Gene Symbol: dnaG
Description: DNA primase
Alias: ECK3056, JW3038, dnaP, parB, sdgA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Tougu K, Marians K. The interaction between helicase and primase sets the replication fork clock. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:21398-405 pubmed
    ..Thus, the interaction between DnaG and DnaB at the replication fork is the primary regulator of the cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis.
  2. Keck J, Roche D, Lynch A, Berger J. Structure of the RNA polymerase domain of E. coli primase. Science. 2000;287:2482-6 pubmed
    ..The high-resolution crystal structure of a primase, comprising the catalytic core of the Escherichia coli DnaG protein, was determined...
  3. Yuzhakov A, Kelman Z, O Donnell M. Trading places on DNA--a three-point switch underlies primer handoff from primase to the replicative DNA polymerase. Cell. 1999;96:153-63 pubmed
    ..The conservation of this three-point switch, in which two proteins exchange places on DNA via mutually exclusive interaction with a third protein, is discussed. ..
  4. Su X, Schaeffer P, Loscha K, Gan P, Dixon N, Otting G. Monomeric solution structure of the helicase-binding domain of Escherichia coli DnaG primase. FEBS J. 2006;273:4997-5009 pubmed
    b>DnaG is the primase that lays down RNA primers on single-stranded DNA during bacterial DNA replication...
  5. Oakley A, Loscha K, Schaeffer P, Liepinsh E, Pintacuda G, Wilce M, et al. Crystal and solution structures of the helicase-binding domain of Escherichia coli primase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11495-504 pubmed
    During bacterial DNA replication, the DnaG primase interacts with the hexameric DnaB helicase to synthesize RNA primers for extension by DNA polymerase...
  6. Loscha K, Oakley A, Bancia B, Schaeffer P, Prosselkov P, Otting G, et al. Expression, purification, crystallization, and NMR studies of the helicase interaction domain of Escherichia coli DnaG primase. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;33:304-10 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the DnaG primase is the RNA polymerase that synthesizes RNA primers at replication forks...
  7. Tougu K, Peng H, Marians K. Identification of a domain of Escherichia coli primase required for functional interaction with the DnaB helicase at the replication fork. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:4675-82 pubmed
  8. Benz E, Reinberg D, Vicuna R, Hurwitz J. Initiation of DNA replication by the dnaG protein. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:1096-106 pubmed
    Highly purified preparations of dnaG protein from Escherichia coli prime minus strand synthesis of phage alpha 3 DNA in vitro...
  9. Bhattacharyya S, Griep M. DnaB helicase affects the initiation specificity of Escherichia coli primase on single-stranded DNA templates. Biochemistry. 2000;39:745-52 pubmed

More Information


  1. Naue N, Beerbaum M, Bogutzki A, Schmieder P, Curth U. The helicase-binding domain of Escherichia coli DnaG primase interacts with the highly conserved C-terminal region of single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4507-17 pubmed publisher
    During bacterial DNA replication, DnaG primase and the ? subunit of DNA polymerase III compete for binding to single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), thus facilitating the switch between priming and elongation...
  2. Smiley B, Lupski J, Svec P, McMacken R, Godson G. Sequences of the Escherichia coli dnaG primase gene and regulation of its expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:4550-4 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of a cloned section of the Escherichia coli chromosome containing the dnaG primase gene [Lupski, J., Smiley, B., Blattner, F. & Godson, G. N. (1982) Mol. Gen, Genet. 185, 120--128] has been determined...
  3. Sun W, Godson G. Synthesis of polyribonucleotide chains from the 3'-hydroxyl terminus of oligodeoxynucleotides by Escherichia coli primase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:16358-65 pubmed
    ..We also show that the primed RNA is an effective primer for the synthesis of DNA chain by E. coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The significance of this finding to primases generating multimeric length RNA is discussed. ..
  4. Britton R, Powell B, Court D, Lupski J. Characterization of mutations affecting the Escherichia coli essential GTPase era that suppress two temperature-sensitive dnaG alleles. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4575-82 pubmed
    ..and reduced GTPase activity caused by the era-1 mutation suppresses dnaG2903 as well as a second dnaG allele, parB. Phenotypic analysis of the era-1 mutant at 25 degrees C showed that 10% of the cells contain four segregated ..
  5. Almond N, Yajnik V, Svec P, Godson G. An Escherichia coli cis-acting antiterminator sequence: the dnaG nut site. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;216:195-203 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli rpsU-dnaG-rpoD operon contains an internal transcription terminator T1 located in the intergenic region between the rpsU and dnaG genes (Smiley et al. 1982)...
  6. Griep M, Lokey E. The role of zinc and the reactivity of cysteines in Escherichia coli primase. Biochemistry. 1996;35:8260-7 pubmed
    ..Zinc could be prevented from binding to the weak site by the presence of magnesium, indicating that the weak site may be the catalytic magnesium site in which two of the seven cysteines were located. ..
  7. Wu C, Zechner E, Reems J, McHenry C, Marians K. Coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis at the Escherichia coli DNA replication fork. V. Primase action regulates the cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4074-83 pubmed
  8. Powers L, Griep M. Escherichia coli primase zinc is sensitive to substrate and cofactor binding. Biochemistry. 1999;38:7413-20 pubmed
    ..These studies clearly show that primase zinc ligation changes upon binding substrates. ..
  9. Ingmer H, Miller C, Cohen S. The RepA protein of plasmid pSC101 controls Escherichia coli cell division through the SOS response. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:519-26 pubmed
    ..by RepA-mediated induction of the SOS response and can be reversed by over-expression of the host DNA primase, DnaG. The effects of RepA excess are prevented by introducing a surfeit of RepA binding sites...
  10. Swart J, Griep M. Primer synthesis kinetics by Escherichia coli primase on single-stranded DNA templates. Biochemistry. 1995;34:16097-106 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the overlong primers did appear to arise as a consequence of the template length-dependent species since their length was double and they arose in the time course after the length-dependent species. ..
  11. Soultanas P. The bacterial helicase-primase interaction: a common structural/functional module. Structure. 2005;13:839-44 pubmed
    ..An attractive structural model with direct biological significance for the function of this complex and also for the development of new antibacterial compounds is examined. ..
  12. Britton R, Lupski J. Isolation and characterization of suppressors of two Escherichia coli dnaG mutations, dnaG2903 and parB. Genetics. 1997;145:867-75 pubmed
    The dnaG gene of Escherichia coli encodes the primase protein, which synthesizes a short pRNA that is essential for the initiation of both leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis...
  13. Ebersbach G, Gerdes K. Bacterial mitosis: partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:385-98 pubmed
    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2)...
  14. Ng J, Marians K. The ordered assembly of the phiX174-type primosome. II. Preservation of primosome composition from assembly through replication. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15649-55 pubmed
    ..DNA-binding protein-coated phiX174 DNA by the combination of PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaB, DnaC, and DnaG. The presence and relative amounts of primosomal proteins in these complexes were determined by Western blotting...
  15. Maciag M, Kochanowska M, Lyzeń R, Wegrzyn G, Szalewska Pałasz A. ppGpp inhibits the activity of Escherichia coli DnaG primase. Plasmid. 2010;63:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although in Escherichia coli such a replication regulation was not reported to date, here we show that E. coli DnaG primase is directly inhibited by ppGpp and pppGpp. However, contrary to the B...
  16. Sims J, Benz E. Initiation of DNA replication by the Escherichia coli dnaG protein: evidence that tertiary structure is involved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:900-4 pubmed
    The dnaG protein of Escherichia coli initiates DNA replication by synthesizing primer oligonucleotides for elongation by DNA polymerae...
  17. Nakamura Y. Hybrid plasmid carrying Escherichia coli genes for the primase (dnaG) and RNA polymerase sigma factor (rpoD); gene organization and control of their expression. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;178:487-97 pubmed
  18. Agarwal A, Louise May S, Thanassi J, Podos S, Cheng J, Thoma C, et al. Small molecule inhibitors of E. coli primase, a novel bacterial target. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:2807-10 pubmed
    ..This work provides a 3D pharmacophore for primase ligands, SAR trends, and leads that can be further optimized. ..
  19. Yoda K, Okazaki T. Specificity of recognition sequence for Escherichia coli primase. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;227:1-8 pubmed
    ..coli primase and, (iii) the consensus recognition sequence for E. coli primase associated with DnaB helicase is 3'PuPyPy 5'. ..
  20. Norris V, Alliotte T, Jaffe A, D Ari R. DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli parB (a dnaG allele), parA, and gyrB mutants affected in DNA distribution. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:494-504 pubmed
    ..The parB mutation lies at 67 min, and the ParB- phenotype is corrected by a cloned dnaG gene or by a plasmid primase, strongly suggesting that parB is an allele of dnaG, the structural gene of the E...
  21. Marinus M, Adelberg E. Vegetative Replication and Transfer Replication of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1970;104:1266-72 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that vegetative replication of the chromosome and transfer replication of F are separate processes, the former requiring at least two gene products which are nonessential for the latter. ..
  22. Pienaar E, Viljoen H. The tri-frame model. J Theor Biol. 2008;251:616-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The theory is demonstrated for the three genes rpsU, dnaG and rpoD of Escherichia coli, which lie on the same operon, as well as for the prfB gene.
  23. Johnson S, Bhattacharyya S, Griep M. DnaB helicase stimulates primer synthesis activity on short oligonucleotide templates. Biochemistry. 2000;39:736-44 pubmed
    ..In contrast, when primase acted alone, it stabilized the 3'-end hairpin conformation of the template so that the template's 3'-hydroxyl served as a "DNA primer" from which primase elongated to create the overlong primers. ..
  24. Khopde S, Biswas E, Biswas S. Affinity and sequence specificity of DNA binding and site selection for primer synthesis by Escherichia coli primase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14820-30 pubmed
    ..This sequence preference of primase may likely be responsible for the initiation of primer synthesis in the CTG triplet sites in the E. coli lagging strand as well as in the origin of replication of bacteriophage G4. ..
  25. Stamford N, Lilley P, Dixon N. Enriched sources of Escherichia coli replication proteins. The dnaG primase is a zinc metalloprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1132:17-25 pubmed
    Primase, the product of the Escherichia coli dnaG gene, is the enzyme responsible for RNA primer synthesis on both template strands at replication forks during chromosomal DNA synthesis...
  26. Koepsell S, Larson M, Frey C, Hinrichs S, Griep M. Staphylococcus aureus primase has higher initiation specificity, interacts with single-stranded DNA stronger, but is less stimulated by its helicase than Escherichia coli primase. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..coli primase. The most significant difference between the two primases was that S. aureus helicase stimulation did not broaden the S. aureus primase initiation specificity, which has important biological implications. ..
  27. Chang P, Marians K. Identification of a region of Escherichia coli DnaB required for functional interaction with DnaG at the replication fork. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:26187-95 pubmed
    ..of the replicative primosomes of Escherichia coli are provided by DnaB, the replication fork DNA helicase, and DnaG, the Okazaki fragment primase...
  28. Hiasa H, Marians K. Initiation of bidirectional replication at the chromosomal origin is directed by the interaction between helicase and primase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:27244-8 pubmed
  29. Duval Valentin G, Marty Cointin B, Chandler M. Requirement of IS911 replication before integration defines a new bacterial transposition pathway. EMBO J. 2004;23:3897-906 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the primase DnaG is essential, implicating a host-specific replication pathway.
  30. Murakami Y, Nagata T, Schwarz W, Wada C, Yura T. Novel dnaG mutation in a dnaP mutant of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:830-2 pubmed
    ..coli revealed that the mutation responsible for the arrest of DNA replication and cell growth at high temperatures resides in the dnaG gene rather than in the dnaP locus as previously thought; this mutation has been designated dnaG2903.
  31. Sevastsyanovich Y, Titok M, Krasowiak R, Bingle L, Thomas C. Ability of IncP-9 plasmid pM3 to replicate in Escherichia coli is dependent on both rep and par functions. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:819-33 pubmed
    ..coli is suppressed by additional determinants from its par operon: ParB, which can be supplied in trans, and its target, the par operon promoter, required in cis to ori V-rep...
  32. Lu Y, Ratnakar P, Mohanty B, Bastia D. Direct physical interaction between DnaG primase and DnaB helicase of Escherichia coli is necessary for optimal synthesis of primer RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12902-7 pubmed
    The primase DnaG of Escherichia coli requires the participation of the replicative helicase DnaB for optimal synthesis of primer RNA for lagging strand replication...
  33. Nakamura Y. Amber dnaG mutation exerting a polar effect on the synthesis of RNA polymerase sigma factor in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;196:179-82 pubmed
    Three amber mutants of Escherichia coli, dnaG9, dnaG24 and dnaG26, affected in the structural gene (dnaG) for "primase" have been isolated from a parental strain carrying a temperature-sensitive amber suppressor (supF-Ts6)...
  34. Gross J. DNA replication in bacteria. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1972;57:39-74 pubmed
  35. Asai T, Bates D, Boye E, Kogoma T. Are minichromosomes valid model systems for DNA replication control? Lessons learned from Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:671-5 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that requirements for initiation at the chromosomal origin, oriC, are drastically different from those for initiation at cloned oriC. ..
  36. van der Ende A, Baker T, Ogawa T, Kornberg A. Initiation of enzymatic replication at the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome: primase as the sole priming enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:3954-8 pubmed
    ..Optimal initiation of the leading strand of DNA synthesis, over a range of levels of auxiliary proteins, appears to depend on transcriptional activation of the oriC region by RNA polymerase prior to priming by primase. ..
  37. Scherzinger E, Haring V, Lurz R, Otto S. Plasmid RSF1010 DNA replication in vitro promoted by purified RSF1010 RepA, RepB and RepC proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:1203-11 pubmed
    ..The bacterial RNA polymerase, the initiation protein DnaA, and the primosomal proteins DnaB, DnaC, DnaG and DnaT are not required...
  38. Rowen L, Kornberg A. Primase, the dnaG protein of Escherichia coli. An enzyme which starts DNA chains. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:758-64 pubmed
    ..the viral DNA of phage G4 to the duplex form provided an opportunity to isolate and determine the function of the dnaG protein, the product of a gene known to be essential for replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome...
  39. Chintakayala K, Larson M, Grainger W, Scott D, Griep M, Hinrichs S, et al. Domain swapping reveals that the C- and N-terminal domains of DnaG and DnaB, respectively, are functional homologues. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1629-39 pubmed
    The bacterial primase (DnaG)-helicase (DnaB) interaction is mediated by the C-terminal domain of DnaG (p16) and a linker that joins the N- and C-terminal domains (p17 and p33 respectively) of DnaB...
  40. Katayama T, Murakami Y, Wada C, Ohmori H, Yura T, Nagata T. Genetic suppression of a dnaG mutation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1485-91 pubmed
    ..About 100 independently isolated sdg suppressors were analyzed. They fall into two classes. The sdgA mutations were genetically mapped very close to and upstream of the dnaG gene and were found to be cis dominant...
  41. Ely S, Wright A. Maintenance of plasmid pSC101 in Escherichia coli requires the host primase. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:484-6 pubmed
    The abilities of three Escherichia coli strains with thermosensitive dnaG alleles to maintain plasmids pSC101 or pBR322 or an RP4 derivative were studied at elevated growth temperatures...
  42. Lilien C. Escherichia coli dnaG gene product is required for a normal rate of phage T4 DNA synthesis. Virology. 1982;123:443-7 pubmed
  43. Ringgaard S, Lowe J, Gerdes K. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28216-25 pubmed
    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively...
  44. Kaur T, Al Abdallah Q, Nafissi N, Wettig S, Funnell B, Slavcev R. ParAB-mediated intermolecular association of plasmid P1 parS sites. Virology. 2011;421:192-201 pubmed publisher
    The P1 plasmid partition system depends on ParA-ParB proteins acting on centromere-like parS sites for a faithful plasmid segregation during the Escherichia coli cell cycle. In vivo we placed parS into host E...
  45. Taylor W, Straus D, Grossman A, Burton Z, Gross C, Burgess R. Transcription from a heat-inducible promoter causes heat shock regulation of the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase. Cell. 1984;38:371-81 pubmed
    The rpoD gene encoding the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase is cotranscribed with rpsU and dnaG, encoding ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase, respectively...
  46. Wada C, Yura T. Phenethyl alcohol resistance in Escherichia coli. 3. A temperature-sensitive mutation(dnaP) affecting DNA replication. Genetics. 1974;77:199-220 pubmed
    ..Genetic analyses, including reversion studies, indicate that a recessive dnaP mutation located between cya and metE on the chromosome is responsible for both alterations of the membrane ..
  47. Konigsberg W, Godson G. Evidence for use of rare codons in the dnaG gene and other regulatory genes of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:687-91 pubmed
    Amino acid sequence and composition data of Escherichia coli dnaG primase protein and its tryptic peptides have confirmed that the dnaG gene contains an unusually high number of codons that are not frequently used in most E. coli genes...
  48. Wu C, Zechner E, Marians K. Coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis at the Escherichia coli DNA replication fork. I. Multiple effectors act to modulate Okazaki fragment size. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4030-44 pubmed
  49. Corn J, Pelton J, Berger J. Identification of a DNA primase template tracking site redefines the geometry of primer synthesis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..screening method to trap transient macromolecular interactions, we determined the structure of the Escherichia coli DnaG primase catalytic domain bound to single-stranded DNA...
  50. Nakayama N, Bond M, Miyajima A, Kobori J, Arai K. Structure of Escherichia coli dnaC. Identification of a cysteine residue possibly involved in association with dnaB protein. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10475-80 pubmed
    ..Similar to dnaG and dnaT, dnaC uses several minor codons; the significance of these minor codons to the low level expression of the ..
  51. Lupski J, Smiley B, Godson G. Regulation of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon and the initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;189:48-57 pubmed
    We have fused the E. coli dnaG 5' regulatory region to the TcR structural gene in the promoter probe plasmids pPV33 and pKK175-6 to demonstrate that a promoter activity is located on a 250 bp SacII-HindIII restriction fragment and that a ..
  52. Wechsler J, Gross J. Escherichia coli mutants temperature-sensitive for DNA synthesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1971;113:273-84 pubmed
  53. Burton Z, Gross C, Watanabe K, Burgess R. The operon that encodes the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase also encodes ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase in E. coli K12. Cell. 1983;32:335-49 pubmed
    ..Within the sequence upstream from rpoD, we have identified the structural genes rpsU and dnaG, which encode the 30S ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase, respectively...
  54. Zechner E, Wu C, Marians K. Coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis at the Escherichia coli DNA replication fork. III. A polymerase-primase interaction governs primer size. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4054-63 pubmed
  55. Ortega S, Lanka E, Diaz R. The involvement of host replication proteins and of specific origin sequences in the in vitro replication of miniplasmid R1 DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:4865-79 pubmed
    ..coli is resistant to rifampicin and can be completely inhibited by antibodies against DnaG, the primase of the cell, as well as by antibodies against proteins DnaB and SSB...
  56. Zhang Y, Yang F, Kao Y, Kurilla M, Pompliano D, Dicker I. Homogenous assays for Escherichia coli DnaB-stimulated DnaG primase and DnaB helicase and their use in screening for chemical inhibitors. Anal Biochem. 2002;304:174-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DnaG primase is a single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase...
  57. Podobnik M, McInerney P, O Donnell M, Kuriyan J. A TOPRIM domain in the crystal structure of the catalytic core of Escherichia coli primase confirms a structural link to DNA topoisomerases. J Mol Biol. 2000;300:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The catalytic domain of primase is crescent-shaped, and the concave face of the crescent is predicted to accommodate about 10 base-pairs of RNA-DNA duplex in a loose interaction, thereby limiting processivity...
  58. Griep M, Adkins B, Hromas D, Johnson S, Miller J. The tyrosine photophysics of a primase-derived peptide are sensitive to the peptide's zinc-bound state: proof that the bacterial primase hypothetical zinc finger sequence binds zinc. Biochemistry. 1997;36:544-53 pubmed
  59. Bouche J, Zechel K, Kornberg A. dnaG gene product, a rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase, initiates the conversion of a single-stranded coliphage DNA to its duplex replicative form. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:5995-6001 pubmed
    ..DNA to the duplex replicative form has been purified approximately 3000-fold and identified with Escherichia coli dnaG gene product. The protein is a rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase of approximately 64,000 daltons...
  60. Mustaev A, Godson G. Studies of the functional topography of the catalytic center of Escherichia coli primase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15711-8 pubmed
    ..When cross-linking was performed on the preformed primase/SSB/G4oric complex with long arm reagents (12-15 A), SSB was also labeled, indicating a close proximity to the site of pRNA synthesis. ..
  61. Hiasa H, Marians K. Primase couples leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis from oriC. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:6058-63 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, high concentrations of primase resulted in successful capture of the helicase leading to the formation at oriC of coupled replication forks capable of coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. ..
  62. Schaeffer P, Headlam M, Dixon N. Protein--protein interactions in the eubacterial replisome. IUBMB Life. 2005;57:5-12 pubmed
    ..of the DnaA replication initiator protein, the hexameric DnaB helicase, the DnaC?helicase loading partner and the DnaG primase, leading to establishment of two replication forks...
  63. Tanaka K, Rogi T, Hiasa H, Miao D, Honda Y, Nomura N, et al. Comparative analysis of functional and structural features in the primase-dependent priming signals, G sites, from phages and plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3606-13 pubmed
    The primase-dependent priming signals, G sites, are directly recognized by the Escherichia coli primase (dnaG gene product) and conduct the synthesis of primer RNAs...
  64. Sun W, Godson G. Structure of the Escherichia coli primase/single-strand DNA-binding protein/phage G4oric complex required for primer RNA synthesis. J Mol Biol. 1998;276:689-703 pubmed
    ..Novel techniques used in this study include antisense oligonucleotide protection and RNA synthesis on an SSB-melted, double-stranded DNA template...
  65. Masai H, Arai K. Leading strand synthesis of R1 plasmid replication in vitro is primed by primase alone at a specific site downstream of oriR. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8082-90 pubmed
    ..chimeric single-stranded phage could be replicated in vitro with only single-stranded DNA binding protein, primase (dnaG gene product), and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme...
  66. Versalovic J, Koeuth T, McCabe E, Lupski J. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for physical mapping of Escherichia coli genes. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5253-5 pubmed
  67. Urlacher T, Griep M. Magnesium acetate induces a conformational change in Escherichia coli primase. Biochemistry. 1995;34:16708-14 pubmed
    ..The data were best fit to a two-state model in which one conformation had a high affinity for magnesium, KR = 83.4 M-1, and the other state had virtually no affinity. ..
  68. McMacken R, Ueda K, Kornberg A. Migration of Escherichia coli dnaB protein on the template DNA strand as a mechanism in initiating DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:4190-4 pubmed
    ..Synthesis of RNA primers, dependent on dnaG protein (primase), occurred only on DNA that had been converted to the intermediate form...
  69. Gross C, Blattner F, Taylor W, Lowe P, Burgess R. Isolation and characterization of transducing phage coding for sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5789-93 pubmed
    ..Phage containing the HindIII fragment complement both primase (dnaG) and sigma (rpoD) whereas those containing the Sac I fragment complement only sigma...
  70. Griep M, Blood S, Larson M, Koepsell S, Hinrichs S. Myricetin inhibits Escherichia coli DnaB helicase but not primase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:7203-8 pubmed
    ..coli DnaB helicase with an inhibitory concentration at 50% maximal (IC(50)) of 11.3+/-1.6 microM. In contrast, myricetin inhibited E. coli primase at least 60-fold weaker than DnaB helicase and far weaker than any other polymerase. ..
  71. Rodina A, Godson G. Role of conserved amino acids in the catalytic activity of Escherichia coli primase. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..From these data we discuss the significant step of the 2-nucleotide primer RNA synthesis by E. coli primase and the role of amino acids Lys229, Tyr267, and Met268 in primase complex stability...
  72. Wold M, McMacken R. Regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli dnaG gene and amplification of the dnaG primase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:4907-11 pubmed
    We have isolated lambda transducing phages carrying the Escherichia coli primase gene (dnaG) and mapped restriction sites in the cloned bacterial DNA segments...
  73. Swart J, Griep M. Primase from Escherichia coli primes single-stranded templates in the absence of single-stranded DNA-binding protein or other auxiliary proteins. Template sequence requirements based on the bacteriophage G4 complementary strand origin and Okazaki fra. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:12970-6 pubmed
    ..We also report primase's ability to incorporate dideoxyribonucleotide triphosphates into primers, which has allowed us to determine directly both length and sequence of primers synthesized...
  74. Zechner E, Wu C, Marians K. Coordinated leading- and lagging-strand synthesis at the Escherichia coli DNA replication fork. II. Frequency of primer synthesis and efficiency of primer utilization control Okazaki fragment size. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4045-53 pubmed
    ..These data were used to draw general conclusions concerning the temporal order of enzymatic steps that operate during a cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis on the lagging-strand DNA template. ..
  75. Corn J, Pease P, Hura G, Berger J. Crosstalk between primase subunits can act to regulate primer synthesis in trans. Mol Cell. 2005;20:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the replisome may cooperatively use multiple primases and this conformational switch to control initiation frequency, processivity, and ultimately, Okazaki fragment synthesis...
  76. Stayton M, Kornberg A. Complexes of Escherichia coli primase with the replication origin of G4 phage DNA. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:13205-12 pubmed
    Escherichia coli primase (dnaG protein), an essential DNA replication enzyme, synthesizes a primer at the unique origin sequence of the single-stranded circular phage G4 DNA (Rowen, L., and Kornberg, A. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 758-764)...
  77. Yajnik V, Godson G. Selective decay of Escherichia coli dnaG messenger RNA is initiated by RNase E. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13253-60 pubmed
    The rpsU-dnaG-rpoD operon messenger RNA that encodes S21, primase, and sigma-70 is cleaved under normal physiological conditions. The dnaG coding portion of the mRNA is then rapidly degraded...
  78. Versalovic J, Lupski J. Missense mutations in the 3' end of the Escherichia coli dnaG gene do not abolish primase activity but do confer the chromosome-segregation-defective (par) phenotype. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 2):585-94 pubmed
    Isogenic dnaG strains of Escherichia coli with the parB and dnaG2903 alleles in the MG1655 chromosomal background displayed the classic par phenotype at the nonpermissive temperature of 42 degrees C...