degS

Summary

Gene Symbol: degS
Description: serine endoprotease, periplasmic
Alias: ECK3224, JW3204, hhoB, htrH
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Sohn J, Grant R, Sauer R. OMP peptides activate the DegS stress-sensor protease by a relief of inhibition mechanism. Structure. 2009;17:1411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes...
  2. Kanehara K, Ito K, Akiyama Y. YaeL (EcfE) activates the sigma(E) pathway of stress response through a site-2 cleavage of anti-sigma(E), RseA. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas sigma(E) is thought to be activated by regulated cleavage of RseA on the periplasmic side by the DegS protease, we found that a degradation intermediate of RseA consisting of the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic ..
  3. Zeth K. Structural analysis of DegS, a stress sensor of the bacterial periplasm. FEBS Lett. 2004;569:351-8 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli the membrane-bound protease DegS has been identified as the periplasmic stress sensor for unfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
  4. Sohn J, Sauer R. OMP peptides modulate the activity of DegS protease by differential binding to active and inactive conformations. Mol Cell. 2009;33:64-74 pubmed publisher
    Upon sensing misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) in the periplasm, the E. coli DegS protease cleaves RseA, a transmembrane regulator, transmitting a signal to activate cytoplasmic gene expression...
  5. Wilken C, Kitzing K, Kurzbauer R, Ehrmann M, Clausen T. Crystal structure of the DegS stress sensor: How a PDZ domain recognizes misfolded protein and activates a protease. Cell. 2004;117:483-94 pubmed
    ..Activation of sigmaE is controlled by a proteolytic cascade that is initiated by the DegS protease...
  6. Waller P, Sauer R. Characterization of degQ and degS, Escherichia coli genes encoding homologs of the DegP protease. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1146-53 pubmed
    The degQ and degS genes of Escherichia coli encode proteins of 455 and 355 residues, respectively, which are homologs of the DegP protease...
  7. Li X, Wang B, Feng L, Kang H, Qi Y, Wang J, et al. Cleavage of RseA by RseP requires a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic amino acid following DegS cleavage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism, we reconstituted sequential, in vitro cleavages of the Escherichia coli transmembrane protein RseA by DegS (S1P) and RseP (S2P)...
  8. Hasselblatt H, Kurzbauer R, Wilken C, Krojer T, Sawa J, Kurt J, et al. Regulation of the sigmaE stress response by DegS: how the PDZ domain keeps the protease inactive in the resting state and allows integration of different OMP-derived stress signals upon folding stress. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2659-70 pubmed
    ..The PDZ-protease DegS recognizes these mislocalized OMPs and initiates a proteolytic cascade that ultimately leads to the sigmaE-driven ..
  9. Walsh N, Alba B, Bose B, Gross C, Sauer R. OMP peptide signals initiate the envelope-stress response by activating DegS protease via relief of inhibition mediated by its PDZ domain. Cell. 2003;113:61-71 pubmed
    ..This process requires a proteolytic cascade initiated by the DegS protease, which destroys a transmembrane protein (RseA) that normally binds to and inhibits sigma(E)...

More Information

Publications35

  1. Alba B, Gross C. Regulation of the Escherichia coli sigma-dependent envelope stress response. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:613-9 pubmed
    ..membrane sigma(E) antisigma factor; RseB, a periplasmic protein that binds to the periplasmic face of RseA; and the DegS and YaeL proteases...
  2. Sohn J, Grant R, Sauer R. Allosteric activation of DegS, a stress sensor PDZ protease. Cell. 2007;131:572-83 pubmed
    ..coli, the C termini of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease and activate cleavage of RseA, a transmembrane transcriptional regulator...
  3. Flynn J, Levchenko I, Sauer R, Baker T. Modulating substrate choice: the SspB adaptor delivers a regulator of the extracytoplasmic-stress response to the AAA+ protease ClpXP for degradation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2292-301 pubmed
    ..Thus, these experiments elucidate the final steps in induction of the extracytoplasmic stress response and reveal that SspB delivers a broader spectrum of substrates to ClpXP than has been recognized. ..
  4. Sohn J, Grant R, Sauer R. Allostery is an intrinsic property of the protease domain of DegS: implications for enzyme function and evolution. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34039-47 pubmed publisher
    b>DegS is a periplasmic Escherichia coli protease, which functions as a trimer to catalyze the initial rate-limiting step in a proteolytic cascade that ultimately activates transcription of stress response genes in the cytoplasm...
  5. Lu C, Stock G, Knecht V. Mechanisms for allosteric activation of protease DegS by ligand binding and oligomerization as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations. Proteins. 2016;84:1690-1705 pubmed publisher
    ..The system considered is the bacterial protein DegS which includes a protease domain activated on ligand binding to an adjacent PDZ domain...
  6. Douchin V, Bohn C, Bouloc P. Down-regulation of porins by a small RNA bypasses the essentiality of the regulated intramembrane proteolysis protease RseP in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12253-9 pubmed
    ..SigmaE is released in response to stress through the successive RseA cleavage by DegS and the RIP protease RseP. SigmaE and proteases that free it from RseA are essential...
  7. Meltzer M, Hasenbein S, Mamant N, Merdanovic M, Poepsel S, Hauske P, et al. Structure, function and regulation of the conserved serine proteases DegP and DegS of Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:660-6 pubmed publisher
    Two members of the widely conserved HtrA family of serine proteases, DegP and DegS, are key players in extracytoplasmic protein quality control...
  8. Alba B, Leeds J, Onufryk C, Lu C, Gross C. DegS and YaeL participate sequentially in the cleavage of RseA to activate the sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2156-68 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that RseA is degraded by sequential proteolytic events controlled by the inner membrane-anchored protease DegS and the membrane-embedded metalloprotease YaeL, an ortholog of mammalian Site-2 protease (S2P)...
  9. Schlieker C, Mogk A, Bukau B. A PDZ switch for a cellular stress response. Cell. 2004;117:417-9 pubmed
    ..of misfolded porins in the periplasm of bacteria triggers a proteolytic cascade, initiated by activation of DegS, a member of the family of HtrA proteases...
  10. McBroom A, Johnson A, Vemulapalli S, Kuehn M. Outer membrane vesicle production by Escherichia coli is independent of membrane instability. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5385-92 pubmed
    ..Detergent sensitivity, leakiness, and growth characteristics of the novel vesiculation mutant strains did not correlate with vesiculation levels, demonstrating that vesicle production is not predictive of envelope instability. ..
  11. Bass S, Gu Q, Christen A. Multicopy suppressors of prc mutant Escherichia coli include two HtrA (DegP) protease homologs (HhoAB), DksA, and a truncated R1pA. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1154-61 pubmed
    ..5 centisomes on the chromosome. We propose the names hhoA and hhoB, for htrA homolog, to denote that these genes encode proteins that are 58 and 35% identical, respectively, to the ..
  12. Vogel R, Entian K, Mecke D. Cloning and sequence of the mdh structural gene of Escherichia coli coding for malate dehydrogenase. Arch Microbiol. 1987;149:36-42 pubmed
    ..The structures for transcription initiation and termination were similar to those previously described for E. coli. Amino acid sequence homologies between pro- and eucaryotic malate dehydrogenases are discussed. ..
  13. Ades S, Connolly L, Alba B, Gross C. The Escherichia coli sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response is controlled by the regulated proteolysis of an anti-sigma factor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2449-61 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that the putative inner membrane serine protease, DegS, is responsible for this regulated degradation of RseA.
  14. Grigorova I, Chaba R, Zhong H, Alba B, Rhodius V, Herman C, et al. Fine-tuning of the Escherichia coli sigmaE envelope stress response relies on multiple mechanisms to inhibit signal-independent proteolysis of the transmembrane anti-sigma factor, RseA. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2686-97 pubmed
    ..Upon activation by OMP C termini, the membrane localized DegS protease cleaves RseA in its periplasmic domain, the membrane-embedded protease RseP (YaeL) cleaves RseA near the ..
  15. Cezairliyan B, Sauer R. Inhibition of regulated proteolysis by RseB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3771-6 pubmed
    ..This response is initiated by DegS cleavage of the periplasmic domain of RseA, a transmembrane protein...
  16. Grininger M, Ravelli R, Heider U, Zeth K. Expression, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of DegS, a stress sensor of the bacterial periplasm. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1429-31 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, a protein DegS has been identified as being a periplasmic stress sensor for unfolded or misfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
  17. Hasenbein S, Meltzer M, Hauske P, Kaiser M, Huber R, Clausen T, et al. Conversion of a regulatory into a degradative protease. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:957-66 pubmed publisher
    The PDZ protease DegS senses mislocalized outer membrane proteins and initiates the sigmaE pathway in the bacterial periplasm...
  18. Zurawa Janicka D, Narkiewicz J, Lipinska B. [Characterization of the HtrA family of proteins]. Postepy Biochem. 2007;53:27-36 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes recent studies regarding the HtrA family of proteins, their structure, regulation and function. It also presents practical applications of this knowledge and perspective of its use in the future. ..
  19. Mauldin R, Sauer R. Allosteric regulation of DegS protease subunits through a shared energy landscape. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:90-6 pubmed publisher
    The PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease bind unassembled outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) that accumulate in the Escherichia coli periplasm...
  20. Redford P, Roesch P, Welch R. DegS is necessary for virulence and is among extraintestinal Escherichia coli genes induced in murine peritonitis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3088-96 pubmed
    ..Three lie before open reading frames of unknown function. One promoter is associated with degS, an inner membrane protease...
  21. Dries D, Yu G. Rip exposed: how ectodomain shedding regulates the proteolytic processing of transmembrane substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14737-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Pan K, Hsiao H, Weng C, Wu M, Chou C. Roles of DegP in prevention of protein misfolding in the periplasm upon overexpression of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3020-30 pubmed
    ..culture performance upon pac overexpression because coexpression of a DegP-homologous periplasmic protease, DegQ or DegS, could not suppress the physiological toxicity...
  23. Alba B, Zhong H, Pelayo J, Gross C. degS (hhoB) is an essential Escherichia coli gene whose indispensable function is to provide sigma (E) activity. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1323-33 pubmed
    DegS (HhoB), a putative serine protease related to DegP/HtrA, regulates the basal and induced activity of the essential Escherichia coli sigma factor sigma (E), which is involved in the cellular response to extracytoplasmic stress...
  24. Kim D. Two stress sensor proteins for the expression of sigmaE regulon: DegS and RseB. J Microbiol. 2015;53:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..RseA, which holds sigmaE as an anti-sigma factor, is sequentially digested by DegS, RseP and cytoplasmic proteases to liberate sigmaE in response to dysfunction in outer-membrane biogenesis...
  25. Jomaa A, Iwanczyk J, Tran J, Ortega J. Characterization of the autocleavage process of the Escherichia coli HtrA protein: implications for its physiological role. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1924-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model in which the physiological role of the self-cleavage process is to eliminate the excess of HtrA once the stress conditions cease. ..
  26. Young J, Hartl F. A stress sensor for the bacterial periplasm. Cell. 2003;113:1-2 pubmed
    b>DegS, the periplasmic stress sensor, becomes activated when its PDZ domain recognizes the improperly exposed C-terminal sequences of outer membrane porins...