Gene Symbol: dctA
Description: C4-dicarboxylic acid, orotate and citrate transporter
Alias: ECK3513, JW3496, out
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Witan J, Bauer J, Wittig I, Steinmetz P, Erker W, Unden G. Interaction of the Escherichia coli transporter DctA with the sensor kinase DcuS: presence of functional DctA/DcuS sensor units. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:846-61 pubmed publisher
    The aerobic Escherichia coli C(4) -dicarboxylate transporter DctA and the anaerobic fumarate/succinate antiporter DcuB function as obligate co-sensors of the fumarate responsive sensor kinase DcuS under aerobic or anaerobic conditions ..
  2. Davies S, Golby P, Omrani D, Broad S, Harrington V, Guest J, et al. Inactivation and regulation of the aerobic C(4)-dicarboxylate transport (dctA) gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5624-35 pubmed
    The gene (dctA) encoding the aerobic C(4)-dicarboxylate transporter (DctA) of Escherichia coli was previously mapped to the 79-min region of the linkage map...
  3. Zientz E, Bongaerts J, Unden G. Fumarate regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli by the DcuSR (dcuSR genes) two-component regulatory system. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5421-5 pubmed
    ..the aerobic C4-dicarboxylate pathway encoding succinate dehydrogenase (sdhCDAB) and the aerobic succinate carrier (dctA) are only marginally or negatively regulated by the DcuSR system...
  4. Scheu P, Steinmetz P, Dempwolff F, Graumann P, Unden G. Polar localization of a tripartite complex of the two-component system DcuS/DcuR and the transporter DctA in Escherichia coli depends on the sensor kinase DcuS. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115534 pubmed publisher
    ..coli is membrane-bound and reveals a polar localization. DcuS uses the C4-dicarboxylate transporter DctA as a co-regulator forming DctA/DcuS sensor units...
  5. Janausch I, Garcia Moreno I, Lehnen D, Zeuner Y, Unden G. Phosphorylation and DNA binding of the regulator DcuR of the fumarate-responsive two-component system DcuSR of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2004;150:877-83 pubmed
    ..In gel retardation assays with target promoters (frdA, dcuB, dctA), phosphoryl DcuR (DcuR-P) formed a high-affinity complex, with an apparent K(D) (app. K(D)) of 0.2-0...
  6. Janausch I, Zientz E, Tran Q, Kroger A, Unden G. C4-dicarboxylate carriers and sensors in bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1553:39-56 pubmed
    ..In DcuS the periplasmic domain seems to be essential for direct interaction with the C4-dicarboxylates. In signal perception by DctB, interaction of the C4-dicarboxylates with DctB and the DctA carrier plays an important role.
  7. Golby P, Davies S, Kelly D, Guest J, Andrews S. Identification and characterization of a two-component sensor-kinase and response-regulator system (DcuS-DcuR) controlling gene expression in response to C4-dicarboxylates in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1238-48 pubmed
    ..Expression of the fumarate reductase (frdABCD) operon and the aerobic C4-dicarboxylate transporter (dctA) gene were induced 22- and 4-fold, respectively, by the DcuS-DcuR system in the presence of C4-dicarboxylates...
  8. Rayman M, Lo T, Sanwal B. Transport of succinate in Escherichia coli. II. Characteristics of uptake and energy coupling with transport in membrane preparations. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:6332-9 pubmed
  9. Lo T, Sanwal B. Genetic analysis of mutants of Escherichia coli defective in dicarboxylate transport. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;140:303-7 pubmed
    Mutants of E.coli deficient in dicarboxylate transport can be mapped at three different loci. The dctA locus is linked to xyl and the dctB and cbt loci are linked to gal...

More Information


  1. Reed J, Patel T, Chen K, Joyce A, Applebee M, Herring C, et al. Systems approach to refining genome annotation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17480-4 pubmed
    ..were verified experimentally in five cases, leading to the functional assignment of eight ORFs (yjjLMN, yeaTU, dctA, idnT, and putP) with two new enzymatic activities and four transport functions...
  2. Baker K, Ditullio K, Neuhard J, Kelln R. Utilization of orotate as a pyrimidine source by Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli requires the dicarboxylate transport protein encoded by dctA. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:7099-105 pubmed
    ..sequenced and found to possess extensive sequence identity to characterized genes for C4-dicarboxylate transport (dctA) in Rhizobium species and to the sequence inferred to be the dctA gene of Escherichia coli...
  3. Schellenberg G, Furlong C. Resolution of the multiplicity of the glutamate and aspartate transport systems of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:9055-64 pubmed
  4. Lo T. The molecular mechanism of dicarboxylic acid transport in Escherichia coli K 12. J Supramol Struct. 1977;7:463-80 pubmed
    ..A tentative working model on the mechanism of translocation of dicarboxylic acids across the cell envelope by the periplasmic binding protein, and the 2 membrane carrier proteins is presented. ..
  5. Lo T, Bewick M. The molecular mechanisms of dicarboxylic acid transport in Escherichia coli K12. The role and orientation of the two membrane-bound dicarboxylate binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:7826-31 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate, through biochemical analysis of the transport mutants, that the two membrane transport genes, dctA and dctB, are responsible for the two membrane-bound dicarboxylate binding proteins, SBP 2 and SBP 1, respectively...
  6. Kay W, Kornberg H. Genetic control of the uptake of C(4)-dicarboxylic acids by Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1969;3:93-96 pubmed
  7. Janausch I, Kim O, Unden G. DctA- and Dcu-independent transport of succinate in Escherichia coli: contribution of diffusion and of alternative carriers. Arch Microbiol. 2001;176:224-30 pubmed
    ..mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the C(4)-dicarboxylate carriers of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism (DctA, DcuA, DcuB, DcuC, and the DcuC homolog DcuD, or the citrate/succinate antiporter CitT) showed only poor growth on ..
  8. Gosset G, Zhang Z, Nayyar S, Cuevas W, Saier M. Transcriptome analysis of Crp-dependent catabolite control of gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3516-24 pubmed
    ..The results serve to define and extend our appreciation of the Crp regulon. ..
  9. Hua Q, Yang C, Oshima T, Mori H, Shimizu K. Analysis of gene expression in Escherichia coli in response to changes of growth-limiting nutrient in chemostat cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:2354-66 pubmed
    ..Independent of the growth rate, 92 genes were identified as being differentially expressed. Genes tightly related to the culture conditions were highlighted, some of which may be used to characterize nutrient-limited growth. ..
  10. Lo T, Sanwal B. Membrane bound substrate recognition components of the dicarboxylate transport system in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975;63:278-85 pubmed
  11. Lo T, Rayman M, Sanwal B. Transport of succinate in Escherichia coli. I. Biochemical and genetic studies of transport in whole cells. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:6323-31 pubmed
  12. Reizer J, Reizer A, Saier M. A functional superfamily of sodium/solute symporters. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1197:133-66 pubmed
    ..This study serves to clarify structural, functional and evolutionary relationships among eleven distinct families of functionally related transport proteins. ..
  13. Monzel C, Degreif Dünnwald P, Gröpper C, Griesinger C, Unden G. The cytoplasmic PASC domain of the sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: role in signal transduction, dimer formation, and DctA interaction. Microbiologyopen. 2013;2:912-27 pubmed publisher
    ..PASC is also required for interaction with the transporter DctA serving as a cosensor of DcuS...
  14. Gutowski S, Rosenberg H. Succinate uptake and related proton movements in Escherichia coli K12. Biochem J. 1975;152:647-54 pubmed
    ..9. These results are consistent with, though they do not definitely prove, the energization of succinate uptake of the deltapH. ..
  15. Steinmetz P, Wörner S, Unden G. Differentiation of DctA and DcuS function in the DctA/DcuS sensor complex of Escherichia coli: function of DctA as an activity switch and of DcuS as the C4-dicarboxylate sensor. Mol Microbiol. 2014;94:218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..responsiveness of the sensor kinase DcuS is only provided in concert with C4-dicarboxylate transporters DctA or DcuB. The individual roles of DctA and DcuS for the function of the DctA/DcuS sensor complex were analysed...
  16. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the cold shock response in wild-type and cold-sensitive, quadruple-csp-deletion strains of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7007-14 pubmed
    ..Relevance of these findings with respect to the known RNA chaperone function of CspA homologues is discussed. ..
  17. Abo Amer A, Munn J, Jackson K, Aktas M, Golby P, Kelly D, et al. DNA interaction and phosphotransfer of the C4-dicarboxylate-responsive DcuS-DcuR two-component regulatory system from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1879-89 pubmed
    ..DcuR specifically bound to the promoters of the three known DcuSR-regulated genes (dctA, dcuB, and frdA), with apparent K(D)s of 6 to 32 micro M for untreated DcuR and < or =1 to 2 microM for the ..
  18. Wang Y, Kolb A, Buck M, Wen J, O Gara F, Buc H. CRP interacts with promoter-bound sigma54 RNA polymerase and blocks transcriptional activation of the dctA promoter. EMBO J. 1998;17:786-96 pubmed
    ..The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an activator of sigma70-dependent transcription. Analysis of the sigma54-dependent dctA promoter reveals a novel negative regulatory function for CRP...
  19. Goh E, Bledsoe P, Chen L, Gyaneshwar P, Stewart V, Igo M. Hierarchical control of anaerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12: the nitrate-responsive NarX-NarL regulatory system represses synthesis of the fumarate-responsive DcuS-DcuR regulatory system. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4890-9 pubmed
    ..The overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that nitrate represses frdA operon transcription not only directly, by repressing frdA promoter activity, but also indirectly, by repressing dcuS promoter activity. ..
  20. Boogerd F, Boe L, Michelsen O, Jensen P. atp Mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5855-9 pubmed
    ..Indeed, when the E. coli C4-dicarboxylate transporter (encoded by the dctA gene) was expressed in trans, the Suc- phenotype of the atp deletion strain reverted to Suc+, which shows that the ..