Gene Symbol: ECs2699
Description: DNA cytosine methylase
Species: Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai

Top Publications

  1. Bhagwat A, Roberts R. Genetic analysis of the 5-azacytidine sensitivity of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:1537-46 pubmed
    ..This reversal of the bacteriostatic effects of the drug could not be achieved by adding cytosine or orotic acid to the growth medium and required the presence of functional UMP-pyrophosphorylase (gene upp) in the cell. ..
  2. Yang M, Ser S, Lee C. Involvement of E. coli dcm methylase in Tn3 transposition. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1989;13:276-83 pubmed
    ..The type(s), the extent and mechanism(s) of this modification remain to be investigated. ..
  3. Lieb M, Allen E, Read D. Very short patch mismatch repair in phage lambda: repair sites and length of repair tracts. Genetics. 1986;114:1041-60 pubmed
    ..Repair tracts rarely, if ever, exceed ten nucleotides in length, and can be as short as two nucleotides. A repair-prone mutation does not stimulate recombination between flanking cI markers. ..
  4. Lundblad V, Kleckner N. Mismatch repair mutations of Escherichia coli K12 enhance transposon excision. Genetics. 1985;109:3-19 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, since mutations in each gene have qualitatively and quantitatively different effects on transposon excision, defects in different mismatch repair genes may enhance excision by different mechanisms. ..
  5. Lieb M, Bhagwat A. Very short patch mismatch repair activity associated with gene dcm is not conferred by a plasmid coding for EcoRII methylase. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4967-8 pubmed
    ..coli were restored by a plasmid containing the cloned dcm gene. In contrast, plasmids with the gene for EcoRII methylase, which is a homolog of dcm, restored only cytosine methylase activity and not mismatch repair. ..
  6. Schlagman S, Hattman S, May M, Berger L. In vivo methylation by Escherichia coli K-12 mec+ deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylase protects against in vitro cleavage by the RII restriction endonuclease (R. Eco RII). J Bacteriol. 1976;126:990-6 pubmed
    ..mec+ RFI, isolated from the parental mec+ strain, is not cleaved. (ii) E. coli mec- DNA is extensively degraded, whereas mec+ DNA-cytosine methylase acts as an RII modification enzyme. ..
  7. Ringquist S, Smith C. The Escherichia coli chromosome contains specific, unmethylated dam and dcm sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4539-43 pubmed
    ..Sites resistant to complete dam or dcm methylation appear to be distributed throughout the chromosome. These unusual sites may identify regions of the chromosome with interesting biological functions. ..
  8. Song Y, Rueter T, Geiger R. DNA cleavage by AatI and StuI is sensitive to Escherichia coli dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:2718 pubmed
  9. Liu Q, Chen X, Zhao X, Chen Y, Chen D. The effect of methylation outside the recognition sequence of restriction endonuclease PvuII on its cleavage efficiency. Gene. 1992;113:89-93 pubmed
    ..We suggest that a new parameter, involving methylation of sites outside the recognition sequence, be considered in kinetic experiments on cleavage. ..

More Information


  1. Urieli Shoval S, Gruenbaum Y, Razin A. Sequence and substrate specificity of isolated DNA methylases from Escherichia coli C. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:274-80 pubmed
    ..With the dam methylase it was found that the enzyme is incapable of methylating GATC sites located at the ends of DNA molecules. ..
  2. Mural R. Cleavage by the restriction endonuclease Asp718, an isoschizomer of KpnI, is sensitive to Escherichia coli Dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:9085 pubmed
  3. Lieb M, Bhagwat A. Very short patch repair: reducing the cost of cytosine methylation. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:467-73 pubmed
    ..Under conditions that more accurately mimic the natural environment of E. coli, VSP repair appears to be effective in preventing mutation at 5meC. ..
  4. Petropoulos L, Vidmar J, Passi E, Cupples C. A simple assay for monitoring the mutagenic effects of 5-methylcytosine deamination in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 1994;304:181-5 pubmed
    ..The assay has been used to evaluate the function of vsr cloned from a potential very short patch repair mutant. ..
  5. Lieb M. Spontaneous mutation at a 5-methylcytosine hotspot is prevented by very short patch (VSP) mismatch repair. Genetics. 1991;128:23-7 pubmed
    ..These findings support the previously untested hypothesis that VSP repair prevents mutations resulting from deamination of 5-methylcytosine. ..
  6. Kruger D, Schroeder C, Reuter M, Bogdarina I, Buryanov Y, Bickle T. DNA methylation of bacterial viruses T3 and T7 by different DNA methylases in Escherichia coli K12 cells. Eur J Biochem. 1985;150:323-30 pubmed
    ..Moreover, one of the two dcm sites present in T7 (Studier strain) is missing in our T7 strain owing to a 1300-base-pair deletion in gene 0.7. ..
  7. Dar M, Bhagwat A. Mechanism of expression of DNA repair gene vsr, an Escherichia coli gene that overlaps the DNA cytosine methylase gene, dcm. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:823-33 pubmed
    ..Further, Vsr is active by itself and may not be produced as a fusion with Dcm. This is the first example of chromosomal genes that overlap in their coding regions and produce proteins with distinct functions. ..
  8. Lee S, Butler D, Kleckner N. Efficient Tn10 transposition into a DNA insertion hot spot in vivo requires the 5-methyl groups of symmetrically disposed thymines within the hot-spot consensus sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7876-80 pubmed
  9. Backman K. A cautionary note on the use of certain restriction endonucleases with methylated substrates. Gene. 1980;11:169-71 pubmed
  10. Szyf M, Gruenbaum Y, Urieli Shoval S, Razin A. Studies on the biological role of DNA methylation: V. The pattern of E.coli DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:7247-59 pubmed
    ..Taking together the results presented here and previously published data (5), we arrive at the conclusion that the most likely function of E. coli DNA methylations is probably in preventing nuclease activity. ..
  11. Lieb M. Bacterial genes mutL, mutS, and dcm participate in repair of mismatches at 5-methylcytosine sites. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5241-6 pubmed
    ..However, mismatches in heteroduplexes prepared from lambda DNA lacking 5-methylcytosine were repaired in dcm+ bacteria. These results indicate that the product of gene dcm has a repair function in addition to its methylase activity. ..
  12. . Resistance to acridines and thymineless death in a mec- mutant of Escherichia coli [proceedings]. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1977;29 Suppl:12P pubmed
  13. May M, Hattaman S. Deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylation by host- and plasmid-controlled enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1975;122:129-38 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the K12 met+ cytosine methylase and the N-3 plasmid modification methylase are capable of recognizing the same nucleotide sequences, but that the in vivo methylation rate is lower in mec+ cells. ..
  14. Dreiseikelmann B, Wackernagel W. Absence in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus of the sequence-specific deoxyribonucleic acid methylation that is conferred in Escherichia coli K-12 by the dam and dcm enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:259-61 pubmed
    ..The results showed that neither B. subtilis nor S. aureus methylates deoxyribonucleic acid at the same sites and nucleotides which are recognized and methylated by dam and dcm enzymes in E. coli K-12. ..
  15. Larimer F. Cleavage by ApaI is inhibited by overlapping dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:9087 pubmed
  16. Bell D, Cupples C. Very-short-patch repair in Escherichia coli requires the dam adenine methylase. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3631-5 pubmed
    ..We also show that production of the dcm-encoded cytosine methylase is unaffected in Dam(-) strains. Since the dcm and vsr genes are cotranscribed, the regulation of Vsr by Dam is probably posttranscriptional. ..
  17. Takahashi N, Naito Y, Handa N, Kobayashi I. A DNA methyltransferase can protect the genome from postdisturbance attack by a restriction-modification gene complex. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6100-8 pubmed
    ..Dcm, therefore, can play the role of a "molecular vaccine" by defending the genome against parasitism by a restriction-modification gene complex...
  18. May M, Hattman S. Analysis of bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid sequences methylated by host- and R-factor-controlled enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1975;123:768-70 pubmed
    ..Pyrimidine tracts containing 3H-labeled 5-methylcytosine (MeC) were analyzed; in all cases, the major methylated sequence was 5' ... C-MeC-T ... 3'. ..
  19. Labbe D, Höltke H, Lau P. Cloning and characterization of two tandemly arranged DNA methyltransferase genes of Neisseria lactamica: an adenine-specific M.NlaIII and a cytosine-type methylase. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;224:101-10 pubmed
    ..NlaX; a considerable degree of sequence identity is found in the so-called variable region which is believed to be responsible for sequence recognition specificity. M.NlaX is probably the counterpart to the E. coli Dcm in N. lactamica...
  20. Bale A, D ALARCAO M, Marinus M. Characterization of DNA adenine methylation mutants of Escherichia coli K12. Mutat Res. 1979;59:157-65 pubmed
    ..Unmethylated fd phage chromosomes are able to replicate normally in dam- mutants. A mutant strain in which the dcm gene is deleted is viable, showing that the dcm gene product is dispensible for growth. ..
  21. Bancroft I, Smith R. An analysis of restriction endonuclease sites in cyanophages infecting the heterocystous cyanobacteria Anabaena and Nostoc. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 3):739-43 pubmed
    ..Analysis of native and cloned A-4L DNA suggests that counter-selection has occurred against all sequences which would be methylated by the host at either adenosine or cytosine nucleotides. ..
  22. Hattman S. Partial purification of the Escherichia coli K-12 mec+ deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylase: in vitro methylation completely protects bacteriophage lambda deoxyribonucleic acid against cleavage by R-EcoRII. J Bacteriol. 1977;129:1330-4 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with our earlier proposal that the mec8ethylase recognizes RII host specificity sites. ..
  23. Sturm R, Yaciuk P. DNA cleavage by restriction endonuclease PflMI is inhibited in recognition sites modified by dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3615 pubmed
  24. Crooks P, Tribe M, Pinney R. Inhibition of bacterial DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and some related compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1984;36:85-9 pubmed
    ..S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine and its 7-deaza analogue, S-tubercidinylhomocysteine, were competitive inhibitors of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase with Ki's of 14.2 and 17.6 microM, respectively, in the above enzyme assay. ..
  25. Lal D, Som S, Friedman S. Survival and mutagenic effects of 5-azacytidine in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 1988;193:229-36 pubmed
    ..Cell death in the presence of methylase could be due to tight binding of methylase to azacytosine containing DNA as well as inhibition of induction of the SOS response. ..
  26. Rieger A, Nassal M. Restriction endonuclease Alw NI is blocked by overlapping Dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:4148 pubmed
  27. Hughes J, Brown L, Ferro A. Expression of the cloned coliphage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene inhibits DNA methylation and polyamine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:3625-32 pubmed
    ..Expression vectors containing the cloned AdoMetase gene thus provide an alternate approach to the use of chemical inhibitors or mutants defective in AdoMet biosynthesis to probe the effect of AdoMet limitation. ..
  28. Shenoy S, Ehrlich K, Ehrlich M. Repair of thymine.guanine and uracil.guanine mismatched base-pairs in bacteriophage M13mp18 DNA heteroduplexes. J Mol Biol. 1987;197:617-26 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the plus strand nick made by the M13-encoded gene II protein might be employed by a mutH- host to initiate repair on that strand. ..
  29. Gómez Eichelmann M, Alvarez G. Genetic expression and gyrase dependence of methylated and undermethylated DNA in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;825:335-8 pubmed
    ..The results obtained with both methylated and undermethylated plasmid DNA were similar. ..
  30. Palmer B, Marinus M. The dam and dcm strains of Escherichia coli--a review. Gene. 1994;143:1-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the most commonly used mutant alleles of dam and dcm and the characteristics of a variety of the strains that carry these genes. A description of several plasmids that carry dam gene constructs is also included. ..
  31. Jones M, Wagner R, Radman M. Mismatch repair of deaminated 5-methyl-cytosine. J Mol Biol. 1987;194:155-9 pubmed
    ..coli dcm methylase and some, but not all, of the functions of the E. coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system. The repair appears to act only on the G-T mismatch and acts specifically to restore the cytosine methylation sequence. ..
  32. Davis R, van der Lelie D, Mercenier A, Daly C, Fitzgerald G. ScrFI restriction-modification system of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503: cloning and characterization of two ScrFI methylase genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:777-85 pubmed
    ..5). The amino acid sequence contained the highly characteristic motifs of an m5C methylase. Extensive regions of homology were observed with the methylases of NlaX, EcoRII, and Dcm. ..
  33. Bhagwat A, Sohail A, Roberts R. Cloning and characterization of the dcm locus of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:751-5 pubmed
    ..We found no phage restriction activity associated with the dcm clones. ..
  34. Zell R, Fritz H. DNA mismatch-repair in Escherichia coli counteracting the hydrolytic deamination of 5-methyl-cytosine residues. EMBO J. 1987;6:1809-15 pubmed
    ..The repair is severely impaired in host strains carrying a mutation in any of the three loci dcm, mutL and mutS. ..
  35. Barbe J, Gibert I, Guerrero R. 5-Azacytidine: survival and induction of the SOS response in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutat Res. 1986;166:9-16 pubmed
  36. Szyf M, Avraham Haetzni K, Reifman A, Shlomai J, Kaplan F, Oppenheim A, et al. DNA methylation pattern is determined by the intracellular level of the methylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:3278-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the intracellular level of the E. coli methylase determines the DNA methylation pattern. ..
  37. Macintyre G, Pitsikas P, Cupples C. Growth phase-dependent regulation of Vsr endonuclease may contribute to 5-methylcytosine mutational hot spots in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:4435-6 pubmed
    ..Decreased production of Vsr relative to Dcm during the log phase may contribute substantially to the mutability of 5-methylcytosine. ..
  38. Bhagwat A, Johnson B, Weule K, Roberts R. Primary sequence of the EcoRII endonuclease and properties of its fusions with beta-galactosidase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:767-73 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of the primary sequence of the endonuclease and the availability of the various constructs involving its gene should be helpful in the study of the interaction of the enzyme with its substrate DNA...
  39. Chen D, Liu Q, Chen X, Zhao X, Chen Y. The inhibition of restriction endonuclease PvuII cleavage activity by methylation outside its recognition sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5703-5 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that methylation outside the recognition sequence may be considered a new factor in the kinetic experiment of restriction endonuclease. ..
  40. Hanck T, Schmidt S, Fritz H. Sequence-specific and mechanism-based crosslinking of Dcm DNA cytosine-C5 methyltransferase of E. coli K-12 to synthetic oligonucleotides containing 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:303-9 pubmed
    ..The enzyme is capable of self-methylation in a DNA-independent reaction requiring SAM and the presence of cysteine at position #177. ..
  41. Korba B, Hays J. Partially deficient methylation of cytosine in DNA at CCATGG sites stimulates genetic recombination of bacteriophage lambda. Cell. 1982;28:531-41 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that hemimethylated CCATGG sites in "Arl-" DNA are necessary and sufficient for enhanced recombination, and necessary but not sufficient for S1 sensitivity. ..