DNA polymerase I


Gene Symbol: DNA polymerase I
Description: 5' to 3' DNA polymerase and 3' to 5'/5' to 3' exonuclease
Alias: ECK3855, JW3835, resA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     DNA polymerase I

Top Publications

  1. Derbyshire V, Grindley N, Joyce C. The 3'-5' exonuclease of DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli: contribution of each amino acid at the active site to the reaction. EMBO J. 1991;10:17-24 pubmed
    ..The pH-dependence of the 3'-5' exonuclease reaction is consistent with a mechanism in which nucleophilic attack on the terminal phosphodiester bond is initiated by a hydroxide ion coordinated to one of the enzyme-bound metal ions. ..
  2. Mullen G, Serpersu E, Ferrin L, Loeb L, Mildvan A. Metal binding to DNA polymerase I, its large fragment, and two 3',5'-exonuclease mutants of the large fragment. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14327-34 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase I (Pol I) is an enzyme of DNA replication and repair containing three active sites, each requiring divalent metal ions such as Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity...
  3. Joyce C, Kelley W, Grindley N. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli polA gene and primary structure of DNA polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:1958-64 pubmed
    ..2 kilobase pair region of the Escherichia coli polA gene, comprising the coding region for DNA polymerase I with about 400 base pairs of flanking sequence...
  4. Xu Y, Derbyshire V, Ng K, Sun X, Grindley N, Joyce C. Biochemical and mutational studies of the 5'-3' exonuclease of DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1997;268:284-302 pubmed
    In order to improve our understanding of the 5'-3' exonuclease reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, we have constructed expression plasmids and developed purification methods for whole DNA polymerase I and its 5'-3' ..
  5. Turner R, Grindley N, Joyce C. Interaction of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) with the single-stranded template beyond the site of synthesis. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2373-85 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data are most consistent with the template strand following a path over the fingers subdomain, close to the side chain of R836 and a neighboring cluster of positively charged residues. ..
  6. Lopez de Saro F, O Donnell M. Interaction of the beta sliding clamp with MutS, ligase, and DNA polymerase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8376-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta interacts with MutS, DNA ligase, and DNA polymerase I. Given the diverse use of these proteins in repair and other DNA transactions, this expanded list of beta ..
  7. Konrad E, Lehman I. A conditional lethal mutant of Escherichia coli K12 defective in the 5' leads to 3' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:2048-51 pubmed
    ..frequency of recombination, has been found to be defective in the 5' --> 3' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase I, but not in the polymerase activity. This defect is tolerated at 30 degrees , but is lethal at 43 degrees ...
  8. Joyce C, Grindley N. Method for determining whether a gene of Escherichia coli is essential: application to the polA gene. J Bacteriol. 1984;158:636-43 pubmed
    ..of the polA gene, corresponding to the 5'-3' exonuclease and the polymerase-3'-5' exonuclease portions of DNA polymerase I. Surprisingly, either of these fragments, in the absence of the other, was sufficient to allow growth on rich ..
  9. Nowosielska A, Calmann M, Zdraveski Z, Essigmann J, Marinus M. Spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:719-28 pubmed
    ..The lack of recombination induction by trans-DDP suggests that the recombinogenic lesions for cisplatin are purine-purine intrastrand crosslinks. ..

More Information


  1. Fukushima S, Itaya M, Kato H, Ogasawara N, Yoshikawa H. Reassessment of the in vivo functions of DNA polymerase I and RNase H in bacterial cell growth. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8575-83 pubmed publisher
    A major factor in removing RNA primers during the processing of Okazaki fragments is DNA polymerase I (Pol I). Pol I is thought to remove the RNA primers and to fill the resulting gaps simultaneously...
  2. Chiaramonte M, Moore C, Kincaid K, Kuchta R. Facile polymerization of dNTPs bearing unnatural base analogues by DNA polymerase alpha and Klenow fragment (DNA polymerase I). Biochemistry. 2003;42:10472-81 pubmed
    ..We have found that human DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) and the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) incorporate all four nucleotide analogues opposite all four canonical bases up to 4000-fold more ..
  3. Setlow P, Brutlag D, Kornberg A. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase: two distinct enzymes in one polypeptide. I. A proteolytic fragment containing the polymerase and 3' leads to 5' exonuclease functions. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:224-31 pubmed
  4. Sutton M. The Escherichia coli dnaN159 mutant displays altered DNA polymerase usage and chronic SOS induction. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6738-48 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in terms of a model to describe how the beta clamp might help to coordinate protein traffic at the replication fork. ..
  5. Setlow P, Kornberg A. Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase: two distinct enzymes in one polypeptide. II. A proteolytic fragment containing the 5' leads to 3' exonuclease function. Restoration of intact enzyme functions from the two proteolytic fragments. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:232-40 pubmed
  6. Gawel D, Pham P, Fijalkowska I, Jonczyk P, Schaaper R. Role of accessory DNA polymerases in DNA replication in Escherichia coli: analysis of the dnaX36 mutator mutant. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1730-42 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results provide insight into the interplay of the various DNA polymerases, and of tau subunit, in securing a high fidelity of replication. ..
  7. Okazaki R, Arisawa M, Sugino A. Slow joining of newly replicated DNA chains in DNA polymerase I-deficient Escherichia coli mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971;68:2954-7 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli mutants deficient in DNA polymerase I, newly replicated short DNA is joined at about 10% of the rate in the wild-type strains...
  8. Tago Y, Imai M, Ihara M, Atofuji H, Nagata Y, Yamamoto K. Escherichia coli mutator (Delta)polA is defective in base mismatch correction: the nature of in vivo DNA replication errors. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:299-308 pubmed
    ..coli strains containing deletions in genes encoding three SOS polymerases, and defective in MutS and DNA polymerase I (PolI) mismatch repair, and estimated the rate and specificity of spontaneous endogenous tonB(+)-->tonB- ..
  9. Witkin E, Roegner Maniscalco V. Overproduction of DnaE protein (alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III) restores viability in a conditionally inviable Escherichia coli strain deficient in DNA polymerase I. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4166-8 pubmed
    A polA12 recA718 double mutant of Escherichia coli, in which DNA polymerase I is temperature sensitive, was unable to maintain normal DNA synthesis or to form colonies on rich media at 42 degrees C...
  10. Englund P, Kelly R, Kornberg A. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid. XXXI. Binding of deoxyribonucleic acid to deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1969;244:3045-52 pubmed
  11. Joyce C, Sun X, Grindley N. Reactions at the polymerase active site that contribute to the fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24485-500 pubmed
    ..and the rates of extension from the resulting mismatched base pairs, catalyzed by the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. Using a combination of semi-quantitative and qualitative approaches, we have studied each of the 12 possible ..
  12. Steitz T, Freemont P, Ollis D, Joyce C, Grindley J. Functional implications of the Klenow fragment structure. Biochem Soc Trans. 1986;14:205-7 pubmed
  13. Rieger R, Zaika E, Xie W, Johnson F, Grollman A, Iden C, et al. Proteomic approach to identification of proteins reactive for abasic sites in DNA. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:858-67 pubmed
    ..We report identification of seven proteins from Escherichia coli (AroF, DnaK, MutM, PolA, TnaA, TufA, and UvrA) and two proteins from bakers' yeast (ARC1 and Ygl245wp) reactive for AP sites in this system. ..
  14. Lutz M, Held H, Hottiger M, Hubscher U, Benner S. Differential discrimination of DNA polymerase for variants of the non-standard nucleobase pair between xanthosine and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, two components of an expanded genetic alphabet. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:1308-13 pubmed
    Mammalian DNA polymerases alpha and epsilon, the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) were examined for their ability to incorporate components of an expanded genetic alphabet in ..
  15. García P, Robledo N, Islas A. Analysis of non-template-directed nucleotide addition and template switching by DNA polymerase. Biochemistry. 2004;43:16515-24 pubmed
    ..nucleotide addition by the 3'-5' exonuclease-deficient large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Non-template-directed nucleotide addition and template switching were compared to that of standard primer ..
  16. Hwang G, Romesberg F. Unnatural substrate repertoire of A, B, and X family DNA polymerases. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:14872-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The unnatural pairs were developed based on intensive studies using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I from E. coli (Kf) and found to be recognized to varying degrees...
  17. Bailey M, van der Schans E, Millar D. Dimerization of the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I is linked to its mode of DNA binding. Biochemistry. 2007;46:8085-99 pubmed
    ..We use the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) as a model proofreading polymerase and oligodeoxyribonucleotide primer/templates as model DNA substrates...
  18. Beese L, Steitz T. Structural basis for the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I: a two metal ion mechanism. EMBO J. 1991;10:25-33 pubmed
    The refined crystal structures of the large proteolytic fragment (Klenow fragment) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and its complexes with a deoxynucleoside monophosphate product and a single-stranded DNA substrate offer a detailed ..
  19. Minnick D, Astatke M, Joyce C, Kunkel T. A thumb subdomain mutant of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I with reduced DNA binding affinity, processivity, and frameshift fidelity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24954-61 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in light of remarkably similar observations with T7 DNA polymerase in the presence or absence of thioredoxin, an accessory subunit that affects these same properties. ..
  20. Al Mamun A, Humayun M. Spontaneous mutagenesis is elevated in protease-defective cells. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that in normal cells, Clp-mediated proteolysis plays an important role in preventing gratuitous mutagenesis. ..
  21. Brautigam C, Steitz T. Structural principles for the inhibition of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I by phosphorothioates. J Mol Biol. 1998;277:363-77 pubmed
    ..three single-stranded DNA substrates bound to the 3'-5' exonucleolytic active site of the large fragment of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli have been elucidated. The first is a 2...
  22. Astatke M, Grindley N, Joyce C. Deoxynucleoside triphosphate and pyrophosphate binding sites in the catalytically competent ternary complex for the polymerase reaction catalyzed by DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). J Biol Chem. 1995;270:1945-54 pubmed
    ..Mutations of Arg682, His734, and Tyr766 affect the binding of DNA, suggesting that these mutations, whose effect on dNTP binding is small, may influence dNTP binding indirectly via the positioning of the DNA template-primer. ..
  23. Singh K, Modak M. Presence of 18-A long hydrogen bond track in the active site of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). Its requirement in the stabilization of enzyme-template-primer complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11289-302 pubmed
    ..The examination of the interactive environment of individual residues of this track further clarifies the mode of cooperation in various functional domains of pol I. ..
  24. Ollis D, Brick P, Hamlin R, Xuong N, Steitz T. Structure of large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I complexed with dTMP. Nature. 1985;313:762-6 pubmed
    The 3.3-A resolution crystal structure of the large proteolytic fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I complexed with deoxythymidine monophosphate consists of two domains, the smaller of which binds zinc-deoxythymidine ..
  25. Sheriff A, Motea E, Lee I, Berdis A. Mechanism and dynamics of translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by the Escherichia coli Klenow fragment. Biochemistry. 2008;47:8527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These biophysical differences argue against a unified mechanism of translesion DNA synthesis and suggest that polymerases employ different catalytic strategies during the misreplication of damaged DNA. ..
  26. Dzidic S, Radman M. Genetic requirements for hyper-recombination by very short patch mismatch repair: involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:254-6 pubmed
    ..We show that VSP repair requires the presence of the complete DNA polymerase I enzyme...
  27. Ruscitti T, Linn S. DNA polymerase I modulates inducible stable DNA replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6311-3 pubmed
    ..We report here that mutants deleted for the polA gene express induced stable DNA replication at approximately 25-fold the rate of wild-type cells, whereas constitutive stable DNA replication is not enhanced. ..
  28. Nagata Y, Mashimo K, Kawata M, Yamamoto K. The roles of Klenow processing and flap processing activities of DNA polymerase I in chromosome instability in Escherichia coli K12 strains. Genetics. 2002;160:13-23 pubmed
    ..The DeltapolA strain, which is deficient in both Klenow domain and 5' --> 3' exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase I, shows a marked increase in categories 1-4...
  29. Garalde D, Simon C, Dahl J, Wang H, Akeson M, Lieberman K. Distinct complexes of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) for base and sugar discrimination during nucleotide substrate selection. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14480-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) achieves this through a series of conformational transitions that precede the chemical step of ..
  30. Freemont P, Friedman J, Beese L, Sanderson M, Steitz T. Cocrystal structure of an editing complex of Klenow fragment with DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8924-8 pubmed
    ..crystal structures of editing complexes of both duplex and single-stranded DNA bound to Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I large fragment (Klenow fragment) show four nucleotides of single-stranded DNA bound to the 3'-5' exonuclease ..
  31. McCain M, Meyer A, Schultz S, Glekas A, Spratt T. Fidelity of mispair formation and mispair extension is dependent on the interaction between the minor groove of the primer terminus and Arg668 of DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5647-59 pubmed
    The hydrogen bonding interactions between the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I with the proofreading exonuclease inactivated (KF(-)) and the minor groove of DNA were examined with modified oligodeoxynucleotides in ..
  32. Billen D. DNA polymerase I is crucial for the repair of potentially lethal damage caused by the indirect effects of X irradiation in Escherichia coli. Radiat Res. 1985;103:163-9 pubmed
    The radiosensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I was measured in the presence of OH radical scavengers...
  33. Brautigam C, Sun S, Piccirilli J, Steitz T. Structures of normal single-stranded DNA and deoxyribo-3'-S-phosphorothiolates bound to the 3'-5' exonucleolytic active site of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1999;38:696-704 pubmed
    ..in conjunction with various metal ions at the 3'-5' exonucleolytic active site of the Klenow fragment (KF) of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli...
  34. Greenberg M, Weledji Y, Kroeger K, Kim J. In vitro replication and repair of DNA containing a C2'-oxidized abasic site. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15217-22 pubmed
  35. Srivastava A, Singh K, Modak M. Phe 771 of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) is the major site for the interaction with the template overhang and the stabilization of the pre-polymerase ternary complex. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3645-54 pubmed
    To identify the sites in the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I that interact with the ssDNA overhang of the template strand in the pre-polymerase ternary complex, we carried out UV-mediated photo-cross-linking of the ..
  36. Kaboev O, Luchkina L. Template-free primer-independent DNA synthesis by bacterial DNA polymerases I using the DnaB protein from Escherichia coli. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2004;398:265-7 pubmed
  37. Joubert A, Byrd A, LiCata V. Global conformations, hydrodynamics, and X-ray scattering properties of Taq and Escherichia coli DNA polymerases in solution. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25341-7 pubmed
    ..Further, the radius of gyration, and hence the global conformation of Taq polymerase, is not altered by the binding of either matched primer template DNA or ddATP. ..
  38. Maul R, Sanders L, Lim J, Benitez R, Sutton M. Role of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I in conferring viability upon the dnaN159 mutant strain. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4688-95 pubmed
  39. Astatke M, Ng K, Grindley N, Joyce C. A single side chain prevents Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) from incorporating ribonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3402-7 pubmed
    ..The Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I selects its natural substrates, deoxynucleotides, over ribonucleotides by several thousand fold...
  40. Joyce C. How DNA travels between the separate polymerase and 3'-5'-exonuclease sites of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). J Biol Chem. 1989;264:10858-66 pubmed
    The polymerase and 3'-5'-exonuclease activities of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I are located on separate structural domains of the protein, separated by about 30 A...
  41. McCool J, Long E, Petrosino J, Sandler H, Rosenberg S, Sandler S. Measurement of SOS expression in individual Escherichia coli K-12 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1343-57 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in a context of how the processes of DNA replication and recombination may affect cells in a population differentially. ..
  42. Olivera R, Bonhoeffer E. Replication of Escherichia coli requires DNA polymerase I. Nature. 1974;250:513-4 pubmed
  43. Potapova O, Chan C, DeLucia A, Helquist S, Kool E, Grindley N, et al. DNA polymerase catalysis in the absence of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds: analysis by single-turnover kinetics. Biochemistry. 2006;45:890-8 pubmed
    ..consequences of a lack of hydrogen bonds in the polymerase reaction catalyzed by the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli...
  44. Di Pasquale F, Fischer D, Grohmann D, Restle T, Geyer A, Marx A. Opposed steric constraints in human DNA polymerase beta and E. coli DNA polymerase I. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:10748-57 pubmed publisher
    ..coli DNA polymerase I (KF(exo-))...
  45. Spratt T. Identification of hydrogen bonds between Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) and the minor groove of DNA by amino acid substitution of the polymerase and atomic substitution of the DNA. Biochemistry. 2001;40:2647-52 pubmed
    ..we have studied these interactions using a combination of site-specific mutagenesis of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) and atomic substitution of the DNA...
  46. Kim T, Delaney J, Essigmann J, Kool E. Probing the active site tightness of DNA polymerase in subangstrom increments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15803-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results suggest that even high-fidelity replicative enzymes have more steric room than necessary, possibly to allow for an evolutionarily advantageous mutation rate. ..
  47. Mullen G, Vaughn J, Mildvan A. Sequential proton NMR resonance assignments, circular dichroism, and structural properties of a 50-residue substrate-binding peptide from DNA polymerase I. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;301:174-83 pubmed
    Peptide I, a 50-amino acid synthetic peptide based on residues 728 to 777 of DNA polymerase I, binds dNTP substrates and duplex DNA (G. Mullen, P. Shenbagamurthi, and A.S. Mildvan, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 19637-19647, 1988)...
  48. Nagata Y, Kawata M, Komura J, Ono T, Yamamoto K. X-ray-induced mutations in Escherichia coli K-12 strains with altered DNA polymerase I activities. Mutat Res. 2003;528:93-103 pubmed
    ..coli and (2) presence or absence of polymerase I (PolI) of E. coli does not have any effects on the process of X-ray mutagenesis. ..
  49. Lone S, Romano L. The role of specific amino acid residues in the active site of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I on translesion DNA synthesis across from and past an N-2-aminofluorene adduct. Biochemistry. 2007;46:2599-607 pubmed
    ..on replication across from this type of bulky DNA adduct, three active-site mutants of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) were used to study DNA synthesis on DNA modified with the carcinogen N-2-aminofluorene (AF)...
  50. Teng F, Hou X, Fan S, Rety S, Dou S, Xi X. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I can disrupt G-quadruplex structures during DNA replication. FEBS J. 2017;284:4051-4065 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work not only reveals an unrealized function of E. coli Pol I, but also presents a possible mechanism by which G4 structures can be resolved during DNA replication and/or repair in E. coli. ..
  51. Hasegawa K, Yoshiyama K, Maki H. Spontaneous mutagenesis associated with nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 2008;13:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..unnecessary NER might account for these findings, so that errors introduced during repair DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase I would result in unwanted base substitutions...
  52. Sirover M, Dube D, Loeb L. On the fidelity of DNA replication. Metal activation of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:107-11 pubmed
  53. Sharma R, Smith K. Role of DNA polymerase I in postreplication repair: a reexamination with Escherichia coli delta polA. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4559-64 pubmed
    Using strains of Escherichia coli K-12 that are deleted for the polA gene, we have reexamined the role of DNA polymerase I (encoded by polA) in postreplication repair after UV irradiation...
  54. Munson B, Maier P, Greene R. Segregation of relaxed replicated dimers when DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I are limited during oriC-specific DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3803-9 pubmed
    ..The results also show that decatenation of dimers occurs readily on nicked dimer and represents an efficient pathway for processing replication intermediates in vitro. ..
  55. Heyneker H, Klenow H. Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase-I-associated 5' in equilibrium 3' exonuclease in excision-repair of UV-damaged DNA. Basic Life Sci. 1975;5A:219-23 pubmed
    ..between Escherichia coli PolA107 cells (lacking 5' in equilibrium 3' exonucleoytic activity associated with DNA polymerase I) and the isogenic wild-type strain, and between the purified DNA polymerase I preparations isolated from ..
  56. Bailly V, Verly W. The excision of AP sites by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. FEBS Lett. 1984;178:223-7 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the 3' AP endonucleases are perhaps not the hydrolases they are supposed to be. ..
  57. Glickman B. The role of DNA polymerase I in excision-repair. Basic Life Sci. 1975;5A:213-8 pubmed
    The ability of three different DNA polymerase I mutants of Escherichia coli to carry out excision-repair was examined. Strains having the same genetic origin but carrying either the polAl, polA107, resAl, or pol+ alleles were compared...
  58. Al Mamun A, Yadava R, Ren L, Humayun M. The Escherichia coli UVM response is accompanied by an SOS-independent error-prone DNA replication activity demonstrable in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:368-80 pubmed
    ..cells deficient for SOS induction, as well as for all four of the 'non-replicative' DNA polymerases, namely DNA polymerase I (polA), II (polB), IV (dinB) and V (umuDC)...
  59. Konrad E, Modrich P, Lehman I. DNA synthesis in strains of Escherichia coli K12 with temperature-sensitive DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 1974;90:115-26 pubmed
  60. Rhodes G, Jentsch K, Jovin T. A simple and rapid purification method for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:7465-7 pubmed
    We report a simple, three-step method for the purification of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Its advantages over other procedures are ease and rapidity, the absence of an autolysis or any high speed centrifugation step, and ..
  61. Wrzesiński M, Nowosielska A, Nieminuszczy J, Grzesiuk E. Effect of SOS-induced Pol II, Pol IV, and Pol V DNA polymerases on UV-induced mutagenesis and MFD repair in Escherichia coli cells. Acta Biochim Pol. 2005;52:139-47 pubmed
    ..The presented results also indicate that Pol V may provide substrates for MFD repair; moreover, we suggest that only those DNA lesions which result from umuDC-directed UV mutagenesis are subject to MFD repair. ..
  62. Bessman M, Lehman I, Simms E, Kornberg A. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid. II. General properties of the reaction. J Biol Chem. 1958;233:171-7 pubmed
  63. Linn S, Imlay J. Toxicity, mutagenesis and stress responses induced in Escherichia coli by hydrogen peroxide. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1987;6:289-301 pubmed
    ..Mode-two killing is accompanied by enhanced mutagenesis, but strains with DNA repair defects were not observed to be especially sensitive to this mode of killing. ..
  64. An L, Tang W, Ranalli T, Kim H, Wytiaz J, Kong H. Characterization of a thermostable UvrD helicase and its participation in helicase-dependent amplification. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28952-8 pubmed
    ..Previously, a mesophilic form of HDA (mHDA) utilizing the Escherichia coli UvrD helicase, DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment, two accessory proteins, MutL and single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), was developed (1)..
  65. Minnick D, Liu L, Grindley N, Kunkel T, Joyce C. Discrimination against purine-pyrimidine mispairs in the polymerase active site of DNA polymerase I: a structural explanation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1194-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this same side chain enhances the stability of incoming correct dNTPs, such that loss of this interaction on removal of the side chain leads to lower selectivity against mismatches involving incoming pyrimidines. ..
  66. Moolenaar G, Moorman C, Goosen N. Role of the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair proteins in DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5706-14 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase I (PolI) functions both in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and in the processing of Okazaki fragments that are generated on the lagging strand during DNA replication...
  67. Xu Y, Potapova O, Leschziner A, Grindley N, Joyce C. Contacts between the 5' nuclease of DNA polymerase I and its DNA substrate. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30167-77 pubmed
    The 5' nuclease of DNA polymerase I (Pol I) of Escherichia coli is a member of an important class of prokaryotic and eukaryotic nucleases, involved in DNA replication and repair, with specificity for the junction between single-stranded ..
  68. Murray N, Kelley W. Characterization of lambdapolA transducing phages; effective expression of the E. coli polA gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1979;175:77-87 pubmed
    ..coli or induction of lysogens. Lytic infection gave consistently better amplification of DNA polymerase I than that obtained by induction of a lysogen...
  69. Mizrahi V, Henrie R, Marlier J, Johnson K, Benkovic S. Rate-limiting steps in the DNA polymerase I reaction pathway. Biochemistry. 1985;24:4010-8 pubmed
    ..dTTP alpha S) into poly(dA) X oligo(dT) during template-directed synthesis by the large fragment of DNA polymerase I have been measured by using a rapid-quench technique...
  70. Bianco P, Tracy R, Kowalczykowski S. DNA strand exchange proteins: a biochemical and physical comparison. Front Biosci. 1998;3:D570-603 pubmed
    ..coli, UvsX protein from Bacteriophage T4, and RAD51 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  71. Curti E, McDonald J, Mead S, Woodgate R. DNA polymerase switching: effects on spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:315-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that there is considerable interplay among all five E. coli polymerases that either reduces or enhances the mutagenic load on the E. coli chromosome. ..
  72. McClure W, Jovin T. The steady state kinetic parameters and non-processivity of Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:4073-80 pubmed
    A steady state kinetic study of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I has been carried out using poly[d(A-T)] as the template-primer substrate...
  73. Joyce C, Grindley N. Identification of two genes immediately downstream from the polA gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:1211-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of this region of the E. coli genome suggests that it contains little, if any, redundant DNA. ..
  74. Dahlberg M, Benkovic S. Kinetic mechanism of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment): identification of a second conformational change and evaluation of the internal equilibrium constant. Biochemistry. 1991;30:4835-43 pubmed
    ..minimal kinetic scheme for DNA polymerization catalyzed by the Klenow fragment (KF) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, a nonchemical step that interconverted the KF'.DNAn+1.PPi and KF...
  75. Nowosielska A, Smith S, Engelward B, Marinus M. Homologous recombination prevents methylation-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2258-68 pubmed
    ..Cells deleted for the polA (DNA polymerase I) or priA (primosome) genes are as sensitive to MMS and MNNG as alkA tag bacteria...
  76. Cramer J, Rangam G, Marx A, Restle T. Varied active-site constraints in the klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I and the lesion-bypass Dbh DNA polymerase. Chembiochem. 2008;9:1243-50 pubmed publisher
    We report on comparative pre-steady-state kinetic analyses of exonuclease-deficient Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment, KF-) and the archaeal Y-family DinB homologue (Dbh) of Sulfolobus solfataricus...
  77. Tabor S, Struhl K, Scharf S, Gelfand D. DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001;Chapter 3:Unit3.5 pubmed publisher
    ..coli DNA polymerase I, Klenow fragment of E...
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