dam

Summary

Gene Symbol: dam
Description: DNA adenine methyltransferase
Alias: ECK3374, JW3350
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     dam

Top Publications

  1. Rasmussen L, Marinus M, Løbner Olesen A. Novel growth rate control of dam gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:631-8 pubmed
    Transcription of the dam gene in Escherichia coli is growth rate regulated by a mechanism distinct from that used for ribosomal RNA gene promoters...
  2. Olsson J, Dasgupta S, Berg O, Nordström K. Eclipse period without sequestration in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1429-40 pubmed
    ..For strains with seqA, dam and damseqA mutants, the length of the eclipse period was 0.16, 0.40 and 0.32 generation times respectively...
  3. Nowosielska A, Marinus M. Cisplatin induces DNA double-strand break formation in Escherichia coli dam mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:773-81 pubmed
    Escherichia coli dam cells are more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of cisplatin than wildtype...
  4. Robbins Manke J, Zdraveski Z, Marinus M, Essigmann J. Analysis of global gene expression and double-strand-break formation in DNA adenine methyltransferase- and mismatch repair-deficient Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7027-37 pubmed
    DNA adenine methylation by DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in Escherichia coli plays an important role in processes such as DNA replication initiation, gene expression regulation, and mismatch repair. In addition, E...
  5. Wion D, Casadesus J. N6-methyl-adenine: an epigenetic signal for DNA-protein interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:183-92 pubmed
    ..In gamma-proteobacteria, Dam methylation regulates chromosome replication, nucleoid segregation, DNA repair, transposition of insertion elements ..
  6. von Freiesleben U, Krekling M, Hansen F, Løbner Olesen A. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2000;19:6240-8 pubmed
    ..An inverse relationship was found between the length of the eclipse and the amount of Dam methyltransferase in the cell, indicating that the eclipse corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation...
  7. Mashhoon N, Carroll M, Pruss C, Eberhard J, Ishikawa S, Estabrook R, et al. Functional characterization of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase, a novel target for antibiotics. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52075-81 pubmed
    ..Our studies provide a basis for further structural and functional analysis of this important enzyme and for the identification of inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. ..
  8. Bulanenkova S, Snezhkov E, Nikolaev L, Sverdlov E. Identification and mapping of open chromatin regions within a 140 kb polygenic locus of human chromosome 19 using E. coli Dam methylase. Genetica. 2007;130:83-92 pubmed
    Using transient expression of the E. coli Dam methylase gene and analysis of the distribution of methylated GATC sites, we studied the distribution of open chromatin regions within a 140 kb long human genome segment in HEK-293 cells...
  9. Horton J, Liebert K, Bekes M, Jeltsch A, Cheng X. Structure and substrate recognition of the Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase. J Mol Biol. 2006;358:559-70 pubmed
    The structure of the Escherichia coli Dam DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase in complex with cognate DNA was determined at 1.89 A resolution in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine...
  10. Gabig M, Herman Antosiewicz A, Kwiatkowska M, Los M, Thomas M, Wegrzyn G. The cell surface protein Ag43 facilitates phage infection of Escherichia coli in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates. Microbiology. 2002;148:1533-42 pubmed

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Rasmussen L, Marinus M, Løbner Olesen A. Novel growth rate control of dam gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:631-8 pubmed
    Transcription of the dam gene in Escherichia coli is growth rate regulated by a mechanism distinct from that used for ribosomal RNA gene promoters...
  2. Olsson J, Dasgupta S, Berg O, Nordström K. Eclipse period without sequestration in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1429-40 pubmed
    ..For strains with seqA, dam and damseqA mutants, the length of the eclipse period was 0.16, 0.40 and 0.32 generation times respectively...
  3. Nowosielska A, Marinus M. Cisplatin induces DNA double-strand break formation in Escherichia coli dam mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:773-81 pubmed
    Escherichia coli dam cells are more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of cisplatin than wildtype...
  4. Robbins Manke J, Zdraveski Z, Marinus M, Essigmann J. Analysis of global gene expression and double-strand-break formation in DNA adenine methyltransferase- and mismatch repair-deficient Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7027-37 pubmed
    DNA adenine methylation by DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in Escherichia coli plays an important role in processes such as DNA replication initiation, gene expression regulation, and mismatch repair. In addition, E...
  5. Wion D, Casadesus J. N6-methyl-adenine: an epigenetic signal for DNA-protein interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:183-92 pubmed
    ..In gamma-proteobacteria, Dam methylation regulates chromosome replication, nucleoid segregation, DNA repair, transposition of insertion elements ..
  6. von Freiesleben U, Krekling M, Hansen F, Løbner Olesen A. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2000;19:6240-8 pubmed
    ..An inverse relationship was found between the length of the eclipse and the amount of Dam methyltransferase in the cell, indicating that the eclipse corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation...
  7. Mashhoon N, Carroll M, Pruss C, Eberhard J, Ishikawa S, Estabrook R, et al. Functional characterization of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase, a novel target for antibiotics. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52075-81 pubmed
    ..Our studies provide a basis for further structural and functional analysis of this important enzyme and for the identification of inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. ..
  8. Bulanenkova S, Snezhkov E, Nikolaev L, Sverdlov E. Identification and mapping of open chromatin regions within a 140 kb polygenic locus of human chromosome 19 using E. coli Dam methylase. Genetica. 2007;130:83-92 pubmed
    Using transient expression of the E. coli Dam methylase gene and analysis of the distribution of methylated GATC sites, we studied the distribution of open chromatin regions within a 140 kb long human genome segment in HEK-293 cells...
  9. Horton J, Liebert K, Bekes M, Jeltsch A, Cheng X. Structure and substrate recognition of the Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase. J Mol Biol. 2006;358:559-70 pubmed
    The structure of the Escherichia coli Dam DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase in complex with cognate DNA was determined at 1.89 A resolution in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine...
  10. Gabig M, Herman Antosiewicz A, Kwiatkowska M, Los M, Thomas M, Wegrzyn G. The cell surface protein Ag43 facilitates phage infection of Escherichia coli in the presence of bile salts and carbohydrates. Microbiology. 2002;148:1533-42 pubmed
  11. Chahar S, Elsawy H, Ragozin S, Jeltsch A. Changing the DNA recognition specificity of the EcoDam DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase by directed evolution. J Mol Biol. 2010;395:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the new methyltransferases are fully functional in vivo and in vitro but show a new target-site specificity. ..
  12. Messer W, Bellekes U, Lother H. Effect of dam methylation on the activity of the E. coli replication origin, oriC. EMBO J. 1985;4:1327-32 pubmed
    Methylation of GATC sites by the dam methylase is required for efficient initiation of DNA replication at the replication origin, oriC, of Escherichia coli...
  13. Reddy M, Gowrishankar J. Characterization of the uup locus and its role in transposon excisions and tandem repeat deletions in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1978-86 pubmed
    ..are divisible into two categories, depending upon whether they did (uup, ssb, polA, and topA) or did not (mutHLS, dam, and uvrD) also increase precise excision frequency of the mini-Tn10 derivatives...
  14. McCool J, Long E, Petrosino J, Sandler H, Rosenberg S, Sandler S. Measurement of SOS expression in individual Escherichia coli K-12 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1343-57 pubmed
    ..The patterns displayed by priA, dnaT, recG, uvrD, dam, ftsK, rnhA, polA and xerC mutants were explained best by the TPM while only lexA (def), lexA3 (ind-) and recA ..
  15. Seshasayee A. An assessment of the role of DNA adenine methyltransferase on gene expression regulation in E coli. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e273 pubmed
    ..In gamma-proteobacteria, Dam is a stand-alone enzyme that methylates GATC sites, which are non-randomly distributed in the genome...
  16. Bergerat A, Guschlbauer W. The double role of methyl donor and allosteric effector of S-adenosyl-methionine for Dam methylase of E. coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4369-75 pubmed
    ..coli strongly decreases when the temperature is lowered. This has allowed us to study the binding of Dam methylase on 14 bp DNA fragments at 0 degrees C by gel retardation in the presence of Ado-Met, but without ..
  17. Klysik J. Both an altered DNA structure and cellular proteins are involved in protecting a triplex forming an oligopurine-rich sequence from Dam methylation in E. coli. Biochem Genet. 1996;34:165-78 pubmed
    When the 4-bp Dam recognition sequence was placed between two d(GA)7 tracts, it became severely undermethylated in JM101 Escherichia coli cells compared to other Dam sequences in the same plasmid DNA...
  18. Waldron D, Owen P, Dorman C. Competitive interaction of the OxyR DNA-binding protein and the Dam methylase at the antigen 43 gene regulatory region in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:509-20 pubmed
    ..agn43 transcription start site in a region of DNA that encompasses three 5'-GATC-3' sequences that are subject to Dam-mediated DNA methylation...
  19. Landoulsi A, Hughes P, Kern R, Kohiyama M. dam methylation and the initiation of DNA replication on oriC plasmids. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;216:217-23 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome (oriC) has been shown to be inefficient as a template for DNA synthesis in vitro when isolated from dam mutants...
  20. Trun N, Gottesman S. Characterization of Escherichia coli mutants with altered ploidy. Res Microbiol. 1991;142:195-200 pubmed
    ..these cell cycle mutants, we have coupled them with defects in recA, to test for induction of the SOS response, and dam, to determine if methylation is required for mbr function...
  21. Urig S, Gowher H, Hermann A, Beck C, Fatemi M, Humeny A, et al. The Escherichia coli dam DNA methyltransferase modifies DNA in a highly processive reaction. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:1085-96 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli dam adenine-N6 methyltransferase modifies DNA at GATC sequences. It is involved in post-replicative mismatch repair, control of DNA replication and gene regulation. We show that E...
  22. Boye E, Marinus M, Løbner Olesen A. Quantitation of Dam methyltransferase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1682-5 pubmed
    An antiserum against Escherichia coli Dam methyltransferase has been developed in rabbits and employed to detect and quantitate the enzyme in immunoblots. A wild-type, rapidly growing E...
  23. Jacquelín D, Martina M, Argaraña C, Barra J. Plasmid expression of mutS, -L and/or -H gene in Escherichia coli dam cells results in strains that display reduced mutation frequency. Mutat Res. 2008;637:197-204 pubmed
    ..Unpaired double-strand breaks on a fraction of the replication errors occurring in dam cells presumably cause cell death, selectively eliminating these putative mutants from the population...
  24. Daghfous D, Chatti A, Marzouk B, Landoulsi A. Phospholipid changes in seqA and dam mutants of Escherichia coli. C R Biol. 2006;329:271-6 pubmed
    SeqA and Dam proteins were known to be responsible for regulating the initiation of replication and to affect the expression of many genes and metabolisms...
  25. Olsson J, Nordström K, Hjort K, Dasgupta S. Eclipse-synchrony relationship in Escherichia coli strains with mutations affecting sequestration, initiation of replication and superhelicity of the bacterial chromosome. J Mol Biol. 2003;334:919-31 pubmed
    ..is also believed to be responsible for initiation synchrony, since inactivation of either the seqA or the dam gene abolishes synchrony while drastically reducing the eclipse...
  26. Marinus M, Morris N. Pleiotropic effects of a DNA adenine methylation mutation (dam-3) in Escherichia coli K12. Mutat Res. 1975;28:15-26 pubmed
    The dam-3 mutation results in a five-fold reduction in the number of 6-methyl-adenine (6-meA) residues in the DNA of E. coli K12 or phage lambda. The DNA of phage fd appears to be devoid of 6-meA when propagated on dam-3 bacteria...
  27. Løbner Olesen A, Boye E, Marinus M. Expression of the Escherichia coli dam gene. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1841-51 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli dam gene and upstream sequences were cloned from the Kohara phage 4D4. Five promoters were found to contribute to dam gene transcription. P1 and P2 (the major promoter) were situated approximately 3...
  28. Onogi T, Yamazoe M, Ichinose C, Niki H, Hiraga S. Null mutation of the dam or seqA gene suppresses temperature-sensitive lethality but not hypersensitivity to novobiocin of muk null mutants. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5898-901 pubmed
    ..We show here that the associated muk null mutations cause hypersensitivity to novobiocin. Null mutation of either dam or seqA suppressed partially the temperature-sensitive lethality but failed to suppress the anucleate cell ..
  29. Haagmans W, van der Woude M. Phase variation of Ag43 in Escherichia coli: Dam-dependent methylation abrogates OxyR binding and OxyR-mediated repression of transcription. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:877-87 pubmed
    ..protein Antigen43 (Ag43) of Escherichia coli requires the DNA-methylating enzyme deoxyadenosine methyltransferase (Dam) and the global regulator OxyR...
  30. Horton J, Liebert K, Hattman S, Jeltsch A, Cheng X. Transition from nonspecific to specific DNA interactions along the substrate-recognition pathway of dam methyltransferase. Cell. 2005;121:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These structures illustrate the transition in enzyme-DNA interaction from nonspecific to specific interaction, suggesting that there is a temporal order for formation of specific contacts...
  31. Zhou P, Bogan J, Welch K, Pickett S, Wang H, Zaritsky A, et al. Gene transcription and chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:163-9 pubmed
    ..Levels of transcripts from four of the genes, dam, nrdA, mukB, and seqA, were reduced at a certain stage during chromosome replication...
  32. Lyngstadaas A, L bner Olesen A, Boye E. Characterization of three genes in the dam-containing operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;247:546-54 pubmed
    The dam-containing operon in Escherichia coli is located at 74 min on the chromosomal map and contains the genes aroK, aroB, a gene called urf74.3, dam and trpS...
  33. Yang H, Wolff E, Kim M, Diep A, Miller J. Identification of mutator genes and mutational pathways in Escherichia coli using a multicopy cloning approach. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:283-95 pubmed
    ..known to cause mutator effects under overexpression conditions: error-prone polymerase IV (DinB), DNA methylase (Dam) and sigma S factor (RpoS)...
  34. Wyrzykowski J, Volkert M. The Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system repairs base pairs containing oxidative lesions. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1701-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that a dam mutant has an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide treatment that can be suppressed by mutations that ..
  35. Lu A, Clark S, Modrich P. Methyl-directed repair of DNA base-pair mismatches in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4639-43 pubmed
    ..1983) Genetics, in press], in vivo mismatch correction of f1 heteroduplexes is directed by the state of dam methylation of d(G-A-T-C) sequences within the DNA duplex...
  36. Wu T, Grelland E, Boye E, Marinus M. Identification of a weak promoter for the dam gene of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1131:47-52 pubmed
    ..identify a weak promoter located about 70 nucleotides before the start site of translation of the Escherichia coli dam gene which encodes a DNA methyltransferase...
  37. Marinus M. Recombination is essential for viability of an Escherichia coli dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) mutant. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:463-8 pubmed
    Double mutants of Escherichia coli dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) strains with ruvA, ruvB, or ruvC could not be constructed, whereas dam derivatives with recD, recF, recJ, and recR were viable...
  38. Bergerat A, Guschlbauer W, Fazakerley G. Allosteric and catalytic binding of S-adenosylmethionine to Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase monitored by 3H NMR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:6394-7 pubmed
    ..The methylation reaction was also studied in the presence of a competitive inhibitor and this showed two successive stages involved in the methylation and two sites of binding for S-adenosylmethionine. ..
  39. Guyot J, Grassi J, Hahn U, Guschlbauer W. The role of the preserved sequences of Dam methylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3183-90 pubmed
    We have undertaken a site directed mutational analysis of two of the preserved regions in the amino acid sequence of Dam methylase in order to characterize their role...
  40. Glickman B, Radman M. Escherichia coli mutator mutants deficient in methylation-instructed DNA mismatch correction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:1063-7 pubmed
    ..mutants was based upon the isolation of 2-aminopurine-resistant second-site revertants of Escherichia coli dam- mutants...
  41. Jeltsch A, Christ F, Fatemi M, Roth M. On the substrate specificity of DNA methyltransferases. adenine-N6 DNA methyltransferases also modify cytosine residues at position N4. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19538-44 pubmed
    ..We show here that the M.EcoRV, M.EcoRI, and Escherichia coli dam methyltransferases as well as the N- and C-terminal domains of the M...
  42. Pollak A, Reich N. Proximal recognition sites facilitate intrasite hopping by DNA adenine methyltransferase: mechanistic exploration of epigenetic gene regulation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22873-81 pubmed publisher
    The methylation of adenine in palindromic 5'-GATC-3' sites by Escherichia coli Dam supports diverse roles, including the essential regulation of virulence genes in several human pathogens...
  43. Ferullo D, Lovett S. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000300 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact...
  44. Urieli Shoval S, Gruenbaum Y, Razin A. Sequence and substrate specificity of isolated DNA methylases from Escherichia coli C. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:274-80 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli C, the mec (designates DNA-cytosine-methylase gene, which is also designated dcm) and dam gene products, were physically separated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography...
  45. Costantino N, Court D. Enhanced levels of lambda Red-mediated recombinants in mismatch repair mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15748-53 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Beta is the only bacteriophage function required for this level of recombination and suggest that Beta directs the ssDNA to the replication fork as it passes the target sequence. ..
  46. Jonczyk P, Hines R, Smith D. The Escherichia coli dam gene is expressed as a distal gene of a new operon. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:85-96 pubmed
    DNA containing the Escherichia coli dam gene and sequences upstream from this gene were cloned from the Clarke-Carbon plasmids pLC29-47 and pLC13-42...
  47. Carraway M, Marinus M. Repair of heteroduplex DNA molecules with multibase loops in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:3972-80 pubmed
    ..The repair of both the mismatch and the loops was directed by the state of dam methylation of the DNA chains and was dependent on the product of the mutS gene...
  48. Hall C, Yanofsky C. Cloning and characterization of the gene for Escherichia coli tryptophanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:941-9 pubmed
    ..We also describe the construction of an inphase trpS-lacZ gene fusion that is under the control of the trpS promoter and encodes a hybrid protein with beta-galactosidase activity. ..
  49. Horton J, Zhang X, Blumenthal R, Cheng X. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:4296-308 pubmed publisher
    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria...
  50. Smith D, Garland A, Herman G, Enns R, Baker T, Zyskind J. Importance of state of methylation of oriC GATC sites in initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1985;4:1319-26 pubmed
    ..Transformation frequencies of oriC plasmids into E. coli dam mutants, deficient in the GATC-specific DNA methylase, are greatly reduced compared with parental dam+ cells, ..
  51. Liebert K, Hermann A, Schlickenrieder M, Jeltsch A. Stopped-flow and mutational analysis of base flipping by the Escherichia coli Dam DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:443-54 pubmed
    ..using 2-aminopurine as a probe to detect base flipping, we show here that base flipping by the Escherichia coli Dam DNA-(adenine-N6)-methyltransferase (MTase) is a biphasic process: target base flipping is very fast (k(flip)>240 ..
  52. Peterson K, Mount D. Analysis of the genetic requirements for viability of Escherichia coli K-12 DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7505-8 pubmed
    RecBCD protein, necessary for Escherichia coli dam mutant viability, is directly required for DNA repair...
  53. Boye E, Løbner Olesen A, Skarstad K. Limiting DNA replication to once and only once. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:479-83 pubmed
    ..All cells have developed mechanisms for origin inactivation, but those of other bacteria and eukaryotic cells are clearly distinct from those of E. coli. Possible differences and similarities are discussed. ..
  54. Liebert K, Horton J, Chahar S, Orwick M, Cheng X, Jeltsch A. Two alternative conformations of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine bound to Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase and the implication of conformational changes in regulating the catalytic cycle. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22848-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the hexapeptide couples specific DNA binding (Lys(9)), AdoMet binding (Trp(10)), and insertion of the flipped target base into the active site pocket (Lys(14)). ..
  55. Herman G, Modrich P. Escherichia coli dam methylase. Physical and catalytic properties of the homogeneous enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:2605-12 pubmed
  56. Lyngstadaas A, Løbner Olesen A, Grelland E, Boye E. The gene for 2-phosphoglycolate phosphatase (gph) in Escherichia coli is located in the same operon as dam and at least five other diverse genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1472:376-84 pubmed
    Downstream of the dam gene in the Escherichia coli genome the following three genes are located: first rpe, then a gene encoding a 27 kDa protein and finally trpS...
  57. Coffin S, Reich N. Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase: the structural basis of processive catalysis and indirect read-out. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18390-400 pubmed publisher
  58. Pukkila P, Peterson J, Herman G, Modrich P, Meselson M. Effects of high levels of DNA adenine methylation on methyl-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1983;104:571-82 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair acts to correct errors of replication, thus lowering the mutation rate. ..
  59. Matic I, Ekiert D, Radman M, Kohiyama M. Generation of DNA-free Escherichia coli cells by 2-aminopurine requires mismatch repair and nonmethylated DNA. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:339-42 pubmed
    ..initiated by the incorporation of the base analog 2-aminopurine kills DNA-methylation-deficient Escherichia coli dam cells by DNA double-strand breakage...
  60. Henderson I, Owen P. The major phase-variable outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli structurally resembles the immunoglobulin A1 protease class of exported protein and is regulated by a novel mechanism involving Dam and oxyR. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2132-41 pubmed
    ..Evidence strongly suggests that phase variation is regulated by both deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) and by OxyR...
  61. Correnti J, Munster V, Chan T, Woude M. Dam-dependent phase variation of Ag43 in Escherichia coli is altered in a seqA mutant. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:521-32 pubmed
    ..Transcription of agn43 occurs (ON phase) when three Dam target sequences in the agn43 regulatory region are methylated, which prevents the repressor OxyR from binding...
  62. Plumbridge J, Soll D. The effect of dam methylation on the expression of glnS in E. coli. Biochimie. 1987;69:539-41 pubmed
    The wild type glnS promoter contains a dam methylation site. In dam strains, the expression of glnS is enhanced 2.6-fold. A mutated form of the promoter has been isolated in which the dam methylation site is lost...
  63. Marinus M, Morris N. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid methylase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1973;114:1143-50 pubmed
    ..Three DNA methylation mutants were deficient in N(6)-methyladenine (N(6)-MeA) and were designated Dam. Extracts of the mutants were tested for DNA-cytosine:S-adenosylmethionine and DNA-adenine:S-adenosylmethionine ..
  64. Brooks J, Blumenthal R, Gingeras T. The isolation and characterization of the Escherichia coli DNA adenine methylase (dam) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:837-51 pubmed
    The E. coli dam (DNA adenine methylase) enzyme is known to methylate the sequence GATC. A general method for cloning sequence-specific DNA methylase genes was used to isolate the dam gene on a 1...
  65. Rasmussen L, Løbner Olesen A, Marinus M. Growth-rate-dependent transcription initiation from the dam P2 promoter. Gene. 1995;157:213-5 pubmed
    Transcription of the dam gene in Escherichia coli is dependent on growth rate...
  66. McGraw B, Marinus M. Isolation and characterization of Dam+ revertants and suppressor mutations that modify secondary phenotypes of dam-3 strains of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;178:309-15 pubmed
    Bacteria mutant in the dam (DNA adenine methylation) gene and in either recA or recB or recC genes are inviable (Virm- phenotype). From crosses between dam-3 bacteria and recA1 or recB21 recC22 strains, Vrm+ recombinants were recovered...
  67. Bang J, Bae S, Park C, Lee J, Choi B. Structural and dynamics study of DNA dodecamer duplexes that contain un-, hemi-, or fully methylated GATC sites. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:17688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The two G.C base pairs of the hemimethylated GATC duplex displayed a faster base-pair opening rate and required less energy for the base-pair opening reaction than did those of the fully methylated one. ..
  68. Sohanpal B, El Labany S, Lahooti M, Plumbridge J, Blomfield I. Integrated regulatory responses of fimB to N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid and GlcNAc in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16322-7 pubmed
    ..The NanR- and NagC-binding sites lie adjacent to deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam) methylation sites (5'-GATC) that are protected from modification, and the two regulators are shown to be required ..
  69. Laengle Rouault F, Maenhaut Michel G, Radman M. GATC sequence and mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1986;5:2009-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of GATC sequence(s) in the substrate appears to be required for full mismatch repair activity and not only for its strand specificity according to the GATC methylation state. ..
  70. Palmer B, Marinus M. The dam and dcm strains of Escherichia coli--a review. Gene. 1994;143:1-12 pubmed
    ..of strains deficient in the methylation of adenine and cytosine residues in DNA by the methyltransferases (MTases) Dam and Dcm has allowed the study of the role of these enzymes in the biology of Escherichia coli...
  71. Bell D, Cupples C. Very-short-patch repair in Escherichia coli requires the dam adenine methylase. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3631-5 pubmed
    Strains of Escherichia coli which lack the dam-encoded adenine methylase are mutators due to a reduction in the efficiency of postreplication mismatch repair...
  72. Kang S, Lee H, Han J, Hwang D. Interaction of SeqA and Dam methylase on the hemimethylated origin of Escherichia coli chromosomal DNA replication. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:11463-8 pubmed
    ..SeqA protein to hemimethylated oriC, the origin of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication, delays methylation by Dam methylase...