cspA

Summary

Gene Symbol: cspA
Description: RNA chaperone and antiterminator, cold-inducible
Alias: ECK3543, JW3525
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Nakaminami K, Karlson D, Imai R. Functional conservation of cold shock domains in bacteria and higher plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10122-7 pubmed
    ..coli CSPs. Constitutive expression of WT WCSP1 in an E. coli cspA, cspB, cspE, cspG quadruple deletion mutant complemented its cold-sensitive phenotype, suggesting that WCSP1 shares ..
  2. Jiang W, Hou Y, Inouye M. CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is an RNA chaperone. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:196-202 pubmed
    b>CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is dramatically induced during the cold-shock response...
  3. Phadtare S, Alsina J, Inouye M. Cold-shock response and cold-shock proteins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999;2:175-80 pubmed
    ..Cold-shock proteins are synthesized to overcome the deleterious effects of cold shock. CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, has recently been studied with respect to its structure, ..
  4. Goldstein J, Pollitt N, Inouye M. Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:283-7 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the gene encoding this protein and have completed the nucleotide sequence analysis, which revealed that the gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 70 amino acid residues...
  5. Xia B, Ke H, Inouye M. Acquirement of cold sensitivity by quadruple deletion of the cspA family and its suppression by PNPase S1 domain in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:179-88 pubmed
    Escherichia coli contains a large CspA family, CspA to CspI. Here, we demonstrate that E...
  6. Schindelin H, Jiang W, Inouye M, Heinemann U. Crystal structure of CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5119-23 pubmed
    The major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, CspA, produced upon a rapid downshift in growth temperature, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of at least two genes...
  7. Zaremba S, Gregoret L. Context-dependence of amino acid residue pairing in antiparallel beta-sheets. J Mol Biol. 1999;291:463-79 pubmed
    ..behind antiparallel beta-sheet assembly, we have investigated the mutational tolerance of four pairs of residues in CspA, the major cold shock protein of E. coli...
  8. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the cold shock response in wild-type and cold-sensitive, quadruple-csp-deletion strains of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7007-14 pubmed
    ..The deletion of four csps (cspA, cspB, cspG, and cspE) affected cold shock induction of mostly those genes that are transiently induced in the ..
  9. Wang N, Yamanaka K, Inouye M. Acquisition of double-stranded DNA-binding ability in a hybrid protein between Escherichia coli CspA and the cold shock domain of human YB-1. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:526-34 pubmed
    Escherichia coli CspA, a major cold shock protein, is dramatically induced upon temperature downshift...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Fang L, Xia B, Inouye M. Transcription of cspA, the gene for the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is negatively regulated at 37 degrees C by the 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;176:39-43 pubmed
    The gene for CspA, the major cold-shock protein in Escherichia coli, is tightly regulated at both optimal and low temperatures. While CspA is drastically induced after temperature downshift, it is hardly detectable at 37 degrees C...
  2. Kim J, Park S, Kwak K, Kim Y, Kim J, Song J, et al. Cold shock domain proteins and glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana can promote the cold adaptation process in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:506-16 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that CSDPs and GRPs help E.coli grow and survive better during cold shock, and strongly imply that CSDP1 and GRP7 exhibit RNA chaperone activity during the cold adaptation process. ..
  3. Inouye M, Phadtare S. Cold shock response and adaptation at near-freezing temperature in microorganisms. Sci STKE. 2004;2004:pe26 pubmed
    ..This emphasizes the fact that different groups of microorganisms exhibit distinct types of cold shock responses. ..
  4. Vasina J, Peterson M, Baneyx F. Scale-up and optimization of the low-temperature inducible cspA promoter system. Biotechnol Prog. 1998;14:714-21 pubmed
    ..was investigated in batch fermentations using a plasmid-encoded transcriptional gene fusion between the cspA promoter region and the lacZ gene...
  5. Xia B, Etchegaray J, Inouye M. Nonsense mutations in cspA cause ribosome trapping leading to complete growth inhibition and cell death at low temperature in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35581-8 pubmed
    b>CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, is dramatically induced immediately after cold shock. CspA production is transient and reduces to a low basal level when cells become adapted...
  6. Vu D, Reid K, Rodriguez H, Gregoret L. Examination of the folding of E. coli CspA through tryptophan substitutions. Protein Sci. 2001;10:2028-36 pubmed
    Escherichia coli cold shock protein, CspA, folds very rapidly (time constant, tau = 4 msec) by an apparent two-state mechanism...
  7. Etchegaray J, Inouye M. CspA, CspB, and CspG, major cold shock proteins of Escherichia coli, are induced at low temperature under conditions that completely block protein synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1827-30 pubmed
    b>CspA, CspB, and CspG, the major cold shock proteins of Escherichia coli, are dramatically induced upon temperature downshift...
  8. Fang L, Hou Y, Inouye M. Role of the cold-box region in the 5' untranslated region of the cspA mRNA in its transient expression at low temperature in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:90-5 pubmed
    Upon temperature downshift, a group of proteins called cold shock proteins, such as CspA, CspB, and CsdA, are transiently induced in Escherichia coli...
  9. Mitta M, Fang L, Inouye M. Deletion analysis of cspA of Escherichia coli: requirement of the AT-rich UP element for cspA transcription and the downstream box in the coding region for its cold shock induction. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:321-35 pubmed
    In order to analyse the mechanism of cold shock induction of CspA, a major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, deletion analysis of the cspA gene was carried out...
  10. Reid K, Rodriguez H, Hillier B, Gregoret L. Stability and folding properties of a model beta-sheet protein, Escherichia coli CspA. Protein Sci. 1998;7:470-9 pubmed
    ..Here we examine the folding of a small, all beta-sheet protein, the E. coli major cold shock protein CspA, using both equilibrium and kinetic methods...
  11. Feng W, Tejero R, Zimmerman D, Inouye M, Montelione G. Solution NMR structure and backbone dynamics of the major cold-shock protein (CspA) from Escherichia coli: evidence for conformational dynamics in the single-stranded RNA-binding site. Biochemistry. 1998;37:10881-96 pubmed publisher
    The major cold-shock protein (CspA) from Escherichia coli is a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein that is produced in response to cold stress...
  12. Vasina J, Baneyx F. Expression of aggregation-prone recombinant proteins at low temperatures: a comparative study of the Escherichia coli cspA and tac promoter systems. Protein Expr Purif. 1997;9:211-8 pubmed
    ..as a model system to compare the efficiencies of the IPTG-inducible tac promoter and the low-temperature-inducible cspA promoter in directing the expression of soluble recombinant polypeptides at reduced growth temperatures in ..
  13. Strocchi M, Ferrer M, Timmis K, Golyshin P. Low temperature-induced systems failure in Escherichia coli: insights from rescue by cold-adapted chaperones. Proteomics. 2006;6:193-206 pubmed
    ..coli cells at low temperatures. ..
  14. Pai E. Familiar jaws with new twists. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:307-9 pubmed
  15. Hankins J, Denroche H, Mackie G. Interactions of the RNA-binding protein Hfq with cspA mRNA, encoding the major cold shock protein. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2482-90 pubmed publisher
    b>CspA, a small protein that is highly induced by cold shock, is encoded by a monocistronic mRNA of 428 nucleotides (nt) whose half-life and abundance are greatly increased following cold shock...
  16. Brandi A, Spurio R, Gualerzi C, Pon C. Massive presence of the Escherichia coli 'major cold-shock protein' CspA under non-stress conditions. EMBO J. 1999;18:1653-9 pubmed
    ..The most characteristic event of cold-shock activation in Escherichia coli is believed to be the de novo synthesis of CspA. We demonstrate, however, that the cellular concentration of this protein is > or = 50 microM during early ..
  17. Karanicolas J, Brooks C. The importance of explicit chain representation in protein folding models: an examination of Ising-like models. Proteins. 2003;53:740-7 pubmed
  18. Trun N, Johnston D. Folding chromosomes in bacteria: examining the role of Csp proteins and other small nucleic acid-binding proteins. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2003;55:173-201 pubmed
  19. Goldenberg D, Azar I, Oppenheim A, Brandi A, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Role of Escherichia coli cspA promoter sequences and adaptation of translational apparatus in the cold shock response. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;256:282-90 pubmed
    A shift in growth temperature from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C leads to a dramatic increase in the level of CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli...
  20. Bae W, Jones P, Inouye M. CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, negatively regulates its own gene expression. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7081-8 pubmed
    When the gene for CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, was disrupted by a novel positive/negative selection method, the deltacspA cells did not show any discernible growth defect at either 37 or 15 degrees C...
  21. Jiang W, Fang L, Inouye M. Complete growth inhibition of Escherichia coli by ribosome trapping with truncated cspA mRNA at low temperature. Genes Cells. 1996;1:965-76 pubmed
    b>CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is transiently induced upon temperature downshift and considered to play an important role in low-temperature adaptation...
  22. Goldenberg D, Azar I, Oppenheim A. Differential mRNA stability of the cspA gene in the cold-shock response of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:241-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated the control of expression of the cspA gene, coding for the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli...
  23. Constantinidou C, Hobman J, Griffiths L, Patel M, Penn C, Cole J, et al. A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4802-15 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that NarP might function as a global repressor as well as a transcription activator. The data also revealed possible new defense mechanisms against reactive nitrogen species. ..
  24. Fraser K, Tuite N, Bhagwat A, O Byrne C. Global effects of homocysteine on transcription in Escherichia coli: induction of the gene for the major cold-shock protein, CspA. Microbiology. 2006;152:2221-31 pubmed
    ..The gene showing the strongest induction by Hcy was cspA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein CspA...
  25. Newkirk K, Feng W, Jiang W, Tejero R, Emerson S, Inouye M, et al. Solution NMR structure of the major cold shock protein (CspA) from Escherichia coli: identification of a binding epitope for DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5114-8 pubmed
    Sequence-specific 1H and 15N resonance assignments have been determined for the major cold shock protein (CspA) from Escherichia coli with recently developed three-dimensional triple-resonance NMR experiments...
  26. Etchegaray J, Jones P, Inouye M. Differential thermoregulation of two highly homologous cold-shock genes, cspA and cspB, of Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 1996;1:171-8 pubmed
    The major cold-shock protein in Escherichia coli is CspA, a 7.4 kDa protein. A CspA family has been found which consists of four additional proteins, CspB, CspC, CspD and CspE...
  27. Brandi A, Pietroni P, Gualerzi C, Pon C. Post-transcriptional regulation of CspA expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:231-40 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli cspA gene, encoding the major cold-shock protein CspA, was deprived of its natural promoter and placed in an expression vector under the control of the inducible lambda PL promoter...
  28. Brombacher E, Baratto A, Dorel C, Landini P. Gene expression regulation by the Curli activator CsgD protein: modulation of cellulose biosynthesis and control of negative determinants for microbial adhesion. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2027-37 pubmed
    ..The cspA and fecR genes, encoding regulatory proteins responding to cold shock and to iron, respectively, and yoaD, encoding ..
  29. Johnston D, Tavano C, Wickner S, Trun N. Specificity of DNA binding and dimerization by CspE from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40208-15 pubmed
    ..We present a possible mechanism to explain the role of CspE in chromosome condensation in vivo by CspE binding to distant DNA regions in the chromosome and dimerizing, thereby condensing the intervening DNA. ..
  30. Hankins J, Zappavigna C, Prud homme Généreux A, Mackie G. Role of RNA structure and susceptibility to RNase E in regulation of a cold shock mRNA, cspA mRNA. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4353-8 pubmed
    Degradation of the cspA mRNA in vivo is very rapid at temperatures greater than 30 degrees C and is moderately dependent on RNase E...
  31. El Sharoud W, Graumann P. Cold shock proteins aid coupling of transcription and translation in bacteria. Sci Prog. 2007;90:15-27 pubmed
    ..Members of both protein families have recently been shown to interact, suggesting that a two-step process achieves the coupling process, removal of secondary mRNA structures through CSHs and prevention of reformation through CSPs. ..
  32. de Bono S, Riechmann L, Girard E, Williams R, Winter G. A segment of cold shock protein directs the folding of a combinatorial protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1396-401 pubmed
    ..a polypeptide segment comprising three beta-strands in the monomeric, five-stranded beta-barrel cold shock protein (CspA) of Escherichia coli as a building block...
  33. Polissi A, De Laurentis W, Zangrossi S, Briani F, Longhi V, Pesole G, et al. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:573-80 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found that PNPase both negatively and positively modulated the transcript abundance of some of these genes, thus suggesting a complex role of PNPase in controlling cold adaptation. ..
  34. Tanabe H, Goldstein J, Yang M, Inouye M. Identification of the promoter region of the Escherichia coli major cold shock gene, cspA. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3867-73 pubmed
    ..The transcription of its gene (cspA) was found to be tightly regulated and induced only at low temperature...
  35. Jones P, Krah R, Tafuri S, Wolffe A. DNA gyrase, CS7.4, and the cold shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5798-802 pubmed
  36. La Teana A, Brandi A, Falconi M, Spurio R, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Identification of a cold shock transcriptional enhancer of the Escherichia coli gene encoding nucleoid protein H-NS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:10907-11 pubmed
    ..6 (CS7.4), the product of cspA. This purified protein, which is homologous to human DNA-binding protein YB-1, recognizes some feature of the 110-..
  37. Xia B, Ke H, Jiang W, Inouye M. The Cold Box stem-loop proximal to the 5'-end of the Escherichia coli cspA gene stabilizes its mRNA at low temperature. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6005-11 pubmed
    The 5'-end region of cspA mRNA contains a Cold Box sequence conserved among several cold-shock mRNAs. This region forms a stable stem-loop structure followed by an AU-rich sequence...
  38. Giangrossi M, Gualerzi C, Pon C. Mutagenesis of the downstream region of the Escherichia coli hns promoter. Biochimie. 2001;83:251-9 pubmed
    ..the initiation site, two four bp-long 'CG clamps', one of which overlaps the potential target sequence (CCAAT) of CspA, the cold-shock transcriptional enhancer of this gene...
  39. Shukla A, Sharma S, Guptasarma P. Confocal spectrofluorimetric evidence for the hetero-aggregation of sequence-scrambled forms of two model all-beta sheet proteins. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;41:650-4 pubmed
    ..coli CspA and C. elegans HSP12.6, both earlier created and characterized by our group...
  40. Lee S, Xie A, Jiang W, Etchegaray J, Jones P, Inouye M. Family of the major cold-shock protein, CspA (CS7.4), of Escherichia coli, whose members show a high sequence similarity with the eukaryotic Y-box binding proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:833-9 pubmed
    The cspA is a gene of Escherichia coli, whose expression is specifically induced at low temperatures to a level of 13% of total protein synthesis...
  41. Hillier B, Rodriguez H, Gregoret L. Coupling protein stability and protein function in Escherichia coli CspA. Fold Des. 1998;3:87-93 pubmed
    b>CspA is a small protein that binds single-stranded RNA and DNA. The binding site of CspA consists of a cluster of aromatic amino acids, which form an unusually large nonpolar patch on the surface of the protein...
  42. Brandi A, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Interaction of the main cold shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter region of hns. Biochimie. 1994;76:1090-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli protein CS7.4 (CspA), homologous to the class of eukaryotic Y-box DNA-binding proteins, is a cold shock transcriptional activator of at least two genes, hns and gyrA...
  43. Phadtare S, Severinov K. Extended -10 motif is critical for activity of the cspA promoter but does not contribute to low-temperature transcription. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6584-9 pubmed
    ..The promoter of cspA, a gene that codes for the major cold shock protein CspA of E. coli, contains an extended -10 motif...
  44. Hwang J, Lee K, Phadtare S, Inouye M. Identification of two DNA helicases UvrD and DinG as suppressors for lethality caused by mutant cspA mRNAs. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:135-46 pubmed publisher
    b>CspA is a major cold shock-inducible protein (70 aa), and its major role in the cold shock response was shown to be as an RNA chaperone destabilizing secondary structure of mRNAs at low temperature...
  45. Jones P, Inouye M. The cold-shock response--a hot topic. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:811-8 pubmed
    ..The major cold-shock protein, CspA, has high sequence similarity with three other E. coli proteins--CspB, CspC, and CspD...
  46. Giuliodori A, Brandi A, Gualerzi C, Pon C. Preferential translation of cold-shock mRNAs during cold adaptation. RNA. 2004;10:265-76 pubmed
    ..b>CspA was found to be among these trans-acting factors...
  47. Phadtare S, Severinov K, Inouye M. Assay of transcription antitermination by proteins of the CspA family. Methods Enzymol. 2003;371:460-71 pubmed
  48. Giangrossi M, Exley R, Le Hegarat F, Pon C. Different in vivo localization of the Escherichia coli proteins CspD and CspA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;202:171-6 pubmed
    Two Csp proteins (CspA and CspD) were fused to the green fluorescent protein GFP and expressed from their natural promoters or from an inducible promoter...
  49. Jiang W, Fang L, Inouye M. The role of the 5'-end untranslated region of the mRNA for CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, in cold-shock adaptation. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4919-25 pubmed
    During cellular adaptation to low temperature, Escherichia coli transiently synthesizes the major cold-shock protein CspA. It was found that adaptation to cold shock is blocked when the 143-base sequence of the 5' untranslated region (5' ..
  50. Jiang W, Jones P, Inouye M. Chloramphenicol induces the transcription of the major cold shock gene of Escherichia coli, cspA. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:5824-8 pubmed
    ..We characterized the induction of the major cold shock protein (CS7.4, the product of the cspA gene) of E...
  51. Bae W, Phadtare S, Severinov K, Inouye M. Characterization of Escherichia coli cspE, whose product negatively regulates transcription of cspA, the gene for the major cold shock protein. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1429-41 pubmed
    Escherichia coli contains nine members of the CspA protein family from CspA to Cspl. To elucidate the cellular function of CspE, we constructed a delta cspE strain. CspE is highly produced at 37 degrees C...
  52. Bae W, Xia B, Inouye M, Severinov K. Escherichia coli CspA-family RNA chaperones are transcription antiterminators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7784-9 pubmed
    b>CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is an RNA chaperone, which is thought to facilitate translation at low temperature by destabilizing mRNA structures...
  53. Awano N, Xu C, Ke H, Inoue K, Inouye M, Phadtare S. Complementation analysis of the cold-sensitive phenotype of the Escherichia coli csdA deletion strain. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5808-15 pubmed
    ..We also observed that although not detected in our genetic screening, two cold shock-inducible proteins, namely, CspA, an RNA chaperone, and RNase R, an exonuclease, can also complement the cold shock function of CsdA...
  54. Ferrer M, Chernikova T, Yakimov M, Golyshin P, Timmis K. Chaperonins govern growth of Escherichia coli at low temperatures. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1266-7 pubmed
  55. Rodriguez H, Robertson A, Gregoret L. Native state EX2 and EX1 hydrogen exchange of Escherichia coli CspA, a small beta-sheet protein. Biochemistry. 2002;41:2140-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli CspA is a small all-beta-sheet protein that folds fast (tau = 4 ms) via an apparent two-state mechanism...
  56. Vasina J, Baneyx F. Recombinant protein expression at low temperatures under the transcriptional control of the major Escherichia coli cold shock promoter cspA. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:1444-7 pubmed
    A transcriptional gene fusion between the cspA promoter and the lacZ gene was constructed to assess the usefulness of cold shock promoters for low-temperature protein expression...
  57. Jones P, VanBogelen R, Neidhardt F. Induction of proteins in response to low temperature in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2092-5 pubmed
    ..The identities of several of these cold shock proteins correlate with previous observations that indicate a block in translation initiation at low temperatures. ..
  58. Didier D, Schiffenbauer J, Woulfe S, Zacheis M, Schwartz B. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a protein binding to the major histocompatibility complex class II Y box. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7322-6 pubmed
    ..It has a Mr of 35,414, contains 18% basic residues, and contains putative nuclear localization signals. An inverse correlation of YB-1 and HLA-DR beta chain mRNA levels suggests that YB-1 is a negative regulatory factor. ..
  59. Phadtare S, Zhu L, Uemori T, Mukai H, Kato I, Inouye M. Applications of nucleic acid chaperone activity of CspA and its homologues. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..degrees C and is characterized by induction of several cold shock proteins including its major cold shock protein, CspA. E. coli CspA family consists of nine members, CspA to CspI...