Gene Symbol: crr
Description: glucose-specific enzyme IIA component of PTS
Alias: ECK2412, JW2410, gsr, iex, tgs, treD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Pelton J, Torchia D, Meadow N, Roseman S. Structural comparison of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using three-dimensional NMR techniques. Biochemistry. 1992;31:5215-24 pubmed
    ..In the case of residues Ala-76, Asp-94, and Val-96, minor differences in NOEs, corresponding to interproton distances changes of less than 1.5 A, were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  2. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Eijkemans K, Yoshida H, Takahashi H, et al. Inducer exclusion in Escherichia coli by non-PTS substrates: the role of the PEP to pyruvate ratio in determining the phosphorylation state of enzyme IIAGlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:487-98 pubmed
    ..The implications of these new findings for our view on catabolite repression and inducer exclusion are discussed. ..
  3. Cai M, Williams D, Wang G, Lee B, Peterkofsky A, Clore G. Solution structure of the phosphoryl transfer complex between the signal-transducing protein IIAGlucose and the cytoplasmic domain of the glucose transporter IICBGlucose of the Escherichia coli glucose phosphotransferase system. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25191-206 pubmed
    ..IIBGlc and the two upstream complexes of the glucose phosphotransferase system (EI.HPr and IIAGlc.HPr) reveal a cascade in which highly overlapping binding sites on HPr and IIAGlc recognize structurally diverse proteins. ..
  4. Bettenbrock K, Fischer S, Kremling A, Jahreis K, Sauter T, Gilles E. A quantitative approach to catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2578-84 pubmed
    ..The different phenomena affecting the phosphorylation level of EIIACrr, the key regulation molecule for inducer exclusion and catabolite repression in enteric bacteria, can now be explained quantitatively. ..
  5. Rohwer J, Meadow N, Roseman S, Westerhoff H, Postma P. Understanding glucose transport by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system on the basis of kinetic measurements in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34909-21 pubmed
  6. Hurley J, Faber H, Worthylake D, Meadow N, Roseman S, Pettigrew D, et al. Structure of the regulatory complex of Escherichia coli IIIGlc with glycerol kinase. Science. 1993;259:673-7 pubmed
  7. Görke B, Stülke J. Carbon catabolite repression in bacteria: many ways to make the most out of nutrients. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss the most recent findings on the different mechanisms that have evolved to allow bacteria to use carbon sources in a hierarchical manner. ..
  8. Wang G, Louis J, Sondej M, Seok Y, Peterkofsky A, Clore G. Solution structure of the phosphoryl transfer complex between the signal transducing proteins HPr and IIA(glucose) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. EMBO J. 2000;19:5635-49 pubmed
  9. Bettenbrock K, Sauter T, Jahreis K, Kremling A, Lengeler J, Gilles E. Correlation between growth rates, EIIACrr phosphorylation, and intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6891-900 pubmed
    ..of carbon catabolism through inducer exclusion mediated by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent protein kinase enzyme IIA(Crr) (EIIA(Crr)) (= EIIA(Glc)) and catabolite repression mediated by the global regulator cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP ..

More Information


  1. Kühnau S, Reyes M, Sievertsen A, Shuman H, Boos W. The activities of the Escherichia coli MalK protein in maltose transport, regulation, and inducer exclusion can be separated by mutations. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2180-6 pubmed
  2. Wang G, Keifer P, Peterkofsky A. Solution structure of the N-terminal amphitropic domain of Escherichia coli glucose-specific enzyme IIA in membrane-mimetic micelles. Protein Sci. 2003;12:1087-96 pubmed
  3. Dean D, Reizer J, Nikaido H, Saier M. Regulation of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli by the glucose-specific enzyme III of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system. Characterization of inducer exclusion-resistant mutants and reconstitution of inducer exclus. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21005-10 pubmed
    ..Finally, the Ki for IIIglc was 40 microM, roughly the same as the in vivo concentration of IIIglc. ..
  4. Blüschke B, Volkmer Engert R, Schneider E. Topography of the surface of the signal-transducing protein EIIA(Glc) that interacts with the MalK subunits of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK2) of Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12833-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a synthetic peptide encompassing residues 69-91 was demonstrated to partially inhibit ATPase activity. We also show for the first time that the N-terminal domain of EIIA(Glc) is essential for inducer exclusion...
  5. Meadow N, Savtchenko R, Remington S, Roseman S. Effects of mutations and truncations on the kinetic behavior of IIAGlc, a phosphocarrier and regulatory protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11450-5 pubmed
    ..The results support the hypothesis (Wang, G., Peterkofsky, A., and Clore, G. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39811-39814) that the N-terminal 18-residue domain "docks" IIAGlc to the lipid bilayer of membranes containing IICBGlc. ..
  6. Worthylake D, Meadow N, Roseman S, Liao D, Herzberg O, Remington S. Three-dimensional structure of the Escherichia coli phosphocarrier protein IIIglc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:10382-6 pubmed
    ..The hydrophobic patch forms the primary crystal contact, suggesting a mode of association of IIIglc with other components of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. ..
  7. Chen Y, Reizer J, Saier M, Fairbrother W, Wright P. Mapping of the binding interfaces of the proteins of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr and IIAglc. Biochemistry. 1993;32:32-7 pubmed
    ..The binding interfaces of the two proteins, suggested by the observed chemical shift changes, involve predominantly hydrophobic surfaces near the active site His-15 of HPr and the phosphoryl acceptor His-83 of IIAglc. ..
  8. Krin E, Sismeiro O, Danchin A, Bertin P. The regulation of Enzyme IIA(Glc) expression controls adenylate cyclase activity in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2002;148:1553-9 pubmed
    ..This is caused by the reduced expression of crr, which encodes the Enzyme IIA(Glc) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), from ..
  9. Brun Y, Lapointe J. Locations of genes in the 52-minute region on the physical map of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4746-7 pubmed
  10. Francke C, Postma P, Westerhoff H, Blom J, Peletier M. Why the phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli escapes diffusion limitation. Biophys J. 2003;85:612-22 pubmed
  11. Pelton J, Torchia D, Meadow N, Wong C, Roseman S. Secondary structure of the phosphocarrier protein IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, determined by heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:3479-83 pubmed
  12. Kremling A, Bettenbrock K, Gilles E. Analysis of global control of Escherichia coli carbohydrate uptake. BMC Syst Biol. 2007;1:42 pubmed
    ..The model describes the relation between the growth rate and the degree of phosphorylation of EIIA crr for a number of carbohydrates by a distinctive response curve, that differentiates between PTS transported ..
  13. Britton P, Murfitt D, Parra F, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. Phosphotransferase-mediated regulation of carbohydrate utilisation in Escherichia coli K12: identification of the products of genes on the specialised transducing phages lambda iex (crr) and lambda gsr (tgs). EMBO J. 1982;1:907-11 pubmed
    ..investigated using a series of specialised transducing phages carrying different, overlapping, segments of the cysA-gsr-ptsI-ptsH- iex - cysZ -lig region of the genome of Escherichia coli...
  14. Parra F, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. Phosphotransferase-mediated regulation of carbohydrate utilization in Escherichia coli K12: the nature of the iex (crr) and gsr (tgs) mutations. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:337-48 pubmed
    ..In this they differ from gsr (tgs) mutants. In gsr mutants, glucose does not exclude any other sugar, though N-acetylglucosamine still does so...
  15. Park Y, Lee B, Seok Y, Peterkofsky A. In vitro reconstitution of catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6448-54 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings of a direct interaction of IIAGlc with AC, but activity regulation only in the presence of E. coli extract, a revised model for AC activity regulation is proposed. ..
  16. Hariharan P, Guan L. Insights into the inhibitory mechanisms of the regulatory protein IIA(Glc) on melibiose permease activity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:33012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the thermodynamic data are consistent with the interpretation that IIA(Glc) inhibits the induced fit process and restricts the conformational dynamics of MelB(St). ..
  17. Leng Y, Vakulskas C, Zere T, Pickering B, Watnick P, Babitzke P, et al. Regulation of CsrB/C sRNA decay by EIIA(Glc) of the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. Mol Microbiol. 2016;99:627-39 pubmed publisher
  18. Inada T, Kimata K, Aiba H. Mechanism responsible for glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli: challenge to the cAMP model. Genes Cells. 1996;1:293-301 pubmed
  19. Sondej M, Seok Y, Badawi P, Koo B, Nam T, Peterkofsky A. Topography of the surface of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system protein enzyme IIAglc that interacts with lactose permease. Biochemistry. 2000;39:2931-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these studies, a model for the region of the surface of enzyme IIAglc that interacts with lactose permease is proposed. ..
  20. Holtman C, Pawlyk A, Meadow N, Roseman S, Pettigrew D. IIA(Glc) allosteric control of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase: binding site cooperative transitions and cation-promoted association by Zinc(II). Biochemistry. 2001;40:14302-8 pubmed
    ..The similarity of effects of the alanine substitutions of the amino acids in the alpha-helical region for IIA(Glc) binding affinity and cation-promoted association by Zn(II) indicates that they function as a cooperative unit. ..
  21. Eberstadt M, Grdadolnik S, Gemmecker G, Kessler H, Buhr A, Erni B. Solution structure of the IIB domain of the glucose transporter of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1996;35:11286-92 pubmed
    ..The phosphorylation site (Cys421) is at the end of beta 1 on the solvent-exposed face of the sheet surrounded by Asp419, Thr423 Arg424, Arg426, and Gln456 which are invariant in 15 homologous IIB domains from other PTS transporters. ..
  22. Holtman C, Pawlyk A, Meadow N, Pettigrew D. Reverse genetics of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase allosteric regulation and glucose control of glycerol utilization in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3336-44 pubmed
  23. Flores N, Flores S, Escalante A, de Anda R, Leal L, Malpica R, et al. Adaptation for fast growth on glucose by differential expression of central carbon metabolism and gal regulon genes in an Escherichia coli strain lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. Metab Eng. 2005;7:70-87 pubmed
    ..In PB12, glk, pgi, the TCA cycle and certain respiratory genes are also upregulated. A mutation in arcB in PB12 is apparently responsible for the upregulation of the TCA cycle and certain respiratory genes. ..
  24. Buhr A, Erni B. Membrane topology of the glucose transporter of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:11599-603 pubmed
    ..A sequence comparison of IIBCGlc with three related proteins indicates that the periplasmic loops differ in size and sequence while the cytoplasmic loops are better conserved. ..
  25. Presper K, Wong C, Liu L, Meadow N, Roseman S. Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphocarrier protein. IIIGlc, a major signal-transducing protein in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4052-5 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, [Gln75]IIIGlc accepts but cannot transfer phosphoryl groups, suggesting His-75 may also be a critical amino acid for IIIGlc-mediated signaling mechanisms. The physiological effects of these mutations are briefly described. ..
  26. Meadow N, Saffen D, Dottin R, Roseman S. Molecular cloning of the crr gene and evidence that it is the structural gene for IIIGlc, a phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:2528-32 pubmed
    ..shown that this type of PTS-mediated repression can be completely reversed by a single mutation, designated crr. Two lines of evidence are presented in this report showing that crr is the structural gene for IIIGlc, one of the ..
  27. Buhr A, Daniels G, Erni B. The glucose transporter of Escherichia coli. Mutants with impaired translocation activity that retain phosphorylation activity. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:3847-51 pubmed
    ..We presume that the three polypeptide segments are directly involved in sugar translocation and/or binding but are of little importance for phosphorylation activity, folding, and membrane localization of IIGlc. ..
  28. Wang G, Peterkofsky A, Clore G. A novel membrane anchor function for the N-terminal amphipathic sequence of the signal-transducing protein IIAGlucose of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39811-4 pubmed
    ..coli membrane, thereby stabilizing the complex of IIA(Glc) with IIBC(Glc). This stabilization is essential for the final step of the phosphoryl transfer cascade in the glucose transport pathway. ..
  29. Parra F, Britton P, Castle C, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. Two separate genes involved in sulphate transport in Escherichia coli K12. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:357-8 pubmed
  30. Narang A. cAMP does not have an important role in carbon catabolite repression of the Escherichia coli lac operon. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7:250 pubmed publisher
  31. Yang Y, Zhao G, Winkler M. Identification of the pdxK gene that encodes pyridoxine (vitamin B6) kinase in Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;141:89-95 pubmed
    ..P1 transduction and PCR mapping and DNA sequence analysis showed that pdxK was adjacent to the crr sugar transport gene (53.95 min)...
  32. Flores S, Flores N, de Anda R, Gonzalez A, Escalante A, Sigala J, et al. Nutrient-scavenging stress response in an Escherichia coli strain lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, as explored by gene expression profile analysis. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;10:51-63 pubmed
    ..This condition is responsible of the utilization of secondary carbon sources in the presence of glucose. ..
  33. Boos W, Ehmann U, Forkl H, Klein W, Rimmele M, Postma P. Trehalose transport and metabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:3450-61 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of this mutant indicated that trehalose-6-phosphate is the effective in vivo inducer of the system. ..
  34. Buhr A, Flükiger K, Erni B. The glucose transporter of Escherichia coli. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of functional domains. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:23437-43 pubmed
    ..Eberstadt, M., Gemmecker, G., Kessler, H., Buhr, A., and Erni, B. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 219, 945-952). ..
  35. Klein W, Horlacher R, Boos W. Molecular analysis of treB encoding the Escherichia coli enzyme II specific for trehalose. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4043-52 pubmed
    ..Instead, enzyme IITre-mediated phosphorylation of trehalose requires the activity of enzyme IIAGlc, a component of the major glucose transport system. ..
  36. Saffen D, Presper K, Doering T, Roseman S. Sugar transport by the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Molecular cloning and structural analysis of the Escherichia coli ptsH, ptsI, and crr genes. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16241-53 pubmed
    Specialized lambda-transducing phages that carry the Escherichia coli genes ptsH, ptsI, crr, cysM, and cysA have been isolated, and the genes were subcloned in plasmid pBR322...
  37. Garcia Alles L, Zahn A, Erni B. Sugar recognition by the glucose and mannose permeases of Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetics and inhibition studies. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10077-86 pubmed
    ..A working model that accounts for the kinetic data is presented. ..
  38. Nelson S, Lengeler J, Postma P. Role of IIIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate-glucose phosphotransferase system in inducer exclusion in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984;160:360-4 pubmed
    ..HK738 of Escherichia coli contains normal amounts of IIIGlc as measured by specific antibodies, in contrast to crr mutants that lack IIIGlc...
  39. Dahl U, Jaeger T, Nguyen B, Sattler J, Mayer C. Identification of a phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli required for growth on N-acetylmuramic acid. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2385-92 pubmed
    ..MurP lacks an EIIA domain and was found to require the activity of the crr-encoded enzyme IIA-glucose (EIIA(Glc)), a component of the major glucose transport system for growth on MurNAc...
  40. Britton P, Boronat A, Hartley D, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H, Parra F. Phosphotransferase-mediated regulation of carbohydrate utilization in Escherichia coli K12: location of the gsr (tgs) and iex (crr) genes by specialized transduction. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:349-56 pubmed
    ..recombination event, the distribution of phage types showed that the gene order is cysA gsr ptsI (ptsH, iex) cysZ lig; both gsr+ and iex+ were dominant...
  41. Liao D, Kapadia G, Reddy P, Saier M, Reizer J, Herzberg O. Structure of the IIA domain of the glucose permease of Bacillus subtilis at 2.2-A resolution. Biochemistry. 1991;30:9583-94 pubmed
    ..This may be important for the interaction with the IIB domain of the permease and/or play a catalytic role in the phosphoryl transfer from IIA to IIB. ..
  42. Jardin C, Horn A, Schürer G, Sticht H. Insight into the phosphoryl transfer of the Escherichia coli glucose phosphotransferase system from QM/MM simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:13391-400 pubmed publisher
  43. Koo B, Yoon M, Lee C, Nam T, Choe Y, Jaffe H, et al. A novel fermentation/respiration switch protein regulated by enzyme IIAGlc in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31613-21 pubmed
    ..The crr gene product (enzyme IIA(Glc) (IIA(Glc))) mediates some of these regulatory phenomena...
  44. Aboulwafa M, Saier M. Dependency of sugar transport and phosphorylation by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system on membranous phosphatidyl glycerol in Escherichia coli: studies with a pgsA mutant lacking phosphatidyl glycerophosphate synthase. Res Microbiol. 2002;153:667-77 pubmed
    ..Sugar transport proved to be the most sensitive indicator of proper Enzyme II-phospholipid association. Our results show that PG stimulates but is not required for Enzyme II function in E. coli. ..
  45. Peterkofsky A, Wang G, Garrett D, Lee B, Seok Y, Clore G. Three-dimensional structures of protein-protein complexes in the E. coli PTS. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;3:347-54 pubmed
    ..Similarly, a common surface on IIA(Glc) interacts with HPr, IIB(Glc) and glycerol kinase. Thus, there is a common motif for the protein-protein interactions characteristic of the PTS. ..
  46. Hall B, Sharp P. Molecular population genetics of Escherichia coli: DNA sequence diversity at the celC, crr, and gutB loci of natural isolates. Mol Biol Evol. 1992;9:654-65 pubmed
    The DNA sequences of three genes--celC, crr, and gutB--have been determined for each of 11 or 12 natural isolates of Escherichia coli from the ECOR collection...
  47. Feese M, Comolli L, Meadow N, Roseman S, Remington S. Structural studies of the Escherichia coli signal transducing protein IIAGlc: implications for target recognition. Biochemistry. 1997;36:16087-96 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that signal transduction by IIAGlc is a binary switch in which phosphorylation at the active site directly controls binding to target molecules. ..
  48. Sondej M, Sun J, Seok Y, Kaback H, Peterkofsky A. Deduction of consensus binding sequences on proteins that bind IIAGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system by cysteine scanning mutagenesis of Escherichia coli lactose permease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3525-30 pubmed
    ..The requirement for two interaction regions is interpreted in the regulatory framework of a substrate-dependent conformational change that brings those two regions into an orientation optimal for binding IIAGlc. ..
  49. Isaacs H, Chao D, Yanofsky C, Saier M. Mechanism of catabolite repression of tryptophanase synthesis in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 8):2125-34 pubmed
    ..Both mechanisms are attributable to depressed rates of cyclic AMP synthesis. No evidence for a cyclic-AMP-independent mechanism of catabolite repression was obtained. ..
  50. Bao H, Duong F. Phosphatidylglycerol directs binding and inhibitory action of EIIAGlc protein on the maltose transporter. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a mechanism of maltose transport inhibition by this central amphitropic regulatory protein. ..
  51. Plumbridge J. Expression of the phosphotransferase system both mediates and is mediated by Mlc regulation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:260-73 pubmed
    ..The ptsG22 mutation, although negative for glucose transport, shows a weak positive regulatory phenotype. The mutation has been sequenced and its effect on regulation investigated. ..
  52. Sondej M, Vazquez Ibar J, Farshidi A, Peterkofsky A, Kaback H. Characterization of a lactose permease mutant that binds IIAGlc in the absence of ligand. Biochemistry. 2003;42:9153-9 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with the interpretation that the double mutant is locked in an inward-facing conformation. ..
  53. Ueguchi C, Misonou N, Mizuno T. Negative control of rpoS expression by phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:520-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the Crr (or EIIA(Glc)) protein as a novel factor that plays an important role not only in the transcriptional control but ..
  54. Sunohara T, Jojima K, Yamamoto Y, Inada T, Aiba H. Nascent-peptide-mediated ribosome stalling at a stop codon induces mRNA cleavage resulting in nonstop mRNA that is recognized by tmRNA. RNA. 2004;10:378-86 pubmed
    ..When RNA derived from the model crp-crr fusion gene was analyzed, crr mRNA was detected as a downstream cleavage product along with the upstream crp mRNA...
  55. Sondej M, Weinglass A, Peterkofsky A, Kaback H. Binding of enzyme IIAGlc, a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, to the Escherichia coli lactose permease. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5556-65 pubmed
    Enzyme IIA(Glc), encoded by the crr gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism in Escherichia coli ("catabolite repression")...
  56. De Reuse H, Huttner E, Danchin A. Analysis of the ptsH-ptsI-crr region in Escherichia coli K-12: evidence for the existence of a single transcriptional unit. Gene. 1984;32:31-40 pubmed
    A cosmid containing the ptsH, ptsI and crr genes of Escherichia coli coding for three components of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been isolated...
  57. Herring C, Raghunathan A, Honisch C, Patel T, Applebee M, Joyce A, et al. Comparative genome sequencing of Escherichia coli allows observation of bacterial evolution on a laboratory timescale. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1406-12 pubmed
    ..The success of this new genome-scale approach indicates that real-time evolution studies will now be practical in a wide variety of contexts. ..
  58. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Eijkemans K, Inada T, Aiba H, et al. Inducer exclusion by glucose 6-phosphate in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:755-65 pubmed
    ..We discuss an expanded model of enzyme IIA(Glc)-mediated catabolite repression which embodies repression by non-PTS carbon sources. ..
  59. Marechal L. Transport and metabolism of trehalose in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Arch Microbiol. 1984;137:70-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that trehalose is transported in these bacteria by an inducible phosphoenolpyruvate:trehalose phosphotransferase system. The presence of a constitutive trehalase was also detected. ..
  60. Reidl J, Boos W. The malX malY operon of Escherichia coli encodes a novel enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system recognizing glucose and maltose and an enzyme abolishing the endogenous induction of the maltose system. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4862-76 pubmed
    ..This is not the case in a malT(Con) strain that expresses the mal genes constitutively. We conclude that malY encodes an enzyme that degrades the inducer of the maltose system or prevents its synthesis. ..
  61. Novotny M, Frederickson W, Waygood E, Saier M. Allosteric regulation of glycerol kinase by enzyme IIIglc of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:810-6 pubmed
    ..typhimurium. These results serve to characterize the regulatory interactions which control the activity of glycerol kinase by fructose-1,6-diphosphate and by enzyme IIIglc of the phosphotransferase system. ..
  62. Han K, Seo H, Song J, Ahn K, Park J, Lee J. Transport proteins PotD and Crr of Escherichia coli, novel fusion partners for heterologous protein expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1536-43 pubmed
    ..We identified PotD (spermidine/putrescine-binding periplasmic protein) and Crr [glucose-specific phosphotransferase (PTS) enzyme IIA component] as a stress-responsive protein...
  63. Rimmele M, Boos W. Trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5654-64 pubmed
    ..This report corrects our previous view on the function of the treC gene product as an amylotrehalase, which was based on the analysis of the metabolic products of trehalose metabolism in whole cells. ..
  64. Tang C, Clore G. A simple and reliable approach to docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints. J Biomol NMR. 2006;36:37-44 pubmed
  65. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Postma P. Autoregulation of lactose uptake through the LacY permease by enzyme IIAGlc of the PTS in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1825-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the autoregulatory mechanism that controls lactose uptake is an important mechanism for the cells in adjusting the uptake rate to their metabolic capacity. ..
  66. Ryu S, Ramseier T, Michotey V, Saier M, Garges S. Effect of the FruR regulator on transcription of the pts operon in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2489-96 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FruR alone does not mediate the in vivo glucose effect on pts operon expression. ..
  67. Brun Y, Breton R, Lanouette P, Lapointe J. Precise mapping and comparison of two evolutionarily related regions of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Evolution of valU and lysT from an ancestral tRNA operon. J Mol Biol. 1990;214:825-43 pubmed
    ..4 kb-ptsH greater than -0.05 kb-pstI greater than -0.05 kb-crr greater than -cysM-cysA in the clockwise order (greater than and less than indicate the direction of transcription; ..
  68. Keifer P, Peterkofsky A, Wang G. Effects of detergent alkyl chain length and chemical structure on the properties of a micelle-bound bacterial membrane targeting peptide. Anal Biochem. 2004;331:33-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, both DSS and its analog may be chosen as NMR chemical shift reference compounds depending on the nature of the biomolecules under investigation. ..
  69. Somavanshi R, Ghosh B, Sourjik V. Sugar Influx Sensing by the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e2000074 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observe that default uptake through the uninduced PTS network correlates well with the quality of the carbon source, apparently representing an optimal regulatory strategy. ..