DNA polymerase II


Gene Symbol: DNA polymerase II
Description: DNA polymerase II
Alias: ECK0061, JW0059, dinA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Ishino Y, Iwasaki H, Kato I, Shinagawa H. Amino acid sequence motifs essential to 3'-->5' exonuclease activity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:14655-60 pubmed
    ..sequence alignments, we predicted the putative active site of the 3'-->5' exonuclease of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Site-directed mutagenesis at D155A, E157A, D155A/E157A, D228A, Y330F, and D334A, which are in the predicted ..
  2. Kroeger K, Jiang Y, Kow Y, Goodman M, Greenberg M. Mutagenic effects of 2-deoxyribonolactone in Escherichia coli. An abasic lesion that disobeys the A-rule. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6723-33 pubmed
    ..Experiments carried out side by side using otherwise identical plasmids containing an AP site illustrate the distinct properties of these two abasic lesions and that neither should be thought of as noninstructive. ..
  3. Yin J, Seo K, Loechler E. A role for DNA polymerase V in G --> T mutations from the major benzo[a]pyrene N2-dG adduct when studied in a 5'-TGT sequence in E. coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:323-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DNA sequence context appears to dictate which pathway (as defined by the involvement of different DNA polymerases) is followed in each case. ..
  4. Delmas S, Matic I. Interplay between replication and recombination in Escherichia coli: impact of the alternative DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4564-9 pubmed
  5. Becherel O, Fuchs R. Mechanism of DNA polymerase II-mediated frameshift mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8566-71 pubmed
    ..Whether such a polymerase competition model for translesion synthesis will prove to be generally applicable remains to be confirmed. ..
  6. Gawel D, Pham P, Fijalkowska I, Jonczyk P, Schaaper R. Role of accessory DNA polymerases in DNA replication in Escherichia coli: analysis of the dnaX36 mutator mutant. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1730-42 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results provide insight into the interplay of the various DNA polymerases, and of tau subunit, in securing a high fidelity of replication. ..
  7. Dalrymple B, Kongsuwan K, Wijffels G, Dixon N, Jennings P. A universal protein-protein interaction motif in the eubacterial DNA replication and repair systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11627-32 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the eubacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal sliding clamp binding motifs suggests that the basic interactions have been conserved across the evolutionary landscape. ..
  8. Tago Y, Imai M, Ihara M, Atofuji H, Nagata Y, Yamamoto K. Escherichia coli mutator (Delta)polA is defective in base mismatch correction: the nature of in vivo DNA replication errors. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:299-308 pubmed
    ..The mutation rate of this strain was 219x10(-8), about a 100-fold increase relative to the wild-type strain. Uncorrected polymerase III replication errors were predominantly frameshifts and base substitutions followed by deletions. ..
  9. Bonner C, Stukenberg P, Rajagopalan M, Eritja R, O Donnell M, McEntee K, et al. Processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase II mediated by DNA polymerase III accessory proteins. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:11431-8 pubmed
    An interesting property of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II is the stimulation in DNA synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase III accessory proteins beta,gamma complex...

More Information


  1. Banach Orlowska M, Fijalkowska I, Schaaper R, Jonczyk P. DNA polymerase II as a fidelity factor in chromosomal DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:61-70 pubmed
    ..Here, we have investigated the role of DNA polymerase II (Pol II) (polB gene product)...
  2. Bonner C, Hays S, McEntee K, Goodman M. DNA polymerase II is encoded by the DNA damage-inducible dinA gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7663-7 pubmed
    The structural gene for DNA polymerase II was cloned by using a synthetic inosine-containing oligonucleotide probe corresponding to 11 amino acids, which were determined by sequencing the amino terminus of the purified protein...
  3. Qiu Z, Goodman M. The Escherichia coli polB locus is identical to dinA, the structural gene for DNA polymerase II. Characterization of Pol II purified from a polB mutant. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8611-7 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a member of the group B, "alpha-like" family of DNA polymerases. Pol II is encoded by the damage-inducible dinA gene and exhibits SOS induction under the control of Lex A repressor...
  4. Kornberg T, Gefter M. Purification and DNA synthesis in cell-free extracts: properties of DNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971;68:761-4 pubmed
    The major DNA-synthesizing enzyme present in Pol A(1) (-)Escherichia coli (DNA polymerase II) has been purified to homogeneity as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  5. Yeiser B, Pepper E, Goodman M, Finkel S. SOS-induced DNA polymerases enhance long-term survival and evolutionary fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8737-41 pubmed
    ..These polymerases contribute to survival by providing essential functions to ensure replication of the chromosome and by generating genetic diversity. ..
  6. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. A phenotype for enigmatic DNA polymerase II: a pivotal role for pol II in replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9224-9 pubmed
    ..At the present time, the molecular mechanism underlying replication restart is not understood. DNA polymerase II (pol II), encoded by the dinA (polB) gene, is induced as part of the global SOS response to DNA damage...
  7. Iwasaki H, Nakata A, Walker G, Shinagawa H. The Escherichia coli polB gene, which encodes DNA polymerase II, is regulated by the SOS system. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6268-73 pubmed
    ..one of the SOS genes with no known function; it was mapped near the leuB gene, where the polB gene encoding DNA polymerase II was also mapped...
  8. Napolitano R, Janel Bintz R, Wagner J, Fuchs R. All three SOS-inducible DNA polymerases (Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V) are involved in induced mutagenesis. EMBO J. 2000;19:6259-65 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in response to the vast diversity of existing DNA damage, the cell uses a pool of 'translesional' DNA polymerases in order to bypass the various DNA lesions. ..
  9. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:617-28 pubmed
    ..In con-trast, only RecF is required for the activation of RecA that leads to the formation of pol V (UmuD'2C) and facilitates replication readthrough. ..
  10. Silverman A, Jiang Q, Goodman M, Kool E. Steric and electrostatic effects in DNA synthesis by the SOS-induced DNA polymerases II and IV of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007;46:13874-81 pubmed
    ..Comparisons are made to recent data for DNA pol I (Klenow fragment), the archaeal polymerase Dpo4, and human pol kappa. ..
  11. Chen H, Lawrence C, Bryan S, Moses R. Aphidicolin inhibits DNA polymerase II of Escherichia coli, an alpha-like DNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:7185-6 pubmed
  12. Bjedov I, Lecointre G, Tenaillon O, Vaury C, Radman M, Taddei F, et al. Polymorphism of genes encoding SOS polymerases in natural populations of Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:417-26 pubmed
  13. Rudolph C, Upton A, Lloyd R. Maintaining replication fork integrity in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1589-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, nascent strands may be protected by the simple expedient of promoting restart. We also report that the efficiency of fork reactivation is not affected in polB mutants. ..
  14. Kulaeva O, Hsieh F, Studitsky V. RNA polymerase complexes cooperate to relieve the nucleosomal barrier and evict histones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus transcription by single Pol II complexes allows survival of the original H3/H4 histones, while multiple, closely spaced complexes of transcribing Pol II can induce displacement of all core histones along the gene. ..
  15. Welch M, McHenry C. Cloning and identification of the product of the dnaE gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:351-6 pubmed
    ..By using the maxicell plasmid-directed protein synthesizing system, we demonstrated that dnaE codes for the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III. ..
  16. Paz Elizur T, Takeshita M, Goodman M, O Donnell M, Livneh Z. Mechanism of translesion DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase II. Comparison to DNA polymerases I and III core. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24662-9 pubmed
    Bypass synthesis by DNA polymerase II was studied using a synthetic 40-nucleotide-long gapped duplex DNA containing a site-specific abasic site analog, as a model system for mutagenesis associated with DNA lesions...
  17. Kanuri M, Nechev L, Kiehna S, Tamura P, Harris C, Harris T, et al. Evidence for Escherichia coli polymerase II mutagenic bypass of intrastrand DNA crosslinks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1374-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that DNA polymerase II is responsible for the in vivo mutagenic bypass of these lesions in wild-type E. coli.
  18. Janowska B, Kurpios Piec D, Prorok P, Szparecki G, Komisarski M, Kowalczyk P, et al. Role of damage-specific DNA polymerases in M13 phage mutagenesis induced by a major lipid peroxidation product trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Mutat Res. 2012;729:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that Pol V can infrequently bypass HNE-DNA adducts inducing mutations at G, C and A sites, while bypass by Pol IV and Pol II is error-free, but for Pol II infrequent. ..
  19. Al Mamun A, Yadava R, Ren L, Humayun M. The Escherichia coli UVM response is accompanied by an SOS-independent error-prone DNA replication activity demonstrable in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:368-80 pubmed
  20. Friedberg E, Fischhaber P, Kisker C. Error-prone DNA polymerases: novel structures and the benefits of infidelity. Cell. 2001;107:9-12 pubmed
  21. Cai H, Yu H, McEntee K, Goodman M. Purification and properties of DNA polymerase II from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1995;262:13-21 pubmed
  22. Berardini M, Foster P, Loechler E. DNA polymerase II (polB) is involved in a new DNA repair pathway for DNA interstrand cross-links in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2878-82 pubmed
    ..In fact, recombination was precluded because the cells do not receive lesion-free homologous DNA.) Herein, DNA polymerase II is shown to be in this new pathway, since the replication efficiency (RE) is higher in a polB+ ( ..
  23. Rangarajan S, Gudmundsson G, Qiu Z, Foster P, Goodman M. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II catalyzes chromosomal and episomal DNA synthesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:946-51 pubmed
    We have investigated a role for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (Pol II) in copying chromosomal and episomal DNA in dividing cells in vivo...
  24. Kow Y, Faundez G, Hays S, Bonner C, Goodman M, Wallace S. Absence of a role for DNA polymerase II in SOS-induced translesion bypass of phi X174. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:561-4 pubmed
    In order to examine the possible role of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II in SOS-induced translesion bypass, Weigle reactivation and mutation induction were measured with single-stranded phi X174 transfecting DNA containing individual ..
  25. Foster P, Gudmundsson G, Trimarchi J, Cai H, Goodman M. Proofreading-defective DNA polymerase II increases adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7951-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations produced by both Pol III and Pol II ex1 were corrected by the mutHLS mismatch repair system. ..
  26. Goodman M. Error-prone repair DNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Annu Rev Biochem. 2002;71:17-50 pubmed
    ..Macromolecular assemblies of replication-repair "factories" could enable a cell to handle the complex logistics governing the rapid migration and exchange of polymerases. ..
  27. Iwasaki H, Ishino Y, Toh H, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II is homologous to alpha-like DNA polymerases. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;226:24-33 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli polB gene encodes DNA polymerase II and is regulated by the SOS system. We sequenced a 4081 nucleotide segment of the E. coli chromosome that contains the polB gene and its flanking regions...
  28. Oh T, Lee C, Kim I. The damage-inducible (din) genes of Escherichia coli are induced by various genotoxins in a different way. Microbiol Res. 1999;154:179-83 pubmed
    The SOS response of Escherichia coli strains carrying the lacZ gene fused to the polB (dinA), dinB or dinD gene were investigated after treatment with several chemical agents and gamma-radiation...
  29. Nowosielska A, Janion C, Grzesiuk E. Effect of deletion of SOS-induced polymerases, pol II, IV, and V, on spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli mutD5. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004;43:226-34 pubmed
    ..We postulate that the proofreading activity of pol II excises DNA lesions in exponentially growing cells, whereas pol V and pol IV are more active in stationary-phase cultures. ..
  30. Lewis L, Jenkins M, Mount D. Isolation of DNA damage-inducible promoters in Escherichia coli: regulation of polB (dinA), dinG, and dinH by LexA repressor. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3377-85 pubmed
    ..Plasmids containing the regulatory regions of polB (dinA) and two new loci, dinG and dinH, were characterized...
  31. Dapa T, Fleurier S, Bredeche M, Matic I. The SOS and RpoS Regulons Contribute to Bacterial Cell Robustness to Genotoxic Stress by Synergistically Regulating DNA Polymerase Pol II. Genetics. 2017;206:1349-1360 pubmed publisher
  32. Kroeger K, Kim J, Goodman M, Greenberg M. Effects of the C4'-oxidized abasic site on replication in Escherichia coli. An unusually large deletion is induced by a small lesion. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13621-7 pubmed
    ..Formation of the C4-AP lesion may also be responsible for the formation of mutant proteins containing single-amino acid deletions that exhibit altered phenotypes. ..
  33. Kroeger K, Goodman M, Greenberg M. A comprehensive comparison of DNA replication past 2-deoxyribose and its tetrahydrofuran analog in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5480-5 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal that in uninduced E.coli the effects of individual polymerases in the replication of plasmids containing F or AP are distinct. However, when cells are SOS-induced, the biological effects of F and AP are similar. ..
  34. Anderson W, Prince D, Yu H, McEntee K, Goodman M. Crystallization of DNA polymerase II from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1994;238:120-2 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase II of Escherichia coli, an alpha-like or group B polymerase, has been crystallized. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2, with cell dimensions a = 94.4 A, b = 118.2 A, c = 84.2 A and diffract to at least 3...
  35. Shcherbakova P, Fijalkowska I. Translesion synthesis DNA polymerases and control of genome stability. Front Biosci. 2006;11:2496-517 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss the relationship between the functions of TLS polymerases and human disease. ..
  36. Hughes A, Bryan S, Chen H, Moses R, McHenry C. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II is stimulated by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme auxiliary subunits. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4568-73 pubmed
    ..of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the gamma delta complex and beta subunit, markedly stimulate DNA polymerase II on long single-stranded templates...
  37. Wang F, Yang W. Structural insight into translesion synthesis by DNA Pol II. Cell. 2009;139:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the replicative B family polymerases, DNA Pol II has subtle amino acid changes remote from the active site that allow it to replicate normal DNA with high efficiency yet conduct translesion synthesis when needed. ..
  38. Shinagawa H, Iwasaki H, Ishino Y, Nakata A. SOS-inducible DNA polymerase II of E coli is homologous to replicative DNA polymerase of eukaryotes. Biochimie. 1991;73:433-5 pubmed
    The polB gene of Escherichia coli encodes DNA polymerase II whose role in vivo is not defined. The polB gene has been cloned and shown to be identical to a DNA damage-inducible gene dinA which is regulated by the LexA repressor...
  39. Sutton M, Walker G. Managing DNA polymerases: coordinating DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8342-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, we discuss these issues in the context of the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, that contains a DNA polymerase (Pol V) known to participate in most, if not all, of these processes. ..
  40. Maul R, Sutton M. Roles of the Escherichia coli RecA protein and the global SOS response in effecting DNA polymerase selection in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7607-18 pubmed
    ..e., DeltarecR), or impair the activities of DNA polymerase II or DNA polymerase V (i.e., DeltapolB or DeltaumuDC)...
  41. Chen H, Bryan S, Moses R. Cloning the polB gene of Escherichia coli and identification of its product. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:20591-5 pubmed
    ..A chromosomal insert of 4.9 kilobases gave 30-40-fold overproduction of DNA polymerase II, and the cells containing the plasmid showed normal growth...
  42. Moses R. The isolation and properties of DNA polymerase II from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1974;29:13-22 pubmed
  43. Fuchs R, Fujii S. Translesion synthesis in Escherichia coli: lessons from the NarI mutation hot spot. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1032-41 pubmed
    ..The beta-clamp, to which all DNA polymerases bind, plays a critical role in allowing the specialized DNA polymerases to synthesize TLS patches that are long enough to resist such "external proofreading" activities. ..
  44. Sedliakova M, Slezarikova V, Masek F, Vizvaryova M, Pirsel M. Role of DNA polymerase II in the tolerance of thymine dimers remaining unexcised in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli exposed to pre-UV nutritional stress. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001;65:145-50 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that DNA polymerase II is involved in the tolerance of unremoved thymine dimers.
  45. Al Mamun A, Humayun M. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II can efficiently bypass 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine lesions in vitro and in vivo. Mutat Res. 2006;593:164-76 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (pol-II) is a highly conserved protein that appears to have a role in replication restart, as well as in translesion synthesis across specific DNA adducts under some conditions...
  46. Seo K, Nagalingam A, Miri S, Yin J, Chandani S, Kolbanovskiy A, et al. Mirror image stereoisomers of the major benzo[a]pyrene N2-dG adduct are bypassed by different lesion-bypass DNA polymerases in E. coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:515-22 pubmed
  47. Ishino Y, Iwasaki H, Fukui H, Mineno J, Kato I, Shinagawa H. Aphidicolin inhibits DNA polymerizing activity but not nucleolytic activity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Biochimie. 1992;74:131-6 pubmed
    We have purified the DNA polymerase II of Escherichia coli from the recombinant strain carrying the plasmid which encodes the polB gene...
  48. Chen H, Sun Y, Stark T, Beattie W, Moses R. Nucleotide sequence and deletion analysis of the polB gene of Escherichia coli. DNA Cell Biol. 1990;9:631-5 pubmed
    The polB gene encodes DNA polymerase II in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence shows an open reading frame of 2,304 nucleotides coding for a protein of 88 kD...
  49. Dutra B, Lovett S. Cis and trans-acting effects on a mutational hotspot involving a replication template switch. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:300-11 pubmed
    ..The high frequency of quasipalindrome-associated mutations suggests that template-switching occurs readily during chromosomal replication. ..
  50. Fuchs R, Koffel Schwartz N, Pelet S, Janel Bintz R, Napolitano R, Becherel O, et al. DNA polymerases II and V mediate respectively mutagenic (-2 frameshift) and error-free bypass of a single N-2-acetylaminofluorene adduct. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001;29:191-5 pubmed
    ..or abasic sites require DNA polymerase V (Pol V; umuDC), the AAF-induced -2 frameshift pathway requires DNA polymerase II, the polB gene product. Interestingly, error-free bypass of the G-AAF adduct requires Pol V...
  51. Wang Z, Lazarov E, O Donnell M, Goodman M. Resolving a fidelity paradox: why Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II makes more base substitution errors in AT- compared with GC-rich DNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4446-54 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, however, the opposite result was found for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (pol II)...
  52. Sutton M, Duzen J. Specific amino acid residues in the beta sliding clamp establish a DNA polymerase usage hierarchy in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:312-23 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in terms of a model whereby amino acid residues in the vicinity of those mutated in beta159 (G66 and G174) help to define a DNA polymerase usage hierarchy in E. coli following UV irradiation. ..
  53. Tessman I, Kennedy M. DNA polymerase II of Escherichia coli in the bypass of abasic sites in vivo. Genetics. 1994;136:439-48 pubmed
    The function of DNA polymerase II of Escherichia coli is an old question. Any phenotypic character that Pol II may confer upon the cell has escaped detection since the polymerase was discovered 24 yr ago...
  54. Escarceller M, Hicks J, Gudmundsson G, Trump G, Touati D, Lovett S, et al. Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II in response to oxidative damage and adaptive mutation. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6221-8 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase II (Pol II) is regulated as part of the SOS response to DNA damage in Escherichia coli. We examined the participation of Pol II in the response to oxidative damage, adaptive mutation, and recombination...
  55. Frisch R, Su Y, Thornton P, Gibson J, Rosenberg S, Hastings P. Separate DNA Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent pathways of stress-induced mutation during double-strand-break repair in Escherichia coli are controlled by RpoS. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..The results identify a second DNA polymerase contributing to stress-induced mutagenesis and show that RpoS promotes mutagenesis by more than the simple upregulation of dinB. ..
  56. Greenberg M, Weledji Y, Kroeger K, Kim J, Goodman M. In vitro effects of a C4'-oxidized abasic site on DNA polymerases. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2656-63 pubmed
    ..The interaction between bypass polymerases and a C4-AP lesion could explain the high levels of G:C --> T:A transversions in cells treated with bleomycin. ..
  57. Viguera E, Petranovic M, Zahradka D, Germain K, Ehrlich D, Michel B. Lethality of bypass polymerases in Escherichia coli cells with a defective clamp loader complex of DNA polymerase III. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:193-204 pubmed
  58. Al Mamun A. Elevated expression of DNA polymerase II increases spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 2007;625:29-39 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (Pol-II), encoded by the SOS-regulated polB gene, belongs to the highly conserved group B (alpha-like) family of "high-fidelity" DNA polymerases...
  59. Curti E, McDonald J, Mead S, Woodgate R. DNA polymerase switching: effects on spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:315-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that there is considerable interplay among all five E. coli polymerases that either reduces or enhances the mutagenic load on the E. coli chromosome. ..