crp

Summary

Gene Symbol: crp
Description: cAMP-activated global transcription factor, mediator of catabolite repression
Alias: ECK3345, JW5702, cap, csm
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Savery N, Lloyd G, Kainz M, Gaal T, Ross W, Ebright R, et al. Transcription activation at Class II CRP-dependent promoters: identification of determinants in the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit. EMBO J. 1998;17:3439-47 pubmed
    Many transcription factors, including the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), act by making direct contacts with RNA polymerase...
  2. Browning D, Busby S. The regulation of bacterial transcription initiation. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:57-65 pubmed
    ..Every step in the pathway between gene and function is exploited to exercise this control, but for reasons of economy, it is plain that the key step to regulate is the initiation of RNA-transcript formation. ..
  3. Grainger D, Hurd D, Harrison M, Holdstock J, Busby S. Studies of the distribution of Escherichia coli cAMP-receptor protein and RNA polymerase along the E. coli chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17693-8 pubmed
    ..been used to monitor the distribution of the global transcription regulator Escherichia coli cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) and RNA polymerase along the E. coli chromosome...
  4. Zheng D, Constantinidou C, Hobman J, Minchin S. Identification of the CRP regulon using in vitro and in vivo transcriptional profiling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5874-93 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a global regulator that controls transcription initiation from more than 100 promoters by binding to a specific DNA sequence within cognate promoters...
  5. Lloyd G, Niu W, Tebbutt J, Ebright R, Busby S. Requirement for two copies of RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain for synergistic transcription activation at complex bacterial promoters. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2557-65 pubmed
    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at different promoters has been studied using RNA polymerase holoenzyme derivatives containing two full-length alpha subunits, or containing one full-..
  6. Gunasekera A, Ebright Y, Ebright R. DNA sequence determinants for binding of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:14713-20 pubmed
    The consensus DNA site for binding of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is 22 base pairs in length and is 2-fold symmetric: 5'-AAATGTGATCTAGATCACATTT-3'...
  7. Wade J, Belyaeva T, Hyde E, Busby S. A simple mechanism for co-dependence on two activators at an Escherichia coli promoter. EMBO J. 2001;20:7160-7 pubmed
    ..coli melAB promoter is co-dependent upon two transcription activators, MelR and the cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP. In this study we demonstrate positive co-operativity between the binding of MelR and CRP at the melAB promoter, ..
  8. Bettenbrock K, Sauter T, Jahreis K, Kremling A, Lengeler J, Gilles E. Correlation between growth rates, EIIACrr phosphorylation, and intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6891-900 pubmed
    ..EIIA(Glc)) and catabolite repression mediated by the global regulator cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP)...
  9. Lawson C, Swigon D, Murakami K, Darst S, Berman H, Ebright R. Catabolite activator protein: DNA binding and transcription activation. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:10-20 pubmed
    Recently determined structures of the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) in complex with DNA, and in complex with the RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain (alphaCTD) and DNA, have yielded insights into how CAP ..

More Information

Publications69

  1. Tagami H, Inada T, Kunimura T, Aiba H. Glucose lowers CRP* levels resulting in repression of the lac operon in cells lacking cAMP. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:251-8 pubmed
    b>CRP-cAMP-dependent operons of Escherichia coli can be expressed in cells lacking functional adenylate cyclase when they carry a second-site mutation in the crp gene (crp*)...
  2. Kolb A, Busby S, Herbert M, Kotlarz D, Buc H. Comparison of the binding sites for the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein at the lactose and galactose promoters. EMBO J. 1983;2:217-22 pubmed
    ..has been used to visualise and quantitate complexes between the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and DNA fragments containing the promoter region of either the E. coli galactose or lactose operons...
  3. Chahla M, Wooll J, Laue T, Nguyen N, Senear D. Role of protein-protein bridging interactions on cooperative assembly of DNA-bound CRP-CytR-CRP complex and regulation of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3812-25 pubmed
    ..are controlled coordinately through interactions between two gene regulatory proteins, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and the cytidine repressor (CytR)...
  4. Polayes D, Rice P, Garner M, Dahlberg J. Cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein as a repressor of transcription of the spf gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:3110-4 pubmed
    ..this regulation occurs through reduction in transcription and depends on both cAMP and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) but is independent of the de novo protein synthesis...
  5. Emmer M, DeCrombrugghe B, Pastan I, Perlman R. Cyclic AMP receptor protein of E. coli: its role in the synthesis of inducible enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;66:480-7 pubmed
    ..Because this binding protein appears to be required for cyclic AMP action, we suggest it be called the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CR protein). ..
  6. Barnard A, Wolfe A, Busby S. Regulation at complex bacterial promoters: how bacteria use different promoter organizations to produce different regulatory outcomes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:102-8 pubmed
    ..Studies of a small number of complex promoters have revealed different distinct mechanisms that integrate the effects of multiple transcription factors. ..
  7. Rhodius V, West D, Webster C, Busby S, Savery N. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:326-32 pubmed
    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA ..
  8. Görke B, Stülke J. Carbon catabolite repression in bacteria: many ways to make the most out of nutrients. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss the most recent findings on the different mechanisms that have evolved to allow bacteria to use carbon sources in a hierarchical manner. ..
  9. Guidi Rontani C, Danchin A, Ullmann A. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant affected in the regulation of adenylate cyclase. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:753-61 pubmed
    ..A secondary mutation at the crp locus (crpC) restored the ability of the mutant to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate, enabled the expression of ..
  10. Rodionov D, Dubchak I, Arkin A, Alm E, Gelfand M. Dissimilatory metabolism of nitrogen oxides in bacteria: comparative reconstruction of transcriptional networks. PLoS Comput Biol. 2005;1:e55 pubmed
    ..As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network. ..
  11. Pedersen H, Valentin Hansen P. Protein-induced fit: the CRP activator protein changes sequence-specific DNA recognition by the CytR repressor, a highly flexible LacI member. EMBO J. 1997;16:2108-18 pubmed
    The CytR repressor and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) bind cooperatively to several promoters in Escherichia coli to repress transcription initiation...
  12. Beatty C, Browning D, Busby S, Wolfe A. Cyclic AMP receptor protein-dependent activation of the Escherichia coli acsP2 promoter by a synergistic class III mechanism. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5148-57 pubmed
    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) activates transcription of the Escherichia coli acs gene, which encodes an acetate-scavenging enzyme required for fitness during periods of carbon starvation...
  13. Colland F, Barth M, Hengge Aronis R, Kolb A. sigma factor selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: role for CRP, IHF and lrp transcription factors. EMBO J. 2000;19:3028-37 pubmed
    ..The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) bound to cAMP, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) and the integration host factor (IHF) inhibit ..
  14. Soutourina O, Kolb A, Krin E, Laurent Winter C, Rimsky S, Danchin A, et al. Multiple control of flagellum biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: role of H-NS protein and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in transcription of the flhDC master operon. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7500-8 pubmed
    ..mechanism by which histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein and cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein (CAP) complex control bacterial motility...
  15. Zubay G, Schwartz D, Beckwith J. Mechanism of activation of catabolite-sensitive genes: a positive control system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;66:104-10 pubmed
    ..These and other results presented herein lead us to the conclusion that cyclic AMP and a protein factor called the catabolite gene activator protein are part of a positive control system for activating catabolite-sensitive genes. ..
  16. Hollands K, Busby S, Lloyd G. New targets for the cyclic AMP receptor protein in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:89-94 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli K-12 have suggested scores of previously unexplored targets for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) global transcription regulator...
  17. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Eijkemans K, Yoshida H, Takahashi H, et al. Inducer exclusion in Escherichia coli by non-PTS substrates: the role of the PEP to pyruvate ratio in determining the phosphorylation state of enzyme IIAGlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:487-98 pubmed
    ..The implications of these new findings for our view on catabolite repression and inducer exclusion are discussed. ..
  18. Johansson J, Balsalobre C, Wang S, Urbonaviciene J, Jin D, Sonden B, et al. Nucleoid proteins stimulate stringently controlled bacterial promoters: a link between the cAMP-CRP and the (p)ppGpp regulons in Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;102:475-85 pubmed
    ..The spoT(A404E) mutant showed low ppGpp synthesizing ability. The crp gene, which encodes the global regulator CRP, was subject to negative stringent regulation...
  19. Busby S, Ebright R. Transcription activation by catabolite activator protein (CAP). J Mol Biol. 1999;293:199-213 pubmed
    Transcription activation by Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) at each of two classes of simple CAP-dependent promoters is understood in structural and mechanistic detail...
  20. Napoli A, Lawson C, Ebright R, Berman H. Indirect readout of DNA sequence at the primary-kink site in the CAP-DNA complex: recognition of pyrimidine-purine and purine-purine steps. J Mol Biol. 2006;357:173-83 pubmed
    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) bends DNA in the CAP-DNA complex, typically introducing a sharp DNA kink, with a roll angle of approximately 40 degrees and a twist angle of approximately 20 degrees, between positions 6 and 7 of ..
  21. Körner H, Sofia H, Zumft W. Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic spectrum by controlling alternative gene programs. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;27:559-92 pubmed
    The Crp-Fnr regulators, named after the first two identified members, are DNA-binding proteins which predominantly function as positive transcription factors, though roles of repressors are also important...
  22. Parkinson G, Wilson C, Gunasekera A, Ebright Y, Ebright R, Ebright R, et al. Structure of the CAP-DNA complex at 2.5 angstroms resolution: a complete picture of the protein-DNA interface. J Mol Biol. 1996;260:395-408 pubmed
    The crystallographic structure of the CAP-DNA complex at 3.0 A resolution has been reported previously...
  23. Lin S, Lee J. Determinants of DNA bending in the DNA-cyclic AMP receptor protein complexes in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4809-18 pubmed
    The activated Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein, CRP, is capable of regulating the expression of more than 20 genes by binding to specific DNA sites...
  24. Wu H, Crothers D. The locus of sequence-directed and protein-induced DNA bending. Nature. 1984;308:509-13 pubmed
  25. Hayashi K, Morooka N, Yamamoto Y, Fujita K, Isono K, Choi S, et al. Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110. Mol Syst Biol. 2006;2:2006.0007 pubmed
    ..Errors in the original MG1655 sequence (<1 per 13,000 bases) were mostly within portions sequenced with out-dated technology based on radioactive chemistry. ..
  26. Nelson S, Wright J, Postma P. The mechanism of inducer exclusion. Direct interaction between purified III of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and the lactose carrier of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1983;2:715-20 pubmed
    ..This inhibition may thus be the basis for the well-documented phenomenon of inducer exclusion. ..
  27. Narang A. Quantitative effect and regulatory function of cyclic adenosine 5'-phosphate in Escherichia coli. J Biosci. 2009;34:445-63 pubmed
    ..It follows that cAMP receptor protein (CRP) cAMP-mediated regulation cannot account for the strong repression of these operons in the presence of glucose...
  28. Osumi T, Saier M. Regulation of lactose permease activity by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system: evidence for direct binding of the glucose-specific enzyme III to the lactose permease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:1457-61 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that enzyme IIIglc, in its dephosphorylated form, modulates the activity of the lactose permease by a direct protein-protein interaction. ..
  29. Popovych N, Tzeng S, Tonelli M, Ebright R, Kalodimos C. Structural basis for cAMP-mediated allosteric control of the catabolite activator protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6927-32 pubmed publisher
    The cAMP-mediated allosteric transition in the catabolite activator protein (CAP; also known as the cAMP receptor protein, CRP) is a textbook example of modulation of DNA-binding activity by small-molecule binding...
  30. Liu Z, Mao F, Guo J, Yan B, Wang P, Qu Y, et al. Quantitative evaluation of protein-DNA interactions using an optimized knowledge-based potential. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:546-58 pubmed
    ..When tested in a genome-scale search for TF-binding motifs of the cyclic AMP regulatory protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli, this potential ranks all known binding motifs of CRP in the top 15% of all candidate ..
  31. Passner J, Steitz T. The structure of a CAP-DNA complex having two cAMP molecules bound to each monomer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2843-7 pubmed
    The 2.2 A resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with cAMP and a 46-bp DNA fragment reveals a second cAMP molecule bound to each protein monomer...
  32. Pyles E, Lee J. Mode of selectivity in cyclic AMP receptor protein-dependent promoters in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1996;35:1162-72 pubmed
    Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) controls more than 20 genes. There are significant differences in the promoter regions in these genes...
  33. Chen S, Gunasekera A, Zhang X, Kunkel T, Ebright R, Berman H. Indirect readout of DNA sequence at the primary-kink site in the CAP-DNA complex: alteration of DNA binding specificity through alteration of DNA kinking. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:75-82 pubmed
    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) sharply bends DNA in the CAP-DNA complex, introducing a DNA kink, with a roll angle of approximately 40 degrees and a twist angle of approximately 20 degrees, between positions 6 and 7 of the DNA ..
  34. Brown C, Callan C. Evolutionary comparisons suggest many novel cAMP response protein binding sites in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2404-9 pubmed
    The cAMP response protein (CRP) is a transcription factor known to regulate many genes in Escherichia coli...
  35. Krin E, Sismeiro O, Danchin A, Bertin P. The regulation of Enzyme IIA(Glc) expression controls adenylate cyclase activity in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2002;148:1553-9 pubmed
    ..This leads to a twofold reduction in the global amount of Enzyme IIA(Glc), the adenylate cyclase activator, responsible for the decrease in adenylate cyclase activity observed in the hns crp strain.
  36. Zhou Y, Zhang X, Ebright R. Identification of the activating region of catabolite gene activator protein (CAP): isolation and characterization of mutants of CAP specifically defective in transcription activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6081-5 pubmed
    We have isolated 21 mutants of catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) defective in transcription activation at the lac promoter but not defective in DNA binding...
  37. Tebbutt J, Rhodius V, Webster C, Busby S. Architectural requirements for optimal activation by tandem CRP molecules at a class I CRP-dependent promoter. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;210:55-60 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) activates transcription at target promoters by interacting with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit...
  38. Kolb A, Busby S, Buc H, Garges S, Adhya S. Transcriptional regulation by cAMP and its receptor protein. Annu Rev Biochem. 1993;62:749-95 pubmed
  39. Benoff B, Yang H, Lawson C, Parkinson G, Liu J, Blatter E, et al. Structural basis of transcription activation: the CAP-alpha CTD-DNA complex. Science. 2002;297:1562-6 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) activates transcription at P(lac), P(gal), and other promoters through interactions with the RNA polymerase alpha subunit carboxyl-terminal domain (alphaCTD)...
  40. Weber I, Steitz T. Structure of a complex of catabolite gene activator protein and cyclic AMP refined at 2.5 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1987;198:311-26 pubmed
    ..Each cyclic AMP molecule is in an anti conformation and has ionic and hydrogen bond interactions with both subunits...
  41. Belyaeva T, Wade J, Webster C, Howard V, Thomas M, Hyde E, et al. Transcription activation at the Escherichia coli melAB promoter: the role of MelR and the cyclic AMP receptor protein. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:211-22 pubmed
    ..This activation is dependent on MelR and melibiose. These studies also show that the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the melAB promoter and increases MelR-dependent transcription activation...
  42. Browning D, Beatty C, Sanstad E, Gunn K, Busby S, Wolfe A. Modulation of CRP-dependent transcription at the Escherichia coli acsP2 promoter by nucleoprotein complexes: anti-activation by the nucleoid proteins FIS and IHF. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:241-54 pubmed
    ..b>CRP activates acs transcription by binding tandem DNA sites located upstream of the major promoter, acsP2...
  43. McKay D, Steitz T. Structure of catabolite gene activator protein at 2.9 A resolution suggests binding to left-handed B-DNA. Nature. 1981;290:744-9 pubmed
    The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with cyclic AMP reveals two distinct structural domains separated by a cleft...
  44. Tian Z, Li Q, Buck M, Kolb A, Wang Y. The CRP-cAMP complex and downregulation of the glnAp2 promoter provides a novel regulatory linkage between carbon metabolism and nitrogen assimilation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:911-24 pubmed
    ..The glnAp1 is a sigma(70)-dependent promoter that is activated by the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Under nitrogen-deficient growth conditions, glnAp1 is repressed by NtrC-phosphate...
  45. Schultz S, Shields G, Steitz T. Crystal structure of a CAP-DNA complex: the DNA is bent by 90 degrees. Science. 1991;253:1001-7 pubmed
    The 3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) complexed with a 30-base pair DNA sequence shows that the DNA is bent by 90 degrees...
  46. Kao K, Tran L, Liao J. A global regulatory role of gluconeogenic genes in Escherichia coli revealed by transcriptome network analysis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36079-87 pubmed
    ..in Escherichia coli, ppsA, sfcA, and maeB, provide a feedback loop to the global regulator, cAMP receptor protein (CRP), in carbon source transition...
  47. Gosset G, Zhang Z, Nayyar S, Cuevas W, Saier M. Transcriptome analysis of Crp-dependent catabolite control of gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3516-24 pubmed
    ..genes that are subject to catabolite repression or activation mediated by the cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp). The results reveal that many operons encoding enzymes of central carbon metabolic pathways (e.g...
  48. Harman J. Allosteric regulation of the cAMP receptor protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1547:1-17 pubmed
    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli is a dimer made up of identical subunits. Each CRP subunit contains a cyclic nucleotide binding pocket and the CRP dimer exhibits negative cooperativity in binding cAMP...
  49. Perrenoud A, Sauer U. Impact of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on glucose catabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3171-9 pubmed
    ..fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli...
  50. Nanchen A, Schicker A, Revelles O, Sauer U. Cyclic AMP-dependent catabolite repression is the dominant control mechanism of metabolic fluxes under glucose limitation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a growth ..
  51. Husnain S, Busby S, Thomas M. Downregulation of the Escherichia coli guaB promoter by upstream-bound cyclic AMP receptor protein. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6094-104 pubmed publisher
    ..protein FIS, and putative binding sites for the regulatory proteins DnaA, PurR, and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP)...
  52. Ebright R, Ebright Y, Gunasekera A. Consensus DNA site for the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP): CAP exhibits a 450-fold higher affinity for the consensus DNA site than for the E. coli lac DNA site. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:10295-305 pubmed
    We have synthesized two 40 base pair DNA fragments; one fragment contains the consensus DNA site for CAP (fragment 'ICAP'); the other fragment contains the E. coli lac promoter DNA site for CAP (fragment 'LCAP')...
  53. Zhang Z, Gosset G, Barabote R, Gonzalez C, Cuevas W, Saier M. Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:980-90 pubmed
    ..controls expression of the iron regulon in response to iron availability while the cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) regulates expression of the carbon regulon in response to carbon availability...
  54. Lee D, Busby S, Lloyd G. Exploitation of a chemical nuclease to investigate the location and orientation of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domains at simple promoters that are activated by cyclic AMP receptor protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52944-52 pubmed
    ..Here we present data from experiments with simple Escherichia coli promoters that are activated by the cyclic AMP receptor protein. ..
  55. Aiba H. Autoregulation of the Escherichia coli crp gene: CRP is a transcriptional repressor for its own gene. Cell. 1983;32:141-9 pubmed
    The restriction fragments carrying the region preceding the Escherichia coli crp structural gene were transcribed. The 5' end of the crp mRNA was determined by RNAase partial digestion and S1 digestion methods...
  56. Robison K, McGuire A, Church G. A comprehensive library of DNA-binding site matrices for 55 proteins applied to the complete Escherichia coli K-12 genome. J Mol Biol. 1998;284:241-54 pubmed
    ..We have constructed a database of these proteins and binding sites, called DPInteract (available at http://arep.med.harvard.edu/dpinteract). ..
  57. Liu M, Garges S, Adhya S. lacP1 promoter with an extended -10 motif. Pleiotropic effects of cyclic AMP protein at different steps of transcription initiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54552-7 pubmed
    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), which activates transcription from the wild-type lacP1 promoter and most of its mutants, represses productive RNA synthesis from a lacP1 promoter variant that contains an extended -10 element, ..
  58. Cirino P, Chin J, Ingram L. Engineering Escherichia coli for xylitol production from glucose-xylose mixtures. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;95:1167-76 pubmed
    ..coli to varying extents. Replacement of E. coli's native cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) with a cyclic AMP-independent mutant (CRP*) facilitated xylose uptake and xylitol production from mixtures of ..
  59. Saier M. Protein phosphorylation and allosteric control of inducer exclusion and catabolite repression by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. Microbiol Rev. 1989;53:109-20 pubmed
  60. Gaston K, Bell A, Kolb A, Buc H, Busby S. Stringent spacing requirements for transcription activation by CRP. Cell. 1990;62:733-43 pubmed
    The cyclic AMP receptor protein-cAMP complex (CRP-cAMP) binds at a variety of distances upstream of several E. coli promoters and activates transcription...