Gene Symbol: dps
Description: Fe-binding and storage protein; stress-inducible DNA-binding protein
Alias: ECK0801, JW0797, pexB, vtm
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Bellapadrona G, Ardini M, Ceci P, Stefanini S, Chiancone E. Dps proteins prevent Fenton-mediated oxidative damage by trapping hydroxyl radicals within the protein shell. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:292-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Dps (DNA-binding proteins from starved cells) proteins belong to a widespread bacterial family of proteins expressed under nutritional and oxidative stress conditions...
  2. Frenkiel Krispin D, Levin Zaidman S, Shimoni E, Wolf S, Wachtel E, Arad T, et al. Regulated phase transitions of bacterial chromatin: a non-enzymatic pathway for generic DNA protection. EMBO J. 2001;20:1184-91 pubmed
  3. Zhao G, Ceci P, Ilari A, Giangiacomo L, Laue T, Chiancone E, et al. Iron and hydrogen peroxide detoxification properties of DNA-binding protein from starved cells. A ferritin-like DNA-binding protein of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27689-96 pubmed publisher
    The DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) are a family of proteins induced in microorganisms by oxidative or nutritional stress...
  4. Martinez A, Kolter R. Protection of DNA during oxidative stress by the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Dps. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5188-94 pubmed
    ..the toxic and mutagenic effects of oxidative damage in metabolically active cells: direct protection of DNA by Dps, an inducible nonspecific DNA-binding protein from Escherichia coli...
  5. Ali Azam T, Iwata A, Nishimura A, Ueda S, Ishihama A. Growth phase-dependent variation in protein composition of the Escherichia coli nucleoid. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6361-70 pubmed
    ..curved DNA-binding protein B, also known as Rob [right origin binding protein]), DnaA (DNA-binding protein A), Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells), Fis (factor for inversion stimulation), Hfq (host factor for phage Q(beta)..
  6. Wolf S, Frenkiel D, Arad T, Finkel S, Kolter R, Minsky A. DNA protection by stress-induced biocrystallization. Nature. 1999;400:83-5 pubmed
    ..defence strategy found in Escherichia coli, involving co-crystallization of its DNA with the stress-induced protein Dps. We show that when purified Dps and DNA interact, extremely stable crystals form almost instantaneously, within ..
  7. Grant R, Filman D, Finkel S, Kolter R, Hogle J. The crystal structure of Dps, a ferritin homolog that binds and protects DNA. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:294-303 pubmed
    The crystal structure of Dps, a DNA-binding protein from starved E. coli that protects DNA from oxidative damage, has been solved at 1.6 A resolution...
  8. Nohno T, Saito T, Hong J. Cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli glutamine permease operon (glnHPQ). Mol Gen Genet. 1986;205:260-9 pubmed
    ..There were two additional reading frames (glnP and glnQ) downstream of glnH sharing a common promoter. It was concluded that the glnP and glnQ proteins as well as the glnH protein are essential for glutamine permease activity...
  9. Kim J, Yoshimura S, Hizume K, Ohniwa R, Ishihama A, Takeyasu K. Fundamental structural units of the Escherichia coli nucleoid revealed by atomic force microscopy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1982-92 pubmed
    ..Mutant analysis demonstrated that these tight compactions of the nucleoid required a protein, Dps. From these results and previously available information, we propose a structural model of the E.coli nucleoid.

More Information


  1. Nair S, Finkel S. Dps protects cells against multiple stresses during stationary phase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4192-8 pubmed
    b>Dps, the nonspecific DNA-binding protein from starved cells, is the most abundant protein in stationary-phase Escherichia coli. Dps homologs are found throughout the bacteria and in at least one archaeal species...
  2. Ceci P, Cellai S, Falvo E, Rivetti C, Rossi G, Chiancone E. DNA condensation and self-aggregation of Escherichia coli Dps are coupled phenomena related to the properties of the N-terminus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5935-44 pubmed
    Escherichia coli Dps (DNA-binding proteins from starved cells) is the prototype of a DNA-protecting protein family expressed by bacteria under nutritional and oxidative stress...
  3. Almiron M, Link A, Furlong D, Kolter R. A novel DNA-binding protein with regulatory and protective roles in starved Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2646-54 pubmed
    ..This 19-kD protein, designated Dps, is abundant in starved cells...
  4. Azam T, Ishihama A. Twelve species of the nucleoid-associated protein from Escherichia coli. Sequence recognition specificity and DNA binding affinity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33105-13 pubmed
    ..DNA-binding protein B or right arm of the replication origin binding protein), DnaA (DNA-binding protein A), Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells), Fis (factor for inversion stimulation), Hfq (host factor for phage Q(beta)..
  5. Altuvia S, Almiron M, Huisman G, Kolter R, Storz G. The dps promoter is activated by OxyR during growth and by IHF and sigma S in stationary phase. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:265-72 pubmed
    b>Dps is a non-specific DNA-binding protein abundant in starved Escherichia coli cells and is important for the defence against hydrogen peroxide...
  6. Dukan S, Touati D. Hypochlorous acid stress in Escherichia coli: resistance, DNA damage, and comparison with hydrogen peroxide stress. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6145-50 pubmed
    ..RpoS-regulated genes responsible for this sensitivity were dps, which encodes a DNA-binding protein, and, to a lesser extent, katE and katG, encoding catalases; all three are ..
  7. Azam T, Hiraga S, Ishihama A. Two types of localization of the DNA-binding proteins within the Escherichia coli nucleoid. Genes Cells. 2000;5:613-26 pubmed
    ..The group-I proteins, including the major nucleoid-structural proteins, H-NS, HU, IHF, StpA and Dps, are distributed uniformly within the entire nucleoid...
  8. Dame R. The role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization and compaction of bacterial chromatin. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:858-70 pubmed
    ..Many of these new insights can be attributed to the use of recently developed biophysical techniques. ..
  9. Weber A, Kögl S, Jung K. Time-dependent proteome alterations under osmotic stress during aerobic and anaerobic growth in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7165-75 pubmed
    ..7 M sorbitol) under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The protein profiles revealed an induction of 12 proteins (Dps, HchA, HdhA, InfB, OsmC, OsmY, ProX, KatE, PspA, TalA, TktB, and TreF) under osmotic stress in an aerobic milieu...
  10. Weichart D, Querfurth N, Dreger M, Hengge Aronis R. Global role for ClpP-containing proteases in stationary-phase adaptation of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:115-25 pubmed
    ..For example, in the clpP and clpA mutant cultures, the Dps protein, the WrbA protein, and the periplasmic lysine-arginine-ornithine binding protein ArgT did not display the ..
  11. Ilari A, Ceci P, Ferrari D, Rossi G, Chiancone E. Iron incorporation into Escherichia coli Dps gives rise to a ferritin-like microcrystalline core. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37619-23 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli Dps belongs to a family of bacterial stress-induced proteins to protect DNA from oxidative damage...
  12. Zimmerman S. Cooperative transitions of isolated Escherichia coli nucleoids: implications for the nucleoid as a cellular phase. J Struct Biol. 2006;153:160-75 pubmed
    ..nor was it changed in nucleoids isolated from cells after exposure to chloramphenicol or from cells in which Dps, Fis, or H-NS and StpA had been deleted...
  13. Foster S. Purification and characterization of an 'actomyosin' complex from Escherichia coli W3110. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;110:295-8 pubmed
    ..The possible function of the 17-kDa protein and the other 'actomyosin' components is discussed. ..
  14. Andrews S, Robinson A, Rodr guez Qui ones F. Bacterial iron homeostasis. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:215-37 pubmed
    ..intracellular iron reserves for use when external supplies are restricted, and iron detoxification proteins (Dps) are employed to protect the chromosome from iron-induced free radical damage...
  15. Barth E, Gora K, Gebendorfer K, Settele F, Jakob U, Winter J. Interplay of cellular cAMP levels, {sigma}S activity and oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2009;155:1680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis revealed that the DNA-protecting protein Dps, the catalase KatE, and the exonuclease III XthA play the predominant roles in conferring the high resistance of ..
  16. Ninnis R, Spall S, Talbo G, Truscott K, Dougan D. Modification of PATase by L/F-transferase generates a ClpS-dependent N-end rule substrate in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2009;28:1732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have identified a new element within the N-degron, which is required for substrate delivery to ClpA. ..
  17. Schuenemann V, Kralik S, Albrecht R, Spall S, Truscott K, Dougan D, et al. Structural basis of N-end rule substrate recognition in Escherichia coli by the ClpAP adaptor protein ClpS. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:508-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that ClpS has been optimized for the binding and delivery of N-degrons containing an N-terminal Phe or Leu. ..
  18. Gourmelon M, Touati D, Pommepuy M, Cormier M. Survival of Escherichia coli exposed to visible light in seawater: analysis of rpoS-dependent effects. Can J Microbiol. 1997;43:1036-43 pubmed
    ..In the stationary phase, double catalase mutants katE katG and mutants defective in the protein Dps (both catalase and Dps are involved in resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), were more sensitive to light...
  19. Bore E, Hebraud M, Chafsey I, Chambon C, Skjaeret C, Moen B, et al. Adapted tolerance to benzalkonium chloride in Escherichia coli K-12 studied by transcriptome and proteome analyses. Microbiology. 2007;153:935-46 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that BC treatment might result in superoxide stress in E. coli. ..
  20. Rockabrand D, Livers K, Austin T, Kaiser R, Jensen D, Burgess R, et al. Roles of DnaK and RpoS in starvation-induced thermotolerance of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:846-54 pubmed
    ..required for starvation-induced osmotolerance, catalase activity, and the production of the RpoS-controlled Dps (PexB) protein...
  21. Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
  22. Park S, You X, Imlay J. Substantial DNA damage from submicromolar intracellular hydrogen peroxide detected in Hpx- mutants of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9317-22 pubmed
    ..One critical protein was Dps, an iron-sequestration protein, because Hpx- dps mutants exhibited sensitivity similar to that of the Hpx- oxyR ..
  23. Luijsterburg M, Noom M, Wuite G, Dame R. The architectural role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization of bacterial chromatin: a molecular perspective. J Struct Biol. 2006;156:262-72 pubmed
    ..In this review, we provide an overview of the major nucleoid-associated proteins from a structural perspective and we discuss their possible roles in dynamically shaping the bacterial nucleoid. ..
  24. Chodavarapu S, Gomez R, Vicente M, Kaguni J. Escherichia coli Dps interacts with DnaA protein to impede initiation: a model of adaptive mutation. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:1331-46 pubmed publisher
    During exponential growth, the level of Dps transiently increases in response to oxidative stress to sequester and oxidize Fe2+, which would otherwise lead to hydroxyl radicals that damage the bacterial chromosome...
  25. Michan C, Manchado M, Dorado G, Pueyo C. In vivo transcription of the Escherichia coli oxyR regulon as a function of growth phase and in response to oxidative stress. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2759-64 pubmed
    ..Genes studied were (i) oxyR (transcriptional regulator); (ii) katG, dps, gorA, and ahpCF (controlled by OxyR); (iii) sodA (controlled by SoxRS); and (iv) trxA (not related to OxyR or ..
  26. Zhang Y, Fu J, Chee S, Ang E, Orner B. Rational disruption of the oligomerization of the mini-ferritin E. coli DPS through protein-protein interface mutation. Protein Sci. 2011;20:1907-17 pubmed publisher
    DNA-binding protein from starved cells (DPS), a mini-ferritin capable of self-assembling into a 12-meric nano-cage, was chosen as the basis for an alanine-shaving mutagenesis study to investigate the importance of key amino acid residues,..
  27. Rothe M, Alpert C, Engst W, Musiol S, Loh G, Blaut M. Impact of nutritional factors on the proteome of intestinal Escherichia coli: induction of OxyR-dependent proteins AhpF and Dps by a lactose-rich diet. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3580-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress response proteins such as AhpF, Dps, and Fur, all of which belong to the oxyR regulon, were upregulated in E...
  28. Kawe M, Horn U, Plückthun A. Facile promoter deletion in Escherichia coli in response to leaky expression of very robust and benign proteins from common expression vectors. Microb Cell Fact. 2009;8:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the E. coli Dps protein, known to protect DNA against stress in the stationary phase, is accumulated in the deletion mutants, the ..
  29. Stephani K, Weichart D, Hengge R. Dynamic control of Dps protein levels by ClpXP and ClpAP proteases in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1605-14 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli starvation-induced DNA protection protein Dps was observed to be degraded rapidly during exponential growth. This turnover is dependent on the clpP and clpX genes...
  30. Frenkiel Krispin D, Ben Avraham I, Englander J, Shimoni E, Wolf S, Minsky A. Nucleoid restructuring in stationary-state bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:395-405 pubmed
    ..that is dictated by the intrinsic properties of DNA and by the ubiquitous starvation-induced DNA-binding protein Dps. As starvation proceeds, the toroidal morphology acts as a structural template that promotes the formation of DNA-..
  31. Suzuki K, Okada K, Kamiya Y, Zhu X, Nakagawa T, Kawamukai M, et al. Analysis of the decaprenyl diphosphate synthase (dps) gene in fission yeast suggests a role of ubiquinone as an antioxidant. J Biochem. 1997;121:496-505 pubmed
    ..The determined DNA sequence of the cloned gene, called dps, revealed that the dps gene encodes a 378-amino-acid protein that has the typical conserved regions observed in ..
  32. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Role of CspC and CspE in regulation of expression of RpoS and UspA, the stress response proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of three stress proteins, OsmY, Dps, and UspA, is significantly affected by the overexpression and deletion of CspC and CspE...
  33. Ivanova A, Glinsky G, Eisenstark A. Role of rpoS regulon in resistance to oxidative stress and near-UV radiation in delta oxyR suppressor mutants of Escherichia coli. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;23:627-36 pubmed
    ..elevation in transcription of rpoS-dependent genes as determined by beta-galactosidase expression from katE::lacZ, dps::lacZ, and xthA::lacZ promoters. Catalase HPI and HPII activities were also increased...
  34. Thieme D, Grass G. The Dps protein of Escherichia coli is involved in copper homeostasis. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:108-15 pubmed publisher
    The DNA-binding protein of starved cells (Dps) has two distinct cellular functions in Escherichia coli...
  35. Rychlewski L, Zhang B, Godzik A. Functional insights from structural predictions: analysis of the Escherichia coli genome. Protein Sci. 1999;8:614-24 pubmed
    ..Several examples, analyzed in more detail in this paper, include the DPS protein protecting DNA from oxidative damage (predicted to be homologous to ferritin with iron ion acting as a ..
  36. Ishihama A. Modulation of the nucleoid, the transcription apparatus, and the translation machinery in bacteria for stationary phase survival. Genes Cells. 1999;4:135-43 pubmed
    ..proteins, Fis, HU and Hfq, in the exponential-phase nucleoid are replaced by a single stationary-phase protein Dps, thereby compacting the nucleoid and ultimately leading to silencing of the DNA functions...
  37. Gerard F, Dri A, Moreau P. Role of Escherichia coli RpoS, LexA and H-NS global regulators in metabolism and survival under aerobic, phosphate-starvation conditions. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 7):1547-62 pubmed
    ..for Pi may thus be explained by the role played by various RpoS-controlled gene products such as KatE, KatG and Dps in the protection of DNA against ROS...
  38. Ferguson G, Creighton R, Nikolaev Y, Booth I. Importance of RpoS and Dps in survival of exposure of both exponential- and stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells to the electrophile N-ethylmaleimide. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1030-6 pubmed
    ..Additionally, RpoS and the DNA-binding protein Dps aided the survival of both exponential- and stationary-phase cells against NEM...
  39. Bechtloff D, Grünenfelder B, Akerlund T, Nordstrom K. Analysis of protein synthesis rates after initiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6292-9 pubmed
    ..These three proteins were analyzed by peptide mass mapping and appeared to be the products of the dps, gapA, and pyrI genes...
  40. Rosen H, Lewis P, Nitzel C. Neutrophil microbicidal activity: screening bacterial mutants for survival after phagocytosis using quantitative PCR. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:S19-21 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli survival following neutrophil phagocytosis among three mutants deleted respectively for araB, dps or oxyR...
  41. Yamamoto K, Ishihama A, Busby S, Grainger D. The Escherichia coli K-12 MntR miniregulon includes dps, which encodes the major stationary-phase DNA-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1477-80 pubmed publisher
    ..coli chromosome in vivo, and we report that MntR binds to only four targets, adjacent to the mntH, mntR, yebN, and dps genes. Unexpectedly, we found that dps expression is directly repressed by Mn(2+)-MntR.
  42. Strocchi M, Ferrer M, Timmis K, Golyshin P. Low temperature-induced systems failure in Escherichia coli: insights from rescue by cold-adapted chaperones. Proteomics. 2006;6:193-206 pubmed
    ..coli is cold-induced inactivation of the GroELS chaperonins and the resulting failure to refold cold-inactivated Dps, ClpB, DnaK and RpsB proteins...
  43. Schnetz K. Fine-tuned growth phase control of dps, encoding a DNA protection protein, by FIS and H-NS. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1345-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Dps, a ferritin-like DNA-binding protein, protects bacterial DNA against oxidative stress and hyper-compacts the nucleoid into a crystalline-like structure...
  44. Grainger D, Goldberg M, Lee D, Busby S. Selective repression by Fis and H-NS at the Escherichia coli dps promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1366-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Dps is a nucleoid-associated protein that plays a major role in condensation of the Escherichia coli chromosome in stationary phase...
  45. Li H, Wang B, Xu W, Lin X, Peng X. Identification and network of outer membrane proteins regulating streptomysin resistance in Escherichia coli. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4040-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TolC, OmpT and LamB were found to be up-regulated, and FadL, OmpW and a location-unknown protein Dps were down-regulated in the SM-resistant E. coli strain...
  46. Wu L, Lin X, Peng X. From proteome to genome for functional characterization of pH-dependent outer membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the differentially expressed proteins identified, OstA, TolC, OmpT, OmpP OmpC, Trak, OmpX, Dps, LamB, Tsx, FadL, OmpW, and OmpF were characterized as pH-related OM proteins...
  47. Cao G, Sarkar N. Stationary phase-specific mRNAs in Escherichia coli are polyadenylated. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;239:46-50 pubmed
    ..the nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones corresponding to the stationary phase-specific genes, rpoS, bo1A, and dps. The sites of polyadenylation were found to be primarily in the 3'-untranslated region, either at the putative rho-..
  48. Lomovskaya O, Kidwell J, Matin A. Characterization of the sigma 38-dependent expression of a core Escherichia coli starvation gene, pexB. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3928-35 pubmed
    A reverse genetics approach was used to clone a pex starvation gene that codes for an 18-kDa polypeptide, designated PexB. Single-copy pexB-lacZ operon fusions were constructed to study transcriptional regulation and the promoter region ..
  49. Freestone P, Grant S, Trinei M, Onoda T, Norris V. Protein phosphorylation in Escherichia coli L. form NC-7. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 12):3289-95 pubmed
    ..Two new phosphoproteins were identified in the L-form as the DNA-binding protein Dps, and YfiD, a protein of 14 kDa with homology to pyruvate formate-lyase and a region containing a tRNA cluster in ..
  50. Talukder A, Ishihama A. Growth phase dependent changes in the structure and protein composition of nucleoid in Escherichia coli. Sci China Life Sci. 2015;58:902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..coli nucleoid, namely DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps), host factor for phage Qβ (Hfq) and suppressor of td(-) phenotype A (StpA)...
  51. Ohniwa R, Morikawa K, Kim J, Ohta T, Ishihama A, Wada C, et al. Dynamic state of DNA topology is essential for genome condensation in bacteria. EMBO J. 2006;25:5591-602 pubmed
    In bacteria, Dps is one of the critical proteins to build up a condensed nucleoid in response to the environmental stresses...
  52. Lacqua A, Wanner O, Colangelo T, Martinotti M, Landini P. Emergence of biofilm-forming subpopulations upon exposure of Escherichia coli to environmental bacteriophages. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:956-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of one phage-tolerant strain revealed large amounts of the DNA-binding Dps protein in the outer membrane protein and production of fimbria-like structures...
  53. Halsey T, Vazquez Torres A, Gravdahl D, Fang F, Libby S. The ferritin-like Dps protein is required for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium oxidative stress resistance and virulence. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1155-8 pubmed
    ..b>Dps, a ferritin-like protein found in many eubacterial and archaebacterial species, appears to protect cells from ..
  54. Schmidt R, Zahn R, Bukau B, Mogk A. ClpS is the recognition component for Escherichia coli substrates of the N-end rule degradation pathway. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, we identified two natural N-end rule substrates of E. coli: Dps and PATase (YgjG)...
  55. Jeong K, Hung K, Baumler D, Byrd J, Kaspar C. Acid stress damage of DNA is prevented by Dps binding in Escherichia coli O157:H7. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:181 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dps (DNA-binding protein in starved cells) mutants of E...
  56. Perrot F, Hebraud M, Charlionet R, Junter G, Jouenne T. Protein patterns of gel-entrapped Escherichia coli cells differ from those of free-floating organisms. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:645-53 pubmed
    ..e., the YFID protein and a DNA-binding, stationary-phase protein. The possible role of these proteins in the high resistance of immobilized bacteria to stresses is discussed. ..
  57. Pruteanu M, Baker T. Proteolysis in the SOS response and metal homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:677-83 pubmed publisher
  58. Jürgen B, Lin H, Riemschneider S, Scharf C, Neubauer P, Schmid R, et al. Monitoring of genes that respond to overproduction of an insoluble recombinant protein in Escherichia coli glucose-limited fed-batch fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2000;70:217-24 pubmed
    ..two ribosomal proteins S6 and L9, the peptidylprolyl-cis-trans-isomerase PpiB, and the sigma(38)-dependent protein Dps. Analysis of the aggregated protein fraction revealed a remarkably inhomogeneous composition of the alpha-..
  59. Gong L, Takayama K, Kjelleberg S. Role of spoT-dependent ppGpp accumulation in the survival of light-exposed starved bacteria. Microbiology. 2002;148:559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..coli strains mutated in rpoS and dps, which, in the wild-type, are regulated directly or indirectly by ppGpp, respectively...
  60. Ferrer M, Chernikova T, Yakimov M, Golyshin P, Timmis K. Chaperonins govern growth of Escherichia coli at low temperatures. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1266-7 pubmed