Gene Symbol: cysN
Description: sulfate adenylyltransferase, subunit 1
Alias: ECK2746, JW2721
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Leyh T, Taylor J, Markham G. The sulfate activation locus of Escherichia coli K12: cloning, genetic, and enzymatic characterization. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:2409-16 pubmed
    ..the expression of both the cysD gene, encoding a 27-kDa polypeptide, and a previously unidentified gene, denoted cysN, which encodes a 62-kDa polypeptide...
  2. Wei J, Liu C, Leyh T. The role of enzyme isomerization in the native catalytic cycle of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. Biochemistry. 2000;39:4704-10 pubmed
    ..These findings are incorporated into a model of the energy-coupling mechanism. ..
  3. Wei J, Leyh T. Conformational change rate-limits GTP hydrolysis: the mechanism of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase. Biochemistry. 1998;37:17163-9 pubmed
    ..The implications of these finding for GTPase/target interactions and the mechanism of energetic linkage in the ATP sulfurylase system are discussed. ..
  4. Leyh T. On the advantages of imperfect energetic linkage. Methods Enzymol. 1999;308:48-70 pubmed
  5. Leyh T, Suo Y. GTPase-mediated activation of ATP sulfurylase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:542-5 pubmed
    ..The larger subunit of ATP sulfurylase, encoded by cysN, contains a GTP-binding consensus sequence common to other known GTP-binding proteins...
  6. Sukal S, Leyh T. Product release during the first turnover of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:15009-16 pubmed
    ..PP(i).E.GTP']/[AMP.PP(i).E.GDP.P(i)] = 0.7. The data are fit, using global analysis, to obtain a complete kinetic and energetic description of this GTPase reaction. ..
  7. Liu C, Martin E, Leyh T. GTPase activation of ATP sulfurylase: the mechanism. Biochemistry. 1994;33:2042-7 pubmed
    ..Product inhibition studies indicate that PPi release occurs prior to the addition of sulfate and APS formation. These results are used to construct a proposed mechanism for the GTP-activated synthesis of APS. ..
  8. Yang M, Leyh T. Altering the reaction coordinate of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase reaction. Biochemistry. 1997;36:3270-7 pubmed
    ..The Gibbs energy changes that occur in the reaction coordinate upon binding of AMP clearly show that the catalytic effect of AMP is due primarily to its -3.1 kcal/mol stabilization of the rate-limiting transition state. ..
  9. Wei J, Leyh T. Isomerization couples chemistry in the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. Biochemistry. 1999;38:6311-6 pubmed
    ..GTP complex. The newly formed contact(s) appears to carry into the bond-breaking transition state, and to be essential for the enhanced affinity and reactivity of the nucleotide. ..

More Information


  1. Sun M, Leyh T. Anatomy of an energy-coupling mechanism--the interlocking catalytic cycles of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13941-8 pubmed
    ..Release rate constants are determined for each product and used to construct a quantitative model of the mechanism that accurately predicts the behavior of this complex system. ..
  2. Leyh T, Vogt T, Suo Y. The DNA sequence of the sulfate activation locus from Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:10405-10 pubmed
    ..The sequence includes the structural genes encoding the enzymes ATP sulfurylase (cysD and cysN) and APS kinase (cysC) which catalyze the synthesis of activated sulfate...
  3. Pilloff D, Leyh T. Allosteric and catalytic functions of the PPi-binding motif in the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50435-41 pubmed
  4. Liu C, Suo Y, Leyh T. The energetic linkage of GTP hydrolysis and the synthesis of activated sulfate. Biochemistry. 1994;33:7309-14 pubmed
    ..These findings establish the mechanism of energy transfer in this novel GTPase/target system, and substantially alter our understanding of the energetics of sulfate activation, an essential step in the metabolic assimilation of sulfur. ..
  5. Wang R, Liu C, Leyh T. Allosteric regulation of the ATP sulfurylase associated GTPase. Biochemistry. 1995;34:490-5 pubmed
    ..These studies provide an in-depth view of the energetic interactions between the two active sites at each step of the APS-forming reaction. ..
  6. Liu C, Wang R, Varlamova O, Leyh T. Regulating energy transfer in the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. Biochemistry. 1998;37:3886-92 pubmed
    ..This versatile linkage might well be used to the cell's advantage to avoid the toxicity associated with an excess of activated sulfate. ..
  7. Wei J, Tang Q, Varlamova O, Roche C, Lee R, Leyh T. Cysteine biosynthetic enzymes are the pieces of a metabolic energy pump. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8493-8 pubmed
    ..These findings integrate cysteine metabolism and broaden our understanding of the ways in which higher order allostery is used to effect free energy transfer. ..
  8. Malo M, Loughlin R. Promoter elements and regulation of expression of the cysD gene of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene. 1990;87:127-31 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented for a possible CysB protein binding site around -89, thought to be involved in regulation of expression of the cysD gene. ..