Gene Symbol: dinJ
Description: antitoxin of YafQ-DinJ toxin-antitoxin system
Alias: ECK0227, JW0216, sosA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gotfredsen M, Gerdes K. The Escherichia coli relBE genes belong to a new toxin-antitoxin gene family. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1065-76 pubmed
    ..Indirect evidence suggests that the toxicity of RelE may be related to the inhibition of protein synthesis. Based on these observations, we propose a model that explains the delayed relaxed phenotype associated with mutations in relB. ..
  2. Gerdes K, Christensen S, Løbner Olesen A. Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:371-82 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that toxin-antitoxin loci function in bacterial programmed cell death, but evidence now indicates that these loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress. ..
  3. Prysak M, Mozdzierz C, Cook A, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Inouye M, et al. Bacterial toxin YafQ is an endoribonuclease that associates with the ribosome and blocks translation elongation through sequence-specific and frame-dependent mRNA cleavage. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:1071-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the mode of action of the YafQ toxin of the DinJ-YafQ TA system. YafQ expression resulted in inhibition of translation, but not transcription or replication...
  4. Kim Y, Wang X, Ma Q, Zhang X, Wood T. Toxin-antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli influence biofilm formation through YjgK (TabA) and fimbriae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..to biofilm development was investigated (listed as toxin/antitoxin: MazF/MazE, RelE/RelB, ChpB, YoeB/YefM, and YafQ/DinJ)...
  5. Kolodkin Gal I, Verdiger R, Shlosberg Fedida A, Engelberg Kulka H. A differential effect of E. coli toxin-antitoxin systems on cell death in liquid media and biofilm formation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6785 pubmed publisher
    ..At the other extreme, as our results have revealed here, the TA system dinJ-YafQ is unique in that it is involved only in the death process during biofilm formation...
  6. Wade J, Reppas N, Church G, Struhl K. Genomic analysis of LexA binding reveals the permissive nature of the Escherichia coli genome and identifies unconventional target sites. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2619-30 pubmed
    ..coli genome is permissive to transcription factor binding. The permissive nature of the E. coli genome has important consequences for the nature of transcriptional regulatory proteins, biological specificity, and evolution. ..
  7. Magnuson R. Hypothetical functions of toxin-antitoxin systems. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6089-92 pubmed
  8. Motiejunaite R, Armalyte J, Markuckas A, Suziedeliene E. Escherichia coli dinJ-yafQ genes act as a toxin-antitoxin module. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;268:112-9 pubmed
    ..The chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12 encodes four known TA pairs, as well as the dinJ-yafQ operon, which is hypothesized to be a TA module based on operon organization similar to known TA genes...
  9. Lewis L, Harlow G, Gregg Jolly L, Mount D. Identification of high affinity binding sites for LexA which define new DNA damage-inducible genes in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1994;241:507-23 pubmed
    ..The success of the combinatorial approach described here suggests that analogous searches for new regulatory sequences within the E. coli genome and the genomes of other organisms will also yield favorable results. ..

More Information


  1. Saint Ruf C, Taddei F, Matic I. Stress and survival of aging Escherichia coli rpoS colonies. Genetics. 2004;168:541-6 pubmed
    ..By measuring cell viability and by transcriptome analysis, here we show that rpoS cells as well as wild-type cells survive when they form colonies on solid media. ..
  2. Tsilibaris V, Maenhaut Michel G, Mine N, Van Melderen L. What is the benefit to Escherichia coli of having multiple toxin-antitoxin systems in its genome?. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6101-8 pubmed
    ..This casts a doubt on whether TA systems significantly influence bacterial fitness and competitiveness during non-steady-state growth conditions. ..
  3. Shah D, Zhang Z, Khodursky A, Kaldalu N, Kurg K, Lewis K. Persisters: a distinct physiological state of E. coli. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:53 pubmed
    ..We report a method for persister isolation and conclude that these cells represent a distinct state of bacterial physiology. ..
  4. Condon C. Shutdown decay of mRNA. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:573-83 pubmed
    ..In this review, I discuss the recent developments in the rapidly expanding field of what I refer to as bacterial shutdown decay. ..
  5. Szekeres S, Dauti M, Wilde C, Mazel D, Rowe Magnus D. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin loci can diminish large-scale genome reductions in the absence of selection. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1588-605 pubmed
    ..Thus, chromosomal TA loci can stabilize massive SI arrays and limit the extensive gene loss that is a hallmark of reductive evolution...
  6. Armalyte J, Jurenaite M, Beinoraviciute G, Teiserskas J, Suziedeliene E. Characterization of Escherichia coli dinJ-yafQ toxin-antitoxin system using insights from mutagenesis data. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1523-32 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli dinJ-yafQ operon codes for a functional toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. YafQ toxin is an RNase which, upon overproduction, specifically inhibits the translation process by cleaving cellular mRNA at specific sequences...
  7. Hu Y, Benedik M, Wood T. Antitoxin DinJ influences the general stress response through transcript stabilizer CspE. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the physiological role of antitoxin DinJ of the YafQ/DinJ TA pair and found DinJ also affects the general stress response by decreasing RpoS levels...
  8. Inouye M. The discovery of mRNA interferases: implication in bacterial physiology and application to biotechnology. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:670-6 pubmed
    ..The discovery of a novel way to interfere with mRNA function by mRNA interferases opens a wide variety of avenues in basic as well as applied and clinical sciences. ..
  9. Buts L, Lah J, Dao Thi M, Wyns L, Loris R. Toxin-antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers. Trends Biochem Sci. 2005;30:672-9 pubmed
    ..Under silent conditions the antidote inhibits the toxin and the toxin-antidote complex acts as a repressor for the TA operon, whereas under conditions of activation proteolytic degradation of the antidote outpaces its synthesis. ..
  10. Courcelle J, Khodursky A, Peter B, Brown P, Hanawalt P. Comparative gene expression profiles following UV exposure in wild-type and SOS-deficient Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2001;158:41-64 pubmed
    ..These newly identified UV-responsive genes are discussed with respect to their possible roles in cellular recovery following exposure to UV irradiation. ..
  11. Fernandez de Henestrosa A, Ogi T, Aoyagi S, Chafin D, Hayes J, Ohmori H, et al. Identification of additional genes belonging to the LexA regulon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1560-72 pubmed
    ..These experiments have allowed us to identify seven new LexA-regulated genes, thus bringing the present number of genes in the E. coli LexA regulon to 31. The potential function of each newly identified LexA-regulated gene is discussed. ..
  12. Gerdes K. Toxin-antitoxin modules may regulate synthesis of macromolecules during nutritional stress. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:561-72 pubmed
  13. Lovett S. Replication arrest-stimulated recombination: Dependence on the RecA paralog, RadA/Sms and translesion polymerase, DinB. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:1421-7 pubmed
    ..The role of DinB in bacteria may be analogous to translesion DNA polymerase eta in eukaryotes, recently shown to aid recombination. ..