase-defective phenotype. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5472-9 pubmed
    ..Comparative analysis between the cad regions of S. flexneri and EIEC suggests that the LDC(-) phenotype has been attained by different strategies within the E. coli species...
  7. Watson N, Dunyak D, Rosey E, Slonczewski J, Olson E. Identification of elements involved in transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli cad operon by external pH. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:530-40 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that cadA, cadB, and the acid-inducible Pcad comprise, at least in part, the cad operon which is under control of the cadC product. ..
  8. Auger E, Redding K, Plumb T, Childs L, Meng S, Bennett G. Construction of lac fusions to the inducible arginine- and lysine decarboxylase genes of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:609-20 pubmed
    ..7 minutes, while the Mudlac fusions exhibiting a deficiency in the inducible arginine decarboxylase have been mapped to 93.4 minutes. ..
  9. Shi X, Bennett G. Effects of multicopy LeuO on the expression of the acid-inducible lysine decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:810-4 pubmed
    ..These results show an in vivo regulatory phenotype for leuO, consistent with its proposed protein sequence. ..

More Information


  1. Neely M, Olson E. Kinetics of expression of the Escherichia coli cad operon as a function of pH and lysine. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5522-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that CadC senses the lysine- and pH-induced signals separately and that one of the roles of lysine in inducing cadBA may be to repress expression of lysP, thus eliminating the repressing effects of LysP. ..
  2. Meng S, Bennett G. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli cad operon: a system for neutralization of low extracellular pH. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2659-69 pubmed
  3. Kikuchi Y, Kojima H, Tanaka T, Takatsuka Y, Kamio Y. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4486-92 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. ..
  4. Shi X, Waasdorp B, Bennett G. Modulation of acid-induced amino acid decarboxylase gene expression by hns in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1182-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for the DNA-binding protein H-NS in affecting the activation of these acid-induced genes. ..
  5. Tabor C, Tabor H, Hafner E. Mass screening for mutants in the biosynthetic pathway for polyamines in Escherichia coli: a general method for mutants in enzymatic reactions producing CO2. Methods Enzymol. 1983;94:83-91 pubmed
  6. Beretskene S, Bruzgulis P, Ragavichus A. [Conditions of the synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by Escherichia coli MRE 600]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1980;16:351-5 pubmed
    ..0 at 29--30 degrees C. Aeration increased the yield by about 3 times and decreased LDC activity by 5.5 times. ..
  7. Vazquez Juarez R, Kuriakose J, Rasko D, Ritchie J, Kendall M, Slater T, et al. CadA negatively regulates Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence and intestinal colonization. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5072-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the infant rabbit model, the cadA mutant outcompeted the wild-type strain in the ileum but not in the cecum or mid-colon, raising the possibility that CadA negatively regulates EHEC pathogenicity in a tissue-specific fashion...
  8. Kikuchi Y, Kurahashi O, Nagano T, Kamio Y. RpoS-dependent expression of the second lysine decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:1267-70 pubmed
    ..coli at any growing stage. In contrast, cadA was expressed in the rpoS mutant. Thus, we conclude that the expression of ldc but not cadA at stationary phase is regulated by a RpoS-dependent mechanism (s) in E. coli. ..
  9. Day W, Fern ndez R, Maurelli A. Pathoadaptive mutations that enhance virulence: genetic organization of the cadA regions of Shigella spp. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations strongly support the role of pathoadaptive mutation as an important pathway in the evolution of pathogenic organisms...
  10. Neely M, Dell C, Olson E. Roles of LysP and CadC in mediating the lysine requirement for acid induction of the Escherichia coli cad operon. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3278-85 pubmed
    ..Expression of cadA-lacZ in a strain carrying the cadC310 allele, however, was not affected by the plasmid-expressed lysP. Cadaverine was shown to inhibit expression of the cadA-lacZ fusion in cadC+ cells but not in a cadC310 background. ..
  11. Yamamoto Y, Miwa Y, Miyoshi K, Furuyama J, Ohmori H. The Escherichia coli ldcC gene encodes another lysine decarboxylase, probably a constitutive enzyme. Genes Genet Syst. 1997;72:167-72 pubmed
  12. Park Y, Bearson B, Bang S, Bang I, Foster J. Internal pH crisis, lysine decarboxylase and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:605-11 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that S. typhimurium has a variety of means of fulfilling the pH homeostasis requirement of the ATR in the form of inducible amino acid decarboxylases. ..
  13. Rowbury R. Regulatory components, including integration host factor, CysB and H-NS, that influence pH responses in Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1997;24:319-28 pubmed
  14. Dell C, Neely M, Olson E. Altered pH and lysine signalling mutants of cadC, a gene encoding a membrane-bound transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli cadBA operon. Mol Microbiol. 1994;14:7-16 pubmed
  15. McCormick B, Fernandez M, Siber A, Maurelli A. Inhibition of Shigella flexneri-induced transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by cadaverine. Cell Microbiol. 1999;1:143-55 pubmed
    ..coli (EPEC) to induce PMN migration. These observations not only provide insight into mechanisms of S. flexneri pathogen evolution and pathogenesis, but also suggest a potential for the use of cadaverine in the treatment of dysentery...
  16. Lemonnier M, Lane D. Expression of the second lysine decarboxylase gene of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 3):751-60 pubmed
  17. Reams S, Lee N, Mat Jan F, Clark D. Effect of chelating agents and respiratory inhibitors on regulation of the cadA gene in Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1997;167:209-16 pubmed
    ..This implies that the effect of chelating agents on cadA expression is mediated via the arcAB regulatory system. ..