Gene Symbol: ddlB
Description: D-alanine:D-alanine ligase
Alias: ECK0093, JW0090, ddl
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Fan C, Moews P, Walsh C, Knox J. Vancomycin resistance: structure of D-alanine:D-alanine ligase at 2.3 A resolution. Science. 1994;266:439-43 pubmed
    The molecular structure of the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase of the ddlB gene of Escherichia coli, co-crystallized with an S,R-methylphosphinate and adenosine triphosphate, was determined by x-ray diffraction to a resolution of 2.3 angstroms...
  2. Kovac A, Konc J, Vehar B, Bostock J, Chopra I, Janezic D, et al. Discovery of new inhibitors of D-alanine:D-alanine ligase by structure-based virtual screening. J Med Chem. 2008;51:7442-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-based virtual screening of the NCI diversity set of almost 2000 compounds was performed with a DdlB isoform from Escherichia coli using the computational tool AutoDock 4.0...
  3. Lutkenhaus J, Wolf Watz H, Donachie W. Organization of genes in the ftsA-envA region of the Escherichia coli genetic map and identification of a new fts locus (ftsZ). J Bacteriol. 1980;142:615-20 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that these cell division genes are expressed independently of the neighboring murein genes. ..
  4. Zawadzke L, Bugg T, Walsh C. Existence of two D-alanine:D-alanine ligases in Escherichia coli: cloning and sequencing of the ddlA gene and purification and characterization of the DdlA and DdlB enzymes. Biochemistry. 1991;30:1673-82 pubmed
    ..coli DNA. One of the two genes, designated as ddlB, is identical with the ddl gene already sequenced [Robinson, A.C., Kenan, D.L., Sweeney, J., & Donachie, W.D...
  5. Sova M, Cadez G, Turk S, Majce V, Polanc S, Batson S, et al. Design and synthesis of new hydroxyethylamines as inhibitors of D-alanyl-D-lactate ligase (VanA) and D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (DdlB). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..faecium VanA, and due to structural similarity and a common reaction mechanism, also on d-Ala-d-Ala ligase (DdlB) from Escherichia coli...
  6. Jung H, Ishino F, Matsuhashi M. Inhibition of growth of ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ mutant cells of Escherichia coli by amplification of a chromosomal region encompassing closely aligned cell division and cell growth genes. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6379-82 pubmed
    ..coli strains with mutations of the flanking cell division genes ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ. A shortened fragment in which the major portion of ftsI was deleted also had lethal effects on ftsQ and ftsZ mutants. ..
  7. Ikeda M, Wachi M, Jung H, Ishino F, Matsuhashi M. Nucleotide sequence involving murG and murC in the mra gene cluster region of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4014 pubmed
  8. Mengin Lecreulx D, Ayala J, Bouhss A, van Heijenoort J, Parquet C, Hara H. Contribution of the Pmra promoter to expression of genes in the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell envelope biosynthesis and cell division genes. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:4406-12 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the transcription of the genes located downstream from ftsW in the mra cluster, from murG to ftsZ, is also mainly (but not exclusively) dependent on the Pmra promoter. ..
  9. Park I, Lin C, Walsh C. Gain of D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-lactyl-D-alanine synthetase activities in three active-site mutants of the Escherichia coli D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase B. Biochemistry. 1996;35:10464-71 pubmed
    ..We report here that three E. coli DdlB active-site mutants that we made previously based on X-ray structure/function predictions have gained interesting ..

More Information


  1. Lutkenhaus J, Wu H. Determination of transcriptional units and gene products from the ftsA region of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1281-8 pubmed
    Lambda transducing phage gamma 16-2 carries the genes envA, ftsZ, ftsA, ddl, and murC and directs the synthesis of six unique proteins in ultraviolet-irradiated cells...
  2. Fan C, Moews P, Shi Y, Walsh C, Knox J. A common fold for peptide synthetases cleaving ATP to ADP: glutathione synthetase and D-alanine:d-alanine ligase of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1172-6 pubmed
  3. Fan C, Park I, Walsh C, Knox J. D-alanine:D-alanine ligase: phosphonate and phosphinate intermediates with wild type and the Y216F mutant. Biochemistry. 1997;36:2531-8 pubmed
    The crystallographic structure of the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase of the ddlB gene of Escherichia coli complexed with a D-Ala-D-alpha-hydroxybutyrate phosphonate and the structure of the Y216F mutant ligase complexed with a D-Ala-D-Ala ..
  4. Robinson A, Kenan D, Sweeney J, Donachie W. Further evidence for overlapping transcriptional units in an Escherichia coli cell envelope-cell division gene cluster: DNA sequence and transcriptional organization of the ddl ftsQ region. J Bacteriol. 1986;167:809-17 pubmed
    A 1.2-kilobase-pair BamHI fragment from a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli containing ddl and part of ftsQ was cloned and sequenced, and the sequence was interpreted with the aid of genetic complementation and ..
  5. Vicente M, Gomez M, Ayala J. Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1998;54:317-24 pubmed
  6. Pathania R, Zlitni S, Barker C, Das R, Gerritsma D, Lebert J, et al. Chemical genomics in Escherichia coli identifies an inhibitor of bacterial lipoprotein targeting. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that MAC13243 inhibits the function of the LolA protein and represents a new chemical probe of lipoprotein targeting in bacteria with promise as an antibacterial lead with Gram-negative selectivity. ..
  7. Flärdh K, Palacios P, Vicente M. Cell division genes ftsQAZ in Escherichia coli require distant cis-acting signals upstream of ddlB for full expression. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:305-15 pubmed
    ..The new Phi(ftsZ-lacZ ) fusion yields four times more beta-galactosidase activity than a ddlB-ftsQAZ-lacZ fusion on a lambda prophage vector...
  8. al Bar O, O Connor C, Giles I, Akhtar M. D-alanine: D-alanine ligase of Escherichia coli. Expression, purification and inhibitory studies on the cloned enzyme. Biochem J. 1992;282 ( Pt 3):747-52 pubmed
    ..3.2.4) gene (ddl) was placed under the control of the lac and lambda PL promoters respectively...
  9. Hara H, Yasuda S, Horiuchi K, Park J. A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsI and ftsW. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5802-11 pubmed
    ..Although several potential promoter sequences in this region of the mra cluster have been reported, we conclude that the promoter identified in this study is required for the first nine genes of the cluster to be fully expressed. ..
  10. Lugtenberg E, v Schijndel van Dam A. Temperature-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 with an impaired D-alanine:D-alanine ligase. J Bacteriol. 1973;113:96-104 pubmed
    ..Combined genetic and enzymatic results show that the low ligase activity is due to a mutation in the ddl gene, the structural gene for d-alanine: d-alanine ligase.