dnaC

Summary

Gene Symbol: dnaC
Description: DNA biosynthesis protein
Alias: ECK4351, JW4325, dnaD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Xu L, Sandler S, Marians K. Replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates is required for bacterial growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3552-5 pubmed
    ..These findings underscore the essentiality of replication fork restart at recombination intermediates under normal growth conditions in bacteria. ..
  2. Rudolph C, Upton A, Lloyd R. Replication fork stalling and cell cycle arrest in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2007;21:668-81 pubmed
    ..All DNA synthesis after UV depends on DnaC, implying that replication restart of blocked forks requires DnaB loading and possibly the entire assembly of new ..
  3. Sandler S, Marians K, Zavitz K, Coutu J, Parent M, Clark A. dnaC mutations suppress defects in DNA replication- and recombination-associated functions in priB and priC double mutants in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:91-101 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed for the roles of these proteins in terms of restarting collapsed replication forks from recombinational intermediates...
  4. Sandler S, Samra H, Clark A. Differential suppression of priA2::kan phenotypes in Escherichia coli K-12 by mutations in priA, lexA, and dnaC. Genetics. 1996;143:5-13 pubmed
    ..All 17 map in the C-terminal half of the dnaC gene. DnaC loads the DnaB helicase onto DNA as a prelude for primosome assembly and DNA replication...
  5. Beyersmann D, Messer W, Schlicht M. Mutants of Escherichia coli B-r defective in deoxyribonucleic acid initiation: dnaI, a new gene for replication. J Bacteriol. 1974;118:783-9 pubmed
    ..Sixteen of the sites map near dnaA, dnaB, and dnaC. One mutant (dna-208) maps in a new location between the trp and his genes. We propose to call this mutant dnaI208...
  6. Roychowdhury A, Szymanski M, Jezewska M, Bujalowski W. Escherichia coli DnaB helicase-DnaC protein complex: allosteric effects of the nucleotides on the nucleic acid binding and the kinetic mechanism of NTP hydrolysis. 3. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6747-63 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions between the DNA- and NTP-binding sites of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase engaged in the DnaB-DnaC complex and the mechanism of NTP hydrolysis by the complex have been examined using the fluorescence titration, ..
  7. Biswas S, Flowers S, Biswas Fiss E. Quantitative analysis of nucleotide modulation of DNA binding by DnaC protein of Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2004;379:553-62 pubmed
    In this study, we have presented the first report of Escherichia coli DnaC protein binding to ssDNA (single stranded DNA) in an apparent hexameric form...
  8. Saveson C, Lovett S. Enhanced deletion formation by aberrant DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1997;146:457-70 pubmed
    ..gamma clamp loader complex (holC, dnaX), and the beta clamp (dnaN) subunits of Pol III and the primosomal proteins, dnaC and priA. Aberrant replication stimulated deletions through several pathways...
  9. Kung F, Glaser D. dnaA acts before dnaC in the initiation of DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 1978;133:755-62 pubmed
    We constructed a double mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 carrying dnaA(Ts) and dnaC(Cs) lesions. In this mutant DNA synthesis proeceeds normally at 32 degrees C and initiation is inhibited at both 41 and 20 degrees C...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Carr K, Kaguni J. Escherichia coli DnaA protein loads a single DnaB helicase at a DnaA box hairpin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39815-22 pubmed
    ..DnaA participates in helicase loading; DnaC is also involved, because it must be in a complex with DnaB for delivery of the helicase...
  2. Hinds T, Sandler S. Allele specific synthetic lethality between priC and dnaAts alleles at the permissive temperature of 30 degrees C in E. coli K-12. BMC Microbiol. 2004;4:47 pubmed
    ..It forms a protein-DNA complex at oriC to which DnaC loads DnaB...
  3. Li F, Liu Q, Chen Y, Yu Z, Zhang Z, Zhou Y, et al. Escherichia coli mismatch repair protein MutL interacts with the clamp loader subunits of DNA polymerase III. Mutat Res. 2008;637:101-10 pubmed
  4. Kobori J, Kornberg A. The Escherichia coli dnaC gene product. III. Properties of the dnaB-dnaC protein complex. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:13770-5 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli dnaB and dnaC proteins form a tight complex in the presence of ATP (Wickner, S., and Hurwitz, J., (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 72, 921-925)...
  5. Ng J, Marians K. The ordered assembly of the phiX174-type primosome. II. Preservation of primosome composition from assembly through replication. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15649-55 pubmed
    ..on single-stranded DNA-binding protein-coated phiX174 DNA by the combination of PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaB, DnaC, and DnaG...
  6. Sandler S. Requirements for replication restart proteins during constitutive stable DNA replication in Escherichia coli K-12. Genetics. 2005;169:1799-806 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, unlike dnaC(+) strains, dnaC809 strains require priC for cSDR...
  7. Onogi T, Ohsumi K, Katayama T, Hiraga S. Replication-dependent recruitment of the beta-subunit of DNA polymerase III from cytosolic spaces to replication forks in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:867-70 pubmed
    ..When chromosome replication is terminated after incubation at nonpermissive temperature in a temperature-sensitive dnaC mutant, the beta-subunit is located in the cytosolic spaces of the cell poles.
  8. Scherzinger E, Haring V, Lurz R, Otto S. Plasmid RSF1010 DNA replication in vitro promoted by purified RSF1010 RepA, RepB and RepC proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:1203-11 pubmed
    ..The bacterial RNA polymerase, the initiation protein DnaA, and the primosomal proteins DnaB, DnaC, DnaG and DnaT are not required...
  9. Suzuki E, Kondo T, Makise M, Mima S, Sakamoto K, Tsuchiya T, et al. Alteration in levels of unsaturated fatty acids in mutants of Escherichia coli defective in DNA replication. Biol Pharm Bull. 1998;21:657-61 pubmed
    ..As in the case of temperature-sensitive dnaA mutants, temperature-sensitive dnaC and dnaE mutants, which have defects in initiation and elongation, respectively, of DNA replication showed a lower ..
  10. Galletto R, Rajendran S, Bujalowski W. Interactions of nucleotide cofactors with the Escherichia coli replication factor DnaC protein. Biochemistry. 2000;39:12959-69 pubmed
    Quantitative analyses of the interactions of nucleotide cofactors with the Escherichia coli replicative factor DnaC protein have been performed using thermodynamically rigorous fluorescence titration techniques...
  11. Galletto R, Jezewska M, Bujalowski W. Interactions of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase hexamer with the replication factor the DnaC protein. Effect of nucleotide cofactors and the ssDNA on protein-protein interactions and the topology of the complex. J Mol Biol. 2003;329:441-65 pubmed
    Quantitative studies of interactions between the Escherichia coli replication factor DnaC protein and the DnaB helicase have been performed using sedimentation velocity and fluorescence energy transfer techniques...
  12. Kaguni J, Bertsch L, Bramhill D, Flynn J, Fuller R, Funnell B, et al. Initiation of replication of the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin reconstituted with purified enzymes. Basic Life Sci. 1985;30:141-50 pubmed
    ..no longer requiring RNA polymerase action requires the presence of dnaA protein, DNA gyrase, dnaB protein and dnaC protein...
  13. Nüsslein Crystalla V, Niedenhof I, Rein R. dnaC-dependent reconstitution of replication forks in Escherichia coli lysates. J Bacteriol. 1982;150:286-92 pubmed
    ..Lysates of double mutants deficient in both dnaB and dnaC genes could only be complemented by the addition of both dnaB and dnaC proteins, whereas lysates deficient in dnaC ..
  14. Roychowdhury A, Szymanski M, Jezewska M, Bujalowski W. Interactions of the Escherichia coli DnaB-DnaC protein complex with nucleotide cofactors. 1. Allosteric conformational transitions of the complex. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6712-29 pubmed publisher
    ..with both protein components of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase complex with the replication factor, the DnaC protein, have been examined using MANT-nucleotide analogues...
  15. Withers H, Bernander R. Characterization of dnaC2 and dnaC28 mutants by flow cytometry. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1624-31 pubmed
    Escherichia coli strains containing thermosensitive dnaC alleles were studied by flow cytometry. Strains containing either the dnaC2 or dnaC28 allele were shifted between different temperatures, and DNA content distributions were gathered...
  16. Soni R, Mehra P, Mukhopadhyay G, Dhar S. Helicobacter pylori DnaB helicase can bypass Escherichia coli DnaC function in vivo. Biochem J. 2005;389:541-8 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, DnaC is essential for loading DnaB helicase at oriC (the origin of chromosomal DNA replication)...
  17. Grompone G, Ehrlich S, Michel B. Replication restart in gyrB Escherichia coli mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:845-54 pubmed
  18. Masai H, Bond M, Arai K. Cloning of the Escherichia coli gene for primosomal protein i: the relationship to dnaT, essential for chromosomal DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:1256-60 pubmed
    ..The gene is located adjacent to the dnaC locus, probably both being in a single operon...
  19. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:617-28 pubmed
    ..restart in strains carrying a combination of mutations in lexA, recA, polB (pol II), umuDC (pol V), priA, dnaC, recF, recO or recR...
  20. Rowen L, Kobori J, Scherer S. Cloning of bacterial DNA replication genes in bacteriophage lambda. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;187:501-9 pubmed
    ..the genes for dnaZ protein (the gamma subunit of DNA polymerse III holoenzyme), primase (dnaG protein) and dnaC protein from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated. Each gene cloned from S...
  21. Marszalek J, Kaguni J. DnaA protein directs the binding of DnaB protein in initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:4883-90 pubmed
    ..b>DnaC complex. Cross-linking studies confirm that DnaA and DnaB proteins interact directly...
  22. Boonsombat R, Yeh S, Milne A, Sandler S. A novel dnaC mutation that suppresses priB rep mutant phenotypes in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:973-83 pubmed
    ..These complexes are then recognized by DnaC as sites to load DnaB, the replicative helicase...
  23. Zhou P, Bogan J, Welch K, Pickett S, Wang H, Zaritsky A, et al. Gene transcription and chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:163-9 pubmed
    ..coli is not governed by timed bursts of gene expression, since the overall findings summarized in this report are generally consistent with cell cycle-dependent transient inhibitions of transcription rather than stimulations. ..
  24. Davey M, O Donnell M. Replicative helicase loaders: ring breakers and ring makers. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R594-6 pubmed
    ..They assort into two classes: ring breakers, which place stabile hexameric rings on DNA via transient gaps at subunit interfaces; and helicase makers, which assemble hexameric rings around DNA from monomeric helicase units. ..
  25. Wahle E, Lasken R, Kornberg A. The dnaB-dnaC replication protein complex of Escherichia coli. I. Formation and properties. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:2463-8 pubmed
    The complex formed between the dnaB and dnaC replication proteins of Escherichia coli is stabilized by ATP binding to dnaC. The dnaB6-dnaC6-ATP6 complex can be maintained without ATP hydrolysis at a concentration as low as 5 x 10(-10) M...
  26. Lanka E, Schuster H. The dnaC protein of Escherichia coli. Purification, physical properties and interaction with dnaB protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:987-97 pubmed
    E.coli dnaC protein was purified to near-homogeneity in using a dnaC complementation assay [S. Wickner, I.Berkower, M.Wright, and J. Hurwitz (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 2369-2373]...
  27. Hupert Kocurek K, Sage J, Makowska Grzyska M, Kaguni J. Genetic method to analyze essential genes of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7075-82 pubmed
    ..Using the dnaC gene as an example, we developed a genetic method that should permit the mutational analysis of other essential ..
  28. Filpula D, Fuchs J. Regulation of the synthesis of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase in Escherichia coli: specific activity of the enzyme in relationship to perturbations of DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:429-35 pubmed
    ..in Escherichia coli mutants temperature sensitive for DNA elongation (dnaE dnaG dnaZ lig) or DNA initiation (dnaA dnaC dnaI)...
  29. Kobori J, Kornberg A. The Escherichia coli dnaC gene product. II. Purification, physical properties, and role in replication. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:13763-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli dnaC protein, purified to homogeneity from overproducing plasmid strains, is a polypeptide of 31,000 daltons (determined on a denaturing gel)...
  30. Makowska Grzyska M, Kaguni J. Primase directs the release of DnaC from DnaB. Mol Cell. 2010;37:90-101 pubmed publisher
    An AAA+ ATPase, DnaC, delivers DnaB helicase at the E. coli chromosomal origin by a poorly understood process...
  31. Maisnier Patin S, Nordstrom K, DasGupta S. Replication arrests during a single round of replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the absence of DnaC activity. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:1371-82 pubmed
    ..After synchronized initiation from oriC in a dnaC(Ts) strain, non-permissive conditions were imposed, such that active DnaC was not available during elongation...
  32. Wahle E, Lasken R, Kornberg A. The dnaB-dnaC replication protein complex of Escherichia coli. II. Role of the complex in mobilizing dnaB functions. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:2469-75 pubmed
    The dnaC protein of Escherichia coli, by forming a complex with the dnaB protein, facilitates the interactions with single-stranded DNA that enable dnaB to perform its ATPase, helicase, and priming functions...
  33. Biswas E, Biswas S, Bishop J. The dnaB protein of Escherichia coli: mechanism of nucleotide binding, hydrolysis, and modulation by dnaC protein. Biochemistry. 1986;25:7368-74 pubmed
    The mechanism of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by dnaB protein and dnaB X dnaC protein complex has been studied by using fluorescent nucleotide analogues...
  34. Asai T, Bates D, Boye E, Kogoma T. Are minichromosomes valid model systems for DNA replication control? Lessons learned from Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:671-5 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that requirements for initiation at the chromosomal origin, oriC, are drastically different from those for initiation at cloned oriC. ..
  35. Schaeffer P, Headlam M, Dixon N. Protein--protein interactions in the eubacterial replisome. IUBMB Life. 2005;57:5-12 pubmed
    ..occurs through the concerted actions of the DnaA replication initiator protein, the hexameric DnaB helicase, the DnaC?helicase loading partner and the DnaG primase, leading to establishment of two replication forks...
  36. Harinarayanan R, Gowrishankar J. A dnaC mutation in Escherichia coli that affects copy number of ColE1-like plasmids and the PriA-PriB (but not Rep-PriC) pathway of chromosomal replication restart. Genetics. 2004;166:1165-76 pubmed
    ..In this study, a mutation [dnaC1331(A84T)] in the dnaC gene encoding the replicative helicase-loading protein was characterized as a suppressor of this plasmid-mediated ..
  37. Galletto R, Jezewska M, Maillard R, Bujalowski W. The nucleotide-binding site of the Escherichia coli DnaC protein: molecular topography of DnaC protein-nucleotide cofactor complexes. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2005;43:331-53 pubmed
    The structure of the nucleotide-binding site of the Escherichia coli replication factor DnaC protein and the effect of the nucleotide cofactor on the protein structure have been examined using ultraviolet, steady-state, and time-dependent ..
  38. Kedzierska B, Glinkowska M, Iwanicki A, Obuchowski M, Sojka P, Thomas M, et al. Toxicity of the bacteriophage lambda cII gene product to Escherichia coli arises from inhibition of host cell DNA replication. Virology. 2003;313:622-8 pubmed
    ..coli dnaB and dnaC genes...
  39. Galletto R, Maillard R, Jezewska M, Bujalowski W. Global conformation of the Escherichia coli replication factor DnaC protein in absence and presence of nucleotide cofactors. Biochemistry. 2004;43:10988-1001 pubmed
    Global conformational and oligomeric states of the Escherichia coli replicative factor DnaC protein in the absence and presence of magnesium and nucleotide cofactors, ATP and ADP, and their fluorescent analogues, MANT-ATP and MANT-ADP, ..
  40. Arias Palomo E, O Shea V, Hood I, Berger J. The bacterial DnaC helicase loader is a DnaB ring breaker. Cell. 2013;153:438-48 pubmed publisher
    ..coli DnaB?DnaC helicase/loader complex...
  41. Brüning J, Myka K, McGlynn P. Overexpression of the Replicative Helicase in Escherichia coli Inhibits Replication Initiation and Replication Fork Reloading. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:1068-1079 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli replicative helicase DnaB and the helicase loader DnaC form a DnaB6-DnaC6 complex that is required for loading DnaB onto single-stranded DNA...
  42. Ludlam A, McNatt M, Carr K, Kaguni J. Essential amino acids of Escherichia coli DnaC protein in an N-terminal domain interact with DnaB helicase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27345-53 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DnaC protein bound to ATP forms a complex with DnaB protein...
  43. Barcena M, Ruiz T, Donate L, Brown S, Dixon N, Radermacher M, et al. The DnaB.DnaC complex: a structure based on dimers assembled around an occluded channel. EMBO J. 2001;20:1462-8 pubmed
    ..We present the 26 A resolution three-dimensional structure of the DnaB hexamer in complex with its loading partner, DnaC, obtained from cryo-electron microscopy...
  44. Watabe K, Sakai H, Komano T. Involvement of host cell gene products in conversion of bacteriophage S13 single-stranded DNa to duplex replicative form DNA in vitro. J Biochem. 1981;90:779-83 pubmed
    ..Using extracts from some thermosensitive mutants of E. coli defective in DNA replication, we found that dnaB and dnaC gene products are involved in the conversion stage of single-stranded DNA to duplex DNA in vitro.
  45. Davey M, Fang L, McInerney P, Georgescu R, O Donnell M. The DnaC helicase loader is a dual ATP/ADP switch protein. EMBO J. 2002;21:3148-59 pubmed
    Helicases are transferred to replication origins by helicase loading factors. The Escherichia coli DnaC and eukaryotic Cdc6/18 helicase loaders contain ATP sites and are both members of the AAA+ family...
  46. Masai H, Arai K. Operon structure of dnaT and dnaC genes essential for normal and stable DNA replication of Escherichia coli chromosome. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:15083-93 pubmed
    dnaT and dnaC of Escherichia coli, whose products are components of the primosome, encode genes essential for both normal chromosomal replication and stable DNA replication induced by SOS signals...
  47. Funnell B, Baker T, Kornberg A. In vitro assembly of a prepriming complex at the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10327-34 pubmed
    ..of plasmids containing the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome (oriC), the proteins dnaA, dnaB, and dnaC interact and assemble a complex at oriC...
  48. Wickner S, Hurwitz J. Interaction of Escherichia coli dnaB and dnaC(D) gene products in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975;72:921-5 pubmed
    Purified E. coli dnaB and dnaC(D) gene products interact physically and functionally in vitro...
  49. Galletto R, Jezewska M, Bujalowski W. Kinetics of allosteric conformational transition of a macromolecule prior to ligand binding: analysis of stopped-flow kinetic experiments. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2005;42:121-44 pubmed
    ..Application of this approach is illustrated for the binding of 3'-O-(N-methylantraniloyl)-5'-diphosphate to the E. coli DnaC protein.
  50. Baker T, Funnell B, Kornberg A. Helicase action of dnaB protein during replication from the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:6877-85 pubmed
    ..From a complex containing proteins dnaA, dnaB, and dnaC bound at oriC, the dnaB helicase moves in both directions to unwind the duplex...
  51. Gupta M, Atkinson J, McGlynn P. DNA structure specificity conferred on a replicative helicase by its loader. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the accessory factor, DnaC, that promotes loading of the Escherichia coli replicative helicase DnaB onto single-stranded DNA may also act to ..
  52. Learn B, Um S, Huang L, McMacken R. Cryptic single-stranded-DNA binding activities of the phage lambda P and Escherichia coli DnaC replication initiation proteins facilitate the transfer of E. coli DnaB helicase onto DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:1154-9 pubmed
    The bacteriophage lambda P and Escherichia coli DnaC proteins are known to recruit the bacterial DnaB replicative helicase to initiator complexes assembled at the phage and bacterial origins, respectively...
  53. Donate L, Llorca O, Barcena M, Brown S, Dixon N, Carazo J. pH-controlled quaternary states of hexameric DnaB helicase. J Mol Biol. 2000;303:383-93 pubmed
    ..is usually loaded onto a single strand of DNA at origins of replication from its complex with its loading partner DnaC, then translocates in the 5' to 3' direction, unwinding duplex DNA in an NTP-driven process...
  54. Xu L, Marians K. Purification and characterization of DnaC810, a primosomal protein capable of bypassing PriA function. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8196-205 pubmed
    ..Naturally arising suppressor mutations in dnaC restore strains carrying the priA2::kan null allele to wild-type function...
  55. Nakayama N, Bond M, Miyajima A, Kobori J, Arai K. Structure of Escherichia coli dnaC. Identification of a cysteine residue possibly involved in association with dnaB protein. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10475-80 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli dnaC gene and the primary structure of the dnaC protein were determined...
  56. Biswas S, Biswas Fiss E. Quantitative analysis of binding of single-stranded DNA by Escherichia coli DnaB helicase and the DnaB x DnaC complex. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11505-13 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the mechanism of binding of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by the DnaB x DnaC complex and DnaB helicase...
  57. Allen G, Kornberg A. Fine balance in the regulation of DnaB helicase by DnaC protein in replication in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:22096-101 pubmed
    The DnaC protein of Escherichia coli is essential for replication in vivo and in vitro. In the initiation of replication of a minichromosome at its origin, DnaC delivers the DnaB helicase from a DnaB...
  58. Skarstad K, Wold S. The speed of the Escherichia coli fork in vivo depends on the DnaB:DnaC ratio. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:825-31 pubmed
    The DnaC protein is required for loading the DnaB helicase at oriC. Thus DnaC promotes the formation of the pre-replication complex, but must leave the complex in order for the DnaB protein to function as a helicase...
  59. Galletto R, Bujalowski W. The E. coli replication factor DnaC protein exists in two conformations with different nucleotide binding capabilities. I. Determination of the binding mechanism using ATP and ADP fluorescent analogues. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8907-20 pubmed
    The kinetic mechanism of binding of ATP and ADP fluorescent analogues to the E. coli replicative factor DnaC protein has been studied using the fluorescence stopped-flow technique...
  60. Galletto R, Bujalowski W. Kinetics of the E. coli replication factor DnaC protein-nucleotide interactions. II. Fluorescence anisotropy and transient, dynamic quenching stopped-flow studies of the reaction intermediates. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8921-34 pubmed
    The nature of the intermediates in the binding of MANT-ATP and MANT-ADP to the E. coli replicative factor DnaC protein (accompanying paper) has been examined using the fluorescence intensity, anisotropy, and transient dynamic quenching ..