Gene Symbol: dinB
Description: DNA polymerase IV
Alias: ECK0232, JW0221, dinP
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Goodman M, Tippin B. Sloppier copier DNA polymerases involved in genome repair. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:162-8 pubmed
    When chromosomal replication is impeded in the presence of DNA damage, members of a newly discovered UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of procaryotic and eucaryotic DNA polymerases catalyze translesion synthesis at blocked replication ..
  2. Kim S, Maenhaut Michel G, Yamada M, Yamamoto Y, Matsui K, Sofuni T, et al. Multiple pathways for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: an overexpression of dinB/dinP results in strongly enhancing mutagenesis in the absence of any exogenous treatment to damage DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13792-7 pubmed
    ..coli UmuC protein involved in DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. In this paper we show that the gene is identical to dinB, an SOS gene previously localized near the lac locus at 8 min, the function of which was shown to be required for ..
  3. Heltzel J, Maul R, Scouten Ponticelli S, Sutton M. A model for DNA polymerase switching involving a single cleft and the rim of the sliding clamp. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12664-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings challenge the toolbelt model and suggest instead that Pol IV contacts the rim of the clamp adjacent to the cleft that is bound by Pol III* before gaining control of the same cleft that is bound by Pol III*. ..
  4. Yuan B, Cao H, Jiang Y, Hong H, Wang Y. Efficient and accurate bypass of N2-(1-carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine by DinB DNA polymerase in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8679-84 pubmed publisher
    b>DinB, a Y-family DNA polymerase, is conserved among all domains of life; however, its endogenous substrates have not been identified. DinB is known to synthesize accurately across a number of N(2)-dG lesions...
  5. Tago Y, Imai M, Ihara M, Atofuji H, Nagata Y, Yamamoto K. Escherichia coli mutator (Delta)polA is defective in base mismatch correction: the nature of in vivo DNA replication errors. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:299-308 pubmed
    ..The mutation rate of this strain was 219x10(-8), about a 100-fold increase relative to the wild-type strain. Uncorrected polymerase III replication errors were predominantly frameshifts and base substitutions followed by deletions. ..
  6. Uchida K, Furukohri A, Shinozaki Y, Mori T, Ogawara D, Kanaya S, et al. Overproduction of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase DinB (Pol IV) inhibits replication fork progression and is lethal. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:608-22 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli dinB encodes the specialized DNA polymerase DinB (Pol IV), which is induced as part of the SOS stress-response system and functions in translesion synthesis (TLS) to relieve the replicative Pol III that is stalled at DNA ..
  7. Wolff E, Kim M, Hu K, Yang H, Miller J. Polymerases leave fingerprints: analysis of the mutational spectrum in Escherichia coli rpoB to assess the role of polymerase IV in spontaneous mutation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2900-5 pubmed
    ..in strains with differing levels of polymerase IV (Pol IV), including strains with deletions of the Pol IV-encoding dinB gene, strains with a chromosomal copy of dinB, strains with the F'128 plasmid, and strains with plasmid ..
  8. Dalrymple B, Kongsuwan K, Wijffels G, Dixon N, Jennings P. A universal protein-protein interaction motif in the eubacterial DNA replication and repair systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11627-32 pubmed
    ..Representatives of this motif are present in most sequenced members of the eubacterial DnaE, PolC, PolB, DinB, and UmuC families of DNA polymerases and the MutS1 mismatch repair protein family...
  9. McKenzie G, Lee P, Lombardo M, Hastings P, Rosenberg S. SOS mutator DNA polymerase IV functions in adaptive mutation and not adaptive amplification. Mol Cell. 2001;7:571-9 pubmed
    ..We report that the SOS-inducible, error-prone DNA polymerase (pol) IV, encoded by dinB, is required for adaptive point mutation in the E. coli lac operon...

More Information


  1. Wagner J, Fujii S, Gruz P, Nohmi T, Fuchs R. The beta clamp targets DNA polymerase IV to DNA and strongly increases its processivity. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:484-8 pubmed
    ..Among these polymerases, the dinB gene product (Pol IV) is involved in mutagenesis in Escherichia coli...
  2. Lenne Samuel N, Janel Bintz R, Kolbanovskiy A, Geacintov N, Fuchs R. The processing of a Benzo(a)pyrene adduct into a frameshift or a base substitution mutation requires a different set of genes in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:299-307 pubmed
    ..the pool of inducible DNA polymerases specialized in TLS (translesional DNA polymerases), namely umuDC (Pol V) and dinB (Pol IV)...
  3. Layton J, Foster P. Error-prone DNA polymerase IV is controlled by the stress-response sigma factor, RpoS, in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:549-61 pubmed
    ..In the rpoS mutant strain the levels of error-prone DNA polymerase Pol IV were reduced. Pol IV is encoded by the dinB gene, and the amount of its transcript was also reduced in rpoS mutant cells...
  4. Toste Rêgo A, Holding A, Kent H, Lamers M. Architecture of the Pol III-clamp-exonuclease complex reveals key roles of the exonuclease subunit in processive DNA synthesis and repair. EMBO J. 2013;32:1334-43 pubmed publisher
  5. Tang M, Pham P, Shen X, Taylor J, O Donnell M, Woodgate R, et al. Roles of E. coli DNA polymerases IV and V in lesion-targeted and untargeted SOS mutagenesis. Nature. 2000;404:1014-8 pubmed
    The expression of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerases pol V (UmuD'2C complex) and pol IV (DinB) increases in response to DNA damage...
  6. Bunting K, Roe S, Pearl L. Structural basis for recruitment of translesion DNA polymerase Pol IV/DinB to the beta-clamp. EMBO J. 2003;22:5883-92 pubmed publisher
  7. Banach Orlowska M, Fijalkowska I, Schaaper R, Jonczyk P. DNA polymerase II as a fidelity factor in chromosomal DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:61-70 pubmed
    ..A second role of Pol II is to protect mismatched 3' termini against the mutagenic action of polymerase IV (dinB product). Overall, Pol II may be considered a main player in the polymerase trafficking at the replication fork.
  8. Wagner J, Etienne H, Fuchs R, Cordonnier A, Burnouf D. Distinct beta-clamp interactions govern the activities of the Y family PolIV DNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This discloses two independent modes of action for PolIV and, in turn, uncovers a novel way by which the cell may regulate the potentially deleterious effect of such low fidelity polymerases during replication. ..
  9. Burnouf D, Olieric V, Wagner J, Fujii S, Reinbolt J, Fuchs R, et al. Structural and biochemical analysis of sliding clamp/ligand interactions suggest a competition between replicative and translesion DNA polymerases. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:1187-97 pubmed
  10. Bjedov I, Dasgupta C, Slade D, Le Blastier S, Selva M, Matic I. Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV in tolerance of cytotoxic alkylating DNA lesions in vivo. Genetics. 2007;176:1431-40 pubmed
    ..of the mammalian PolIV homolog, Polkappa, in similar activity, indicates that Y-family DNA polymerases from the DinB branch can be added to the list of evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms that counteract cytotoxic effects ..
  11. Gawel D, Pham P, Fijalkowska I, Jonczyk P, Schaaper R. Role of accessory DNA polymerases in DNA replication in Escherichia coli: analysis of the dnaX36 mutator mutant. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1730-42 pubmed
    ..In the system used, a high fraction of the mutations is dependent on the action of Pol IV in a (dinB) gene dosage-dependent manner...
  12. Jarosz D, Godoy V, Delaney J, Essigmann J, Walker G. A single amino acid governs enhanced activity of DinB DNA polymerases on damaged templates. Nature. 2006;439:225-8 pubmed
    ..Although DinB is the only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, the biological rationale for this striking ..
  13. Wagner J, Nohmi T. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV mutator activity: genetic requirements and mutational specificity. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4587-95 pubmed
    The dinB gene of Escherichia coli is known to be involved in the untargeted mutagenesis of lambda phage...
  14. Kuban W, Jonczyk P, Gawel D, Malanowska K, Schaaper R, Fijalkowska I. Role of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV in in vivo replication fidelity. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4802-7 pubmed
    We have investigated whether DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV; the dinB gene product) contributes to the error rate of chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli...
  15. Kuban W, Banach Orlowska M, Bialoskorska M, Lipowska A, Schaaper R, Jonczyk P, et al. Mutator phenotype resulting from DNA polymerase IV overproduction in Escherichia coli: preferential mutagenesis on the lagging strand. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6862-6 pubmed
    ..The mutator activity likely results from extension of mismatches produced by polymerase III holoenzyme. ..
  16. Beuning P, Simon S, Godoy V, Jarosz D, Walker G. Characterization of Escherichia coli translesion synthesis polymerases and their accessory factors. Methods Enzymol. 2006;408:318-40 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli possesses two members of the Y family, DNA pol IV (DinB) and DNA pol V (UmuD'(2)C), and several regulatory factors, including those encoded by the umuD gene that influence ..
  17. Jarosz D, Beuning P, Cohen S, Walker G. Y-family DNA polymerases in Escherichia coli. Trends Microbiol. 2007;15:70-7 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that umuC+ and its homolog dinB+ encode novel DNA polymerases with the ability to catalyze synthesis past DNA lesions that otherwise stall ..
  18. Lovett S. Replication arrest-stimulated recombination: Dependence on the RecA paralog, RadA/Sms and translesion polymerase, DinB. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:1421-7 pubmed
    ..RecJ single-strand DNA exonuclease, the RadA/Sms RecA-paralog protein of unknown function and, surprisingly, the DinB translesion polymerase...
  19. Tompkins J, Nelson J, Hazel J, Leugers S, Stumpf J, Foster P. Error-prone polymerase, DNA polymerase IV, is responsible for transient hypermutation during adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3469-72 pubmed
    ..This frequency was more than sevenfold lower in the Pol IV-defective strain than in the wild-type strain. Thus, the mutations that occur during hypermutation are due to Pol IV. ..
  20. Lenne Samuel N, Wagner J, Etienne H, Fuchs R. The processivity factor beta controls DNA polymerase IV traffic during spontaneous mutagenesis and translesion synthesis in vivo. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:45-9 pubmed
    The dinB-encoded DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) belongs to the recently identified Y-family of DNA polymerases. Like other members of this family, Pol IV is involved in translesion synthesis and mutagenesis...
  21. Strauss B, Roberts R, Francis L, Pouryazdanparast P. Role of the dinB gene product in spontaneous mutation in Escherichia coli with an impaired replicative polymerase. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6742-50 pubmed
    ..Deletion of dinB from both chromosome and plasmid resulted in a four- to fivefold decrease in the rate of frameshift and base ..
  22. Wagner J, Gruz P, Kim S, Yamada M, Matsui K, Fuchs R, et al. The dinB gene encodes a novel E. coli DNA polymerase, DNA pol IV, involved in mutagenesis. Mol Cell. 1999;4:281-6 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the dinB gene is required for the SOS-induced lambda untargeted mutagenesis pathway and confers a mutator phenotype to the cell when the gene product is overexpressed...
  23. Sutton M. The Escherichia coli dnaN159 mutant displays altered DNA polymerase usage and chronic SOS induction. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6738-48 pubmed
    ..that the UV sensitivity of the dnaN159 mutant was suppressed by (not epistatic with) inactivation of Pol IV (dinB gene product)...
  24. Indiani C, McInerney P, Georgescu R, Goodman M, O Donnell M. A sliding-clamp toolbelt binds high- and low-fidelity DNA polymerases simultaneously. Mol Cell. 2005;19:805-15 pubmed
    ..These polymerase dynamics within the beta toolbelt complex restrict the action of the error-prone Pol IV to only the area on DNA where it is required. ..
  25. Sutton M, Walker G. Managing DNA polymerases: coordinating DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8342-9 pubmed
    ..This UmuC-DinB-Rad30-Rev1 superfamily of DNA polymerases has members in all three kingdoms of life...
  26. Yeiser B, Pepper E, Goodman M, Finkel S. SOS-induced DNA polymerases enhance long-term survival and evolutionary fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8737-41 pubmed
    ..These polymerases contribute to survival by providing essential functions to ensure replication of the chromosome and by generating genetic diversity. ..
  27. Ohmori H, Friedberg E, Fuchs R, Goodman M, Hanaoka F, Hinkle D, et al. The Y-family of DNA polymerases. Mol Cell. 2001;8:7-8 pubmed
  28. Galhardo R, Do R, Yamada M, Friedberg E, Hastings P, Nohmi T, et al. DinB upregulation is the sole role of the SOS response in stress-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2009;182:55-68 pubmed publisher
    ..the RpoS-controlled general/starvation stress response and the SOS DNA-damage response, both of which upregulate DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, among other genes required for Lac mutagenesis...
  29. Godoy V, Jarosz D, Simon S, Abyzov A, Ilyin V, Walker G. UmuD and RecA directly modulate the mutagenic potential of the Y family DNA polymerase DinB. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1058-70 pubmed
    b>DinB is the only translesion Y family DNA polymerase conserved among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes...
  30. Pérez Capilla T, Baquero M, Gómez Gómez J, Ionel A, Martín S, Blazquez J. SOS-independent induction of dinB transcription by beta-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell wall synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1515-8 pubmed
    Transcription of the dinB gene, encoding DNA polymerase IV, is induced by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis at different levels...
  31. Frisch R, Su Y, Thornton P, Gibson J, Rosenberg S, Hastings P. Separate DNA Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent pathways of stress-induced mutation during double-strand-break repair in Escherichia coli are controlled by RpoS. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..double-strand break repair in carbon-starved Escherichia coli result from error-prone DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) (DinB) and that the mutagenesis is controlled by the RpoS stress response, which upregulates dinB...
  32. Cafarelli T, Rands T, Benson R, Rudnicki P, Lin I, Godoy V. A single residue unique to DinB-like proteins limits formation of the polymerase IV multiprotein complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1179-93 pubmed publisher
    The activity of DinB is governed by the formation of a multiprotein complex (MPC) with RecA and UmuD. We identified two highly conserved surface residues in DinB, cysteine 66 (C66) and proline 67 (P67)...
  33. Napolitano R, Janel Bintz R, Wagner J, Fuchs R. All three SOS-inducible DNA polymerases (Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V) are involved in induced mutagenesis. EMBO J. 2000;19:6259-65 pubmed
    Most organisms contain several members of a recently discovered class of DNA polymerases (umuC/dinB superfamily) potentially involved in replication of damaged DNA...
  34. Jacob K, Eckert K. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV contributes to spontaneous mutagenesis at coding sequences but not microsatellite alleles. Mutat Res. 2007;619:93-103 pubmed
    ..5-fold lower median mutation frequency in dinB(-) than dinB(+) cells (p<0.001, Wilcoxon Mann Whitney Test)...
  35. Kumari A, Minko I, Harbut M, Finkel S, Goodman M, Lloyd R. Replication bypass of interstrand cross-link intermediates by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the ability to replicate the modified vector DNA was nearly abolished in a pol IV-deficient strain. These data strongly suggest that pol IV is responsible for TLS past N(2)-N(2)-guanine ICLs. ..
  36. Ponder R, Fonville N, Rosenberg S. A switch from high-fidelity to error-prone DNA double-strand break repair underlies stress-induced mutation. Mol Cell. 2005;19:791-804 pubmed
    ..The same proteins are required as for cells without induced DSBs: DSBR proteins, DinB-error-prone polymerase, and the RpoS starvation-stress-response regulator...
  37. Bertram J, Bloom L, O Donnell M, Goodman M. Increased dNTP binding affinity reveals a nonprocessive role for Escherichia coli beta clamp with DNA polymerase IV. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33047-50 pubmed
    ..We show that the increased DNA polymerase IV-dNTP binding affinity is an intrinsic property of the DNA polymerase IV-beta clamp interaction and not an indirect consequence of an increased binding of DNA polymerase IV to DNA. ..
  38. Kim S, Matsui K, Yamada M, Gruz P, Nohmi T. Roles of chromosomal and episomal dinB genes encoding DNA pol IV in targeted and untargeted mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:207-15 pubmed
    DNA polymerase IV (pol IV) in Escherichia coli is a member of a novel family of DNA polymerases (the DinB/UmuC/Rad30/Rev1 super-family or the DNA polymerase Y family)...
  39. Seo K, Nagalingam A, Miri S, Yin J, Chandani S, Kolbanovskiy A, et al. Mirror image stereoisomers of the major benzo[a]pyrene N2-dG adduct are bypassed by different lesion-bypass DNA polymerases in E. coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:515-22 pubmed
  40. Kuban W, Banach Orlowska M, Schaaper R, Jonczyk P, Fijalkowska I. Role of DNA polymerase IV in Escherichia coli SOS mutator activity. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7977-80 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a significant fraction of this effect also requires DNA polymerase IV (dinB gene product).
  41. Fuchs R, Fujii S, Wagner J. Properties and functions of Escherichia coli: Pol IV and Pol V. Adv Protein Chem. 2004;69:229-64 pubmed
    ..2001): Pol IV (dinB) and Pol V (umuD'C)...
  42. Ikeda M, Shinozaki Y, Uchida K, Ohshika Y, Furukohri A, Maki H, et al. Quick replication fork stop by overproduction of Escherichia coli DinB produces non-proliferative cells with an aberrant chromosome. Genes Genet Syst. 2012;87:221-31 pubmed
    Escherichia coli dinB encodes the translesion DNA polymerase DinB, which can inhibit progression of replication forks in a dose-dependent manner, independent of exogenous DNA damage...
  43. Gawel D, Seed P. Urinary tract infection drives genome instability in uropathogenic Escherichia coli and necessitates translesion synthesis DNA polymerase IV for virulence. Virulence. 2011;2:222-32 pubmed
  44. Roth J, Andersson D. Rebuttal: adaptive point mutation (Rosenberg and Hastings). J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4844 pubmed
  45. Yang H, Wolff E, Kim M, Diep A, Miller J. Identification of mutator genes and mutational pathways in Escherichia coli using a multicopy cloning approach. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:283-95 pubmed
    ..that were previously known to cause mutator effects under overexpression conditions: error-prone polymerase IV (DinB), DNA methylase (Dam) and sigma S factor (RpoS)...
  46. Moore J, Correa R, Rosenberg S, Hastings P. Persistent damaged bases in DNA allow mutagenic break repair in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006733 pubmed publisher
    ..response and RpoS general stress response, which upregulate and allow the action of error-prone DNA polymerases IV (DinB), II and V to make mutations during repair...
  47. Pomerantz R, Kurth I, Goodman M, O Donnell M. Preferential D-loop extension by a translesion DNA polymerase underlies error-prone recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..form of DNA repair, genetics suggest that the Escherichia coli translesion DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV, also known as DinB) promotes error-prone recombination during stress, which allows cells to overcome adverse conditions...
  48. Kamiya H, Satou K, Hori M, Iida E, Ishiguro C, Harashima H. Mutagenesis by damaged deoxyribonucleotides and its prevention by MutT-type hydrolyzing enzymes. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;:271-2 pubmed
    ..introduced into Escherichia coli strains deficient in DNA polymerase IV (a Y-family DNA polymerase encoded in the dinB gene), and the MutT and Orfl35 proteins to examine their in vivo roles in mutagenesis elicited by 2-OH-dATP and 8-..
  49. Masutani C, Kusumoto R, Yamada A, Dohmae N, Yokoi M, Yuasa M, et al. The XPV (xeroderma pigmentosum variant) gene encodes human DNA polymerase eta. Nature. 1999;399:700-4 pubmed
    ..members of a family of damage-bypass replication proteins which comprises the Escherichia coli proteins UmuC and DinB and the yeast Rev1 protein. We found that all XP-V cells examined carry mutations in their DNA polymerase eta gene...
  50. Jarosz D, Cohen S, Delaney J, Essigmann J, Walker G. A DinB variant reveals diverse physiological consequences of incomplete TLS extension by a Y-family DNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21137-42 pubmed publisher
    The only Y-family DNA polymerase conserved among all domains of life, DinB and its mammalian ortholog pol kappa, catalyzes proficient bypass of damaged DNA in translesion synthesis (TLS)...
  51. Yang I, Hossain M, Miller H, Khullar S, Johnson F, Grollman A, et al. Responses to the major acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9071-6 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of polB, dinB, and umuD,C genes coding for "SOS" DNA polymerases did not affect significantly the efficiency or ..
  52. Godoy V, Jarosz D, Walker F, Simmons L, Walker G. Y-family DNA polymerases respond to DNA damage-independent inhibition of replication fork progression. EMBO J. 2006;25:868-79 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the Y-family DNA polymerases Pol IV (DinB) and Pol V (UmuD2'C) enhance cell survival upon DNA damage by bypassing replication-blocking DNA lesions...
  53. Hersh M, Morales L, Ross K, Rosenberg S. Single-strand-specific exonucleases prevent frameshift mutagenesis by suppressing SOS induction and the action of DinB/DNA polymerase IV in growing cells. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2336-42 pubmed
    ..this effect requires RecA, an inducible SOS DNA damage response, and the low-fidelity, SOS-induced DNA polymerase DinB/PolIV, which makes frameshift mutations preferentially. We also find that SOS is induced in ExoI- ExoVII- cells...
  54. Al Mamun A, Humayun M. Spontaneous mutagenesis is elevated in protease-defective cells. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..cells is essentially abolished in lexA1[Ind(-)] (SOS-uninducible) cells, and in cells deleted for the SOS gene dinB, which codes for DNA polymerase IV...
  55. Maor Shoshani A, Hayashi K, Ohmori H, Livneh Z. Analysis of translesion replication across an abasic site by DNA polymerase IV of Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1227-38 pubmed
  56. Viguera E, Petranovic M, Zahradka D, Germain K, Ehrlich D, Michel B. Lethality of bypass polymerases in Escherichia coli cells with a defective clamp loader complex of DNA polymerase III. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:193-204 pubmed
  57. Bridges B. DNA repair: Polymerases for passing lesions. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R475-7 pubmed
    ..Now there is accumulating evidence for the widespread existence of a separate class of DNA polymerases that can carry out translesion synthesis in both mutagenic and error-free ways. ..
  58. McKenzie G, Rosenberg S. Adaptive mutations, mutator DNA polymerases and genetic change strategies of pathogens. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:586-94 pubmed
    ..was documented, and a parallel adaptive point-mutation mechanism was linked to the error-prone DNA polymerase, DinB (pol IV)...
  59. Nevin P, Lu X, Zhang K, Engen J, Beuning P. Noncognate DNA damage prevents the formation of the active conformation of the Y-family DNA polymerases DinB and DNA polymerase κ. FEBS J. 2015;282:2646-60 pubmed publisher
    ..exchange mass spectrometry, we demonstrate here that the Escherichia coli Y-family DNA polymerase DinB and its human ortholog DNA polymerase κ undergo a conserved nucleotide-induced conformational change in the ..
  60. Brotcorne Lannoye A, Maenhaut Michel G. Role of RecA protein in untargeted UV mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda: evidence for the requirement for the dinB gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3904-8 pubmed
    ..Among the tested din genes, the dinB gene product (in addition to the uvrA and uvrB gene products) was found to be required for untargeted mutagenesis ..
  61. Furukohri A, Nishikawa Y, Akiyama M, Maki H. Interaction between Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV and single-stranded DNA-binding protein is required for DNA synthesis on SSB-coated DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:6039-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that at the primer/template junction, Pol IV interacts with the tail of the nearest SSB tetramer on the template, and that this interaction allows the polymerase to travel along the template while disassembling SSB...