Gene Symbol: cspE
Description: constitutive cold shock family transcription antitermination protein; negative regulator of cspA transcription; RNA melting protein; ssDNA-binding protein
Alias: ECK0616, JW0618, gicA, msmC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Phadtare S, Inouye M, Severinov K. The nucleic acid melting activity of Escherichia coli CspE is critical for transcription antitermination and cold acclimation of cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7239-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we selected a mutation in the cloned cspE gene that abolished CspE-induced transcription antitermination...
  2. Hanna M, Liu K. Nascent RNA in transcription complexes interacts with CspE, a small protein in E. coli implicated in chromatin condensation. J Mol Biol. 1998;282:227-39 pubmed
    ..This protein was purified and sequenced and found to match a hypothetical protein, MsmC/CspE, recently shown to be involved in chromatin partitioning...
  3. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Sequence-selective interactions with RNA by CspB, CspC and CspE, members of the CspA family of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:1004-14 pubmed
    ..identification of the target genes of Csp proteins, we investigated the RNA binding specificities of CspB, CspC and CspE by an in vitro selection approach (SELEX)...
  4. Xia B, Ke H, Inouye M. Acquirement of cold sensitivity by quadruple deletion of the cspA family and its suppression by PNPase S1 domain in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:179-88 pubmed
    ..million molecules per cell at low temperature and growth defect was not observed until four csp genes (cspA, cspB, cspE and cspG) were deleted...
  5. Phadtare S, Tyagi S, Inouye M, Severinov K. Three amino acids in Escherichia coli CspE surface-exposed aromatic patch are critical for nucleic acid melting activity leading to transcription antitermination and cold acclimation of cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46706-11 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the functional role of the aromatic patch in E. coli CspE by substituting individual aromatic residues with positively charged Arg residues...
  6. Nakaminami K, Karlson D, Imai R. Functional conservation of cold shock domains in bacteria and higher plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10122-7 pubmed
    ..coli CSPs. Constitutive expression of WT WCSP1 in an E. coli cspA, cspB, cspE, cspG quadruple deletion mutant complemented its cold-sensitive phenotype, suggesting that WCSP1 shares a function ..
  7. Yamanaka K, Fang L, Inouye M. The CspA family in Escherichia coli: multiple gene duplication for stress adaptation. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:247-55 pubmed
    ..The E. coli CspA family will be discussed in terms of their structures and functions, and their gene structures and regulation. ..
  8. Bae W, Phadtare S, Severinov K, Inouye M. Characterization of Escherichia coli cspE, whose product negatively regulates transcription of cspA, the gene for the major cold shock protein. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1429-41 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the cellular function of CspE, we constructed a delta cspE strain. CspE is highly produced at 37 degrees C...
  9. Bae W, Xia B, Inouye M, Severinov K. Escherichia coli CspA-family RNA chaperones are transcription antiterminators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7784-9 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that CspA, as well as homologous RNA chaperones CspE and CspC, are transcription antiterminators...

More Information


  1. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Role of CspC and CspE in regulation of expression of RpoS and UspA, the stress response proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Two members of this family, CspC and CspE, are constitutively produced at 37 degrees C...
  2. Feng Y, Huang H, Liao J, Cohen S. Escherichia coli poly(A)-binding proteins that interact with components of degradosomes or impede RNA decay mediated by polynucleotide phosphorylase and RNase E. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31651-6 pubmed
    ..coli proteins that interact at high affinity with poly(A) tracts. We report here that CspE, a member of a family of RNA-binding "cold shock" proteins, and S1, an essential component of the 30 S ..
  3. Hu K, Liu E, Dean K, Gingras M, DeGraff W, Trun N. Overproduction of three genes leads to camphor resistance and chromosome condensation in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1996;143:1521-32 pubmed
    We isolated and characterized three genes, crcA, cspE and crcB, which when present in high copy confer camphor resistance on a cell and suppress mutations in the chromosomal partition gene mukB. Both phenotypes require the same genes...
  4. Phadtare S, Inouye M, Severinov K. The mechanism of nucleic acid melting by a CspA family protein. J Mol Biol. 2004;337:147-55 pubmed
    ..Nucleic acid melting by Escherichia coli CspE is critical for its ability to support low-temperature survival of the cell...
  5. Trun N, Johnston D. Folding chromosomes in bacteria: examining the role of Csp proteins and other small nucleic acid-binding proteins. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2003;55:173-201 pubmed
  6. Uppal S, Maurya S, Hire R, Jawali N. Cyclic AMP receptor protein regulates cspE, an early cold-inducible gene, in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6142-51 pubmed publisher
    b>cspE, a member of the cspA family of cold shock proteins in Escherichia coli, is an early cold-inducible protein...
  7. Shiba Y, Yokoyama Y, Aono Y, Kiuchi T, Kusaka J, Matsumoto K, et al. Activation of the Rcs signal transduction system is responsible for the thermosensitive growth defect of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6526-35 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that envelope stress due to an acidic phospholipid deficiency activates the Rcs phosphorelay system and thereby causes the thermosensitive growth defect independent of the activation of capsule synthesis. ..
  8. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the cold shock response in wild-type and cold-sensitive, quadruple-csp-deletion strains of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7007-14 pubmed
    ..The deletion of four csps (cspA, cspB, cspG, and cspE) affected cold shock induction of mostly those genes that are transiently induced in the acclimation phase, ..
  9. El Sharoud W, Graumann P. Cold shock proteins aid coupling of transcription and translation in bacteria. Sci Prog. 2007;90:15-27 pubmed
    ..Members of both protein families have recently been shown to interact, suggesting that a two-step process achieves the coupling process, removal of secondary mRNA structures through CSHs and prevention of reformation through CSPs. ..
  10. Phadtare S, Zhu L, Uemori T, Mukai H, Kato I, Inouye M. Applications of nucleic acid chaperone activity of CspA and its homologues. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The low substrate specificity of Csps together with their compatibility with various enzymes and their stability and activity over a broad temperature range makes them ideal candidates to be used for a variety of processes. ..
  11. Sand O, Gingras M, Beck N, Hall C, Trun N. Phenotypic characterization of overexpression or deletion of the Escherichia coli crcA, cspE and crcB genes. Microbiology. 2003;149:2107-17 pubmed publisher
    The authors have previously shown that overexpression of the Escherichia coli K-12 crcA, cspE and crcB genes protects the chromosome from decondensation by camphor...
  12. Kim J, Park S, Kwak K, Kim Y, Kim J, Song J, et al. Cold shock domain proteins and glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana can promote the cold adaptation process in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:506-16 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that CSDPs and GRPs help E.coli grow and survive better during cold shock, and strongly imply that CSDP1 and GRP7 exhibit RNA chaperone activity during the cold adaptation process. ..
  13. Harrington E, Trun N. Unfolding of the bacterial nucleoid both in vivo and in vitro as a result of exposure to camphor. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2435-9 pubmed
    ..We show that exposure of isolated nucleoids to camphor results in unfolding of the chromosome. ..
  14. Jones P, Inouye M. The cold-shock response--a hot topic. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:811-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to E. coli, cold-shock proteins have also been found in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ..
  15. Phadtare S, Severinov K. Comparative analysis of changes in gene expression due to RNA melting activities of translation initiation factor IF1 and a cold shock protein of the CspA family. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Csp proteins and IF1 have different sets of target genes as they may be suppressing the function of different types of transcription termination elements in specific genes. ..
  16. Yamanaka K, Mitani T, Ogura T, Niki H, Hiraga S. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of multicopy suppressors of a mukB mutation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:301-12 pubmed
    ..To identify proteins interacting with the MukB protein, we isolated three multicopy suppressors (msmA, msmB, and msmC) to the temperature-sensitive colony formation of the mukB106 mutation...
  17. Reid G, Shang H, Hogan J, Lee G, McLuckey S. Gas-phase concentration, purification, and identification of whole proteins from complex mixtures. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:7353-62 pubmed
    ..The identification of these proteins illustrates the potential of this "top-down" protein identification approach to reduce the reliance on condensed-phase chemistries and extensive separations for complex protein mixture analysis...
  18. Dai Y, Li L, Roser D, Long S. Detection and identification of low-mass peptides and proteins from solvent suspensions of Escherichia coli by high performance liquid chromatography fractionation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1999;13:73-8 pubmed
    ..coli. The methodologies reported here should be very useful in searching for unique biomarkers for bacterial discrimination. ..
  19. Johnston D, Tavano C, Wickner S, Trun N. Specificity of DNA binding and dimerization by CspE from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40208-15 pubmed
    The CspE protein from Escherichia coli K12 is a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein that plays a role in chromosome condensation in vivo...
  20. Uppal S, Akkipeddi V, Jawali N. Posttranscriptional regulation of cspE in Escherichia coli: involvement of the short 5'-untranslated region. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;279:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of the cspE upstream region revealed two promoter-like motifs having high scores...
  21. Phadtare S, Severinov K. Nucleic acid melting by Escherichia coli CspE. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5583-90 pubmed
    ..Disruption of nucleic acid melting activity of CspE led to loss of its transcription antitermination activity and consequently its cold acclimation activity...
  22. Phadtare S, Tadigotla V, Shin W, Sengupta A, Severinov K. Analysis of Escherichia coli global gene expression profiles in response to overexpression and deletion of CspC and CspE. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2521-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli cold shock protein CspA family consists of nine proteins (CspA to CspI), of which two, CspE and CspC, are constitutively produced at 37 degrees C and are involved in regulation of expression of genes encoding stress ..
  23. Etchegaray J, Jones P, Inouye M. Differential thermoregulation of two highly homologous cold-shock genes, cspA and cspB, of Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 1996;1:171-8 pubmed
    ..4 kDa protein. A CspA family has been found which consists of four additional proteins, CspB, CspC, CspD and CspE. The expression of cspB, unlike the other homologues, is cold-shock inducible like cspA...
  24. Mangoli S, Sanzgiri V, Mahajan S. A common regulator of cold and radiation response in Escherichia coli. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2001;20:23-6 pubmed
    High levels of the protein product of gicA/cspE, a member of cspA family of cold stress genes, are known to be associated with several pleiotropic phenotypes in Escherichia coli...
  25. Chen C, Korobkova E, Chen H, Zhu J, Jian X, Tao S, et al. A proteome chip approach reveals new DNA damage recognition activities in Escherichia coli. Nat Methods. 2008;5:69-74 pubmed
    ..coli proteome chips have the potential to reveal important interactions between proteins and nucleic acids that are time-consuming and difficult to detect using other techniques. ..