dcm

Summary

Gene Symbol: dcm
Description: DNA cytosine methyltransferase
Alias: ECK1959, JW1944, mec
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Militello K, Simon R, Qureshi M, Maines R, VanHorne M, Hennick S, et al. Conservation of Dcm-mediated cytosine DNA methylation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;328:78-85 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, cytosine DNA methylation is catalyzed by the DNA cytosine methyltransferase (Dcm) protein and occurs at the second cytosine in the sequence 5'CCWGG3'...
  2. Dar M, Bhagwat A. Mechanism of expression of DNA repair gene vsr, an Escherichia coli gene that overlaps the DNA cytosine methylase gene, dcm. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:823-33 pubmed
    The DNA cytosine methylase gene of Escherichia coli, dcm, overlaps an open reading frame (ORF) that continues in +1 register past the end of dcm...
  3. Lundblad V, Kleckner N. Mismatch repair mutations of Escherichia coli K12 enhance transposon excision. Genetics. 1985;109:3-19 pubmed
    ..mutations (mutT, polA, ung), different excision repair pathways (uvrA, uvrB) or the state of DNA methylation (dcm) have no effect on Tn10 excision. Mutations ssb-113 and mutD5, however, do increase Tn10 excision...
  4. Hanck T, Schmidt S, Fritz H. Sequence-specific and mechanism-based crosslinking of Dcm DNA cytosine-C5 methyltransferase of E. coli K-12 to synthetic oligonucleotides containing 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:303-9 pubmed
    The product of the dcm gene is the only DNA cytosine-C5 methyltransferase of Escherichia coli K-12; it catalyses transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to the C-5 position of the inner cytosine residue of the cognate ..
  5. Bell D, Cupples C. Very-short-patch repair in Escherichia coli requires the dam adenine methylase. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3631-5 pubmed
    ..We also show that production of the dcm-encoded cytosine methylase is unaffected in Dam(-) strains...
  6. Bale A, D ALARCAO M, Marinus M. Characterization of DNA adenine methylation mutants of Escherichia coli K12. Mutat Res. 1979;59:157-65 pubmed
    ..Unmethylated fd phage chromosomes are able to replicate normally in dam- mutants. A mutant strain in which the dcm gene is deleted is viable, showing that the dcm gene product is dispensible for growth.
  7. May M, Hattaman S. Deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylation by host- and plasmid-controlled enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1975;122:129-38 pubmed
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cytosine methylation specified by the wild-type Escherichia coli K 12 mec+ gene and by the N-3 drug resistance (R) factor was studied in vivo and in vitro...
  8. Liu Q, Chen X, Zhao X, Chen Y, Chen D. The effect of methylation outside the recognition sequence of restriction endonuclease PvuII on its cleavage efficiency. Gene. 1992;113:89-93 pubmed
    This study is to extend our earlier observation that Dam and Dcm methylation outside the PvuII recognition sequence inhibited PvuII cleavage in one of the three PvuII sites of pGEM4Z-ras DNA...
  9. Sohail A, Lieb M, Dar M, Bhagwat A. A gene required for very short patch repair in Escherichia coli is adjacent to the DNA cytosine methylase gene. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4214-21 pubmed
    ..The gene essential for cytosine methylation, dcm, is predicted to code for a 473-amino-acid protein and is not required for VSP repair...

More Information

Publications58

  1. Hanck T, Gerwin N, Fritz H. Nucleotide sequence of the dcm locus of Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:5844 pubmed
  2. Hattman S, Schlagman S, Cousens L. Isolation of a mutant of Escherichia coli defective in cytosine-specific deoxyribonucleic acid methylase activity and in partial protection of bacteriophage lambda against restriction by cells containing the N-3 drug-resistance factor. J Bacteriol. 1973;115:1103-7 pubmed
    A mutant (designated mec(-)) of Escherichia coli F(+) 100 endo I(-)su(+) r(K) (-)m(K) (+) has been isolated which is defective in cytosine-specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylase activity...
  3. Davis R, van der Lelie D, Mercenier A, Daly C, Fitzgerald G. ScrFI restriction-modification system of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503: cloning and characterization of two ScrFI methylase genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:777-85 pubmed
    ..5). The amino acid sequence contained the highly characteristic motifs of an m5C methylase. Extensive regions of homology were observed with the methylases of NlaX, EcoRII, and Dcm.
  4. Lieb M. Spontaneous mutation at a 5-methylcytosine hotspot is prevented by very short patch (VSP) mismatch repair. Genetics. 1991;128:23-7 pubmed
    In many strains of Escherichia coli, the product of gene dcm methylates the internal cytosines in the sequence 5'CC(A or T)GG...
  5. Song Y, Rueter T, Geiger R. DNA cleavage by AatI and StuI is sensitive to Escherichia coli dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:2718 pubmed
  6. Bhagwat A, Roberts R. Genetic analysis of the 5-azacytidine sensitivity of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:1537-46 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, a strain of E. coli carrying a recA mutation and a deletion of the DNA cytosine methylase gene (dcm) was found to be significantly sensitive to 5-azaC. Study of mutations in the pyrimidine salvage pathway of E...
  7. Bancroft I, Smith R. An analysis of restriction endonuclease sites in cyanophages infecting the heterocystous cyanobacteria Anabaena and Nostoc. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 3):739-43 pubmed
    ..sites containing subsequences which are methylated by host (Anabaena PCC 7120) methylase(s) akin to the dam and dcm enzymes of Escherichia coli. Other sites which are counter-selected have no common sequence structure...
  8. Kruger D, Schroeder C, Reuter M, Bogdarina I, Buryanov Y, Bickle T. DNA methylation of bacterial viruses T3 and T7 by different DNA methylases in Escherichia coli K12 cells. Eur J Biochem. 1985;150:323-30 pubmed
    ..of the genomes of the related bacteriophages T3 and T7 to the three major DNA methyltransferases (EcoK, dam, dcm) of their host, Escherichia coli K12...
  9. Jones M, Wagner R, Radman M. Mismatch repair of deaminated 5-methyl-cytosine. J Mol Biol. 1987;194:155-9 pubmed
    ..Heteroduplexes of bacteriophage lambda DNA containing a G-T mismatch at the site of a G-5-meC base-pair in one of the parental phages were constructed and used to transfect Escherichia coli cells...
  10. Lieb M. Bacterial genes mutL, mutS, and dcm participate in repair of mismatches at 5-methylcytosine sites. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5241-6 pubmed
    ..VSP mismatch repair was greatly reduced in a dcm Escherichia coli mutant, in which 5-methylcytosine was not methylated...
  11. Szyf M, Avraham Haetzni K, Reifman A, Shlomai J, Kaplan F, Oppenheim A, et al. DNA methylation pattern is determined by the intracellular level of the methylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:3278-82 pubmed
    ..The sites that are methylated by the mec methylase in both plasmid and lambda phage DNAs were undermethylated in the dam overproducer as well...
  12. Backman K. A cautionary note on the use of certain restriction endonucleases with methylated substrates. Gene. 1980;11:169-71 pubmed
    ..resistant to cleavage by certain restriction endonucleases at those sites at which the recognition sequence for such an endonuclease overlaps (but does not include) a sequence recognized by methylases specified by the dam or dcm gene.
  13. Lal D, Som S, Friedman S. Survival and mutagenic effects of 5-azacytidine in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 1988;193:229-36 pubmed
    ..The dcm, MspI, and EcoRII methyltransferase genes all decreased survival...
  14. Urieli Shoval S, Gruenbaum Y, Razin A. Sequence and substrate specificity of isolated DNA methylases from Escherichia coli C. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:274-80 pubmed
    ..activities of Escherichia coli C, the mec (designates DNA-cytosine-methylase gene, which is also designated dcm) and dam gene products, were physically separated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography...
  15. Palmer B, Marinus M. The dam and dcm strains of Escherichia coli--a review. Gene. 1994;143:1-12 pubmed
    ..deficient in the methylation of adenine and cytosine residues in DNA by the methyltransferases (MTases) Dam and Dcm has allowed the study of the role of these enzymes in the biology of Escherichia coli...
  16. Hughes J, Brown L, Ferro A. Expression of the cloned coliphage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene inhibits DNA methylation and polyamine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:3625-32 pubmed
    ..High levels of AdoMetase expression impaired AdoMet-mediated activities such as dam and dcm methylase-directed DNA modifications and the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine...
  17. Macintyre G, Pitsikas P, Cupples C. Growth phase-dependent regulation of Vsr endonuclease may contribute to 5-methylcytosine mutational hot spots in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:4435-6 pubmed
    Using rabbit polyclonal antibodies, we have shown that the Dcm cytosine methylase of Escherichia coli is maintained at a constant level during cell growth, while Vsr endonuclease levels are growth phase dependent...
  18. . Resistance to acridines and thymineless death in a mec- mutant of Escherichia coli [proceedings]. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1977;29 Suppl:12P pubmed
  19. Chen D, Liu Q, Chen X, Zhao X, Chen Y. The inhibition of restriction endonuclease PvuII cleavage activity by methylation outside its recognition sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5703-5 pubmed
    The recombinant plasmid pGEM4Z-ras DNA which was methylated on dam and dcm sites outside the PvuII recognition sequence was digested with restriction endonuclease PvuII, and one of the three PvuII sites was about 16-fold less efficient ..
  20. Takahashi N, Naito Y, Handa N, Kobayashi I. A DNA methyltransferase can protect the genome from postdisturbance attack by a restriction-modification gene complex. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6100-8 pubmed
    ..b>Dcm gene product, one of these orphan methyltransferases found in Escherichia coli and related bacteria, methylates DNA ..
  21. Lieb M, Bhagwat A. Very short patch mismatch repair activity associated with gene dcm is not conferred by a plasmid coding for EcoRII methylase. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4967-8 pubmed
    ..methylase in Escherichia coli K-12 methylates the second cytosine in the sequence CC (A/T)GG and is encoded by gene dcm. Methylation and very short patch mismatch repair activities lacking in a dcm mutant of E...
  22. May M, Hattman S. Analysis of bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid sequences methylated by host- and R-factor-controlled enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1975;123:768-70 pubmed
    ..Pyrimidine tracts containing 3H-labeled 5-methylcytosine (MeC) were analyzed; in all cases, the major methylated sequence was 5' ... C-MeC-T ... 3'.
  23. Shenoy S, Ehrlich K, Ehrlich M. Repair of thymine.guanine and uracil.guanine mismatched base-pairs in bacteriophage M13mp18 DNA heteroduplexes. J Mol Biol. 1987;197:617-26 pubmed
    ..mismatched base was observed whether the heteroduplex RF DNA molecules had only one or both strands unmethylated at dcm (5'-CC(A/T)GG-3') sites and whether the RF DNA was prepared by primer extension in vitro or by reannealing mutant ..
  24. Marinus M, Morris N. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid methylase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1973;114:1143-50 pubmed
    ..Eleven of the DNA methylation mutants were deficient in 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) and were designated Dcm. Three DNA methylation mutants were deficient in N(6)-methyladenine (N(6)-MeA) and were designated Dam...
  25. Crooks P, Tribe M, Pinney R. Inhibition of bacterial DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and some related compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1984;36:85-9 pubmed
    ..DNA methylation was assayed in cell extracts from E. coli strain J6-2 dcm+, proficient in DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase activity, containing substrate DNA isolated from E...
  26. Labbe D, Höltke H, Lau P. Cloning and characterization of two tandemly arranged DNA methyltransferase genes of Neisseria lactamica: an adenine-specific M.NlaIII and a cytosine-type methylase. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;224:101-10 pubmed
    ..EcoRII, Dcm, M.HpaII and M.HhaI) which all have a modified cytosine at the second position of the recognition sequences. Both M...
  27. Petropoulos L, Vidmar J, Passi E, Cupples C. A simple assay for monitoring the mutagenic effects of 5-methylcytosine deamination in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 1994;304:181-5 pubmed
    ..We show that the frequency of occurrence of the mutation is influenced by two genes: dcm, the cytosine methylase gene, and vsr, one of the genes involved in very short patch repair...
  28. Korba B, Hays J. Partially deficient methylation of cytosine in DNA at CCATGG sites stimulates genetic recombination of bacteriophage lambda. Cell. 1982;28:531-41 pubmed
    ..m5C) than phages grown on wild-type bacteria ("Arl+" phages) but more than phages grown on dcm mutants, and thus lacking the methylated sequences (Cm5CATGG) characteristic of E...
  29. Hattman S. Partial purification of the Escherichia coli K-12 mec+ deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylase: in vitro methylation completely protects bacteriophage lambda deoxyribonucleic acid against cleavage by R-EcoRII. J Bacteriol. 1977;129:1330-4 pubmed
    ..of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cytosine methylases controlled by the RII plasmid and by the Escherichia coli mec+ gene...
  30. Lutsenko E, Bhagwat A. Principal causes of hot spots for cytosine to thymine mutations at sites of cytosine methylation in growing cells. A model, its experimental support and implications. Mutat Res. 1999;437:11-20 pubmed
    ..G mismatches can be quantitatively modeled to explain the occurrence of the hot spot at 5meC. This model has implications for mutational hot and cold spots in all organisms. ..
  31. Rieger A, Nassal M. Restriction endonuclease Alw NI is blocked by overlapping Dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:4148 pubmed
  32. Schlagman S, Hattman S, May M, Berger L. In vivo methylation by Escherichia coli K-12 mec+ deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylase protects against in vitro cleavage by the RII restriction endonuclease (R. Eco RII). J Bacteriol. 1976;126:990-6 pubmed
    ..Eco RII). The results are summarized as follows: (i) fd, mec- RFI, isolated from infected E...
  33. Macintyre G, Atwood C, Cupples C. Lowering S-adenosylmethionine levels in Escherichia coli modulates C-to-T transition mutations. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:921-7 pubmed
    Deoxycytosine methylase (Dcm) enzyme activity causes mutagenesis in vitro either directly by enzyme-induced deamination of cytosine to uracil in the absence of the methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), or indirectly through ..
  34. Barbe J, Gibert I, Guerrero R. 5-Azacytidine: survival and induction of the SOS response in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutat Res. 1986;166:9-16 pubmed
    ..This compound did not produce any effect on the viability of dcm and dam dcm mutants...
  35. Sturm R, Yaciuk P. DNA cleavage by restriction endonuclease PflMI is inhibited in recognition sites modified by dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3615 pubmed
  36. Friedman S. Bactericidal effect of 5-azacytidine on Escherichia coli carrying EcoRII restriction-modification enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:262-8 pubmed
    ..Coumermycin but not nalidixic acid antagonized the bactericidal effect of the drug; however, coumermycin was more effective in preventing the inhibition of the methylase by 5-azacytidine than was nalidixic acid. ..
  37. Ringquist S, Smith C. The Escherichia coli chromosome contains specific, unmethylated dam and dcm sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4539-43 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli chromosome encodes two methylases, dam and dcm, which recognize the sequences GATC and CC(A/T)GG, respectively. Specific dam and dcm sites on the E...
  38. Mural R. Cleavage by the restriction endonuclease Asp718, an isoschizomer of KpnI, is sensitive to Escherichia coli Dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:9085 pubmed
  39. Larimer F. Cleavage by ApaI is inhibited by overlapping dcm methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:9087 pubmed
  40. Gómez Eichelmann M, Alvarez G. Genetic expression and gyrase dependence of methylated and undermethylated DNA in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;825:335-8 pubmed
    The genetic expression and dependence on gyrase of plasmid pBR322 were studied in dam-3, dcm-6, and dam-3 dcm-6 derivatives of a minicell-producing Escherichia coli strain...
  41. Lee S, Butler D, Kleckner N. Efficient Tn10 transposition into a DNA insertion hot spot in vivo requires the 5-methyl groups of symmetrically disposed thymines within the hot-spot consensus sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7876-80 pubmed
    ..innermost cytosines of this sequence happen to be substrates for methylation at their 5 positions by the bacterial dcm-encoded methylase...
  42. Lieb M, Allen E, Read D. Very short patch mismatch repair in phage lambda: repair sites and length of repair tracts. Genetics. 1986;114:1041-60 pubmed
    ..mutations subject to VSP repair are C to T transitions in 5'CCATGG, the sequence methylated by the product of gene dcm, and also in the related 5'CAGG or 5'CCAG sequences...
  43. Dreiseikelmann B, Wackernagel W. Absence in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus of the sequence-specific deoxyribonucleic acid methylation that is conferred in Escherichia coli K-12 by the dam and dcm enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:259-61 pubmed
    ..The results showed that neither B. subtilis nor S. aureus methylates deoxyribonucleic acid at the same sites and nucleotides which are recognized and methylated by dam and dcm enzymes in E. coli K-12.
  44. Bhagwat A, Johnson B, Weule K, Roberts R. Primary sequence of the EcoRII endonuclease and properties of its fusions with beta-galactosidase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:767-73 pubmed
    ..The methylation of the second cytosine in the sequence by either the EcoRII methylase or Dcm, a chromosomally coded protein in Escherichia coli, inhibits the cleavage...
  45. Bhagwat A, Sohail A, Roberts R. Cloning and characterization of the dcm locus of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:751-5 pubmed
    The dcm locus of Escherichia coli K-12 has been shown to code for a methylase that methylates the second cytosine within the sequence 5'-CC(A/T)GG-3'...
  46. Zell R, Fritz H. DNA mismatch-repair in Escherichia coli counteracting the hydrolytic deamination of 5-methyl-cytosine residues. EMBO J. 1987;6:1809-15 pubmed
    ..e. they carry a T/G mismatch in the special sequence context provided by the recognition site -CCA/TGG-of the Dcm-methyltransferase). Upon introduction of these heteroduplex DNAs into CaCl2-treated E...
  47. Yang M, Ser S, Lee C. Involvement of E. coli dcm methylase in Tn3 transposition. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1989;13:276-83 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Tn3 was found to transpose more frequently in dcm+ (deoxycytosine methylase) cells than in dcm- mutants...
  48. Lieb M, Bhagwat A. Very short patch repair: reducing the cost of cytosine methylation. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:467-73 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the product of gene dcm methylates the second cytosine of 5'-CCWGG sequences (where W is A or T). Deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5meC) results in C to T mutations...
  49. Szyf M, Gruenbaum Y, Urieli Shoval S, Razin A. Studies on the biological role of DNA methylation: V. The pattern of E.coli DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:7247-59 pubmed
    ..coli and a methylation deficient (dam- dcm-) mutant...