Gene Symbol: crl
Description: sigma factor-binding protein, stimulates RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation
Alias: ECK0241, JW0230
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Overbeeke N, Bergmans H, van Mansfeld F, Lugtenberg B. Complete nucleotide sequence of phoE, the structural gene for the phosphate limitation inducible outer membrane pore protein of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1983;163:513-32 pubmed
    ..Some aspects of the structure-function relationship of PhoE protein are discussed in view of the hydrophobicity and hydration profiles, and the homology between PhoE protein and OmpF protein. ..
  2. Bougdour A, Lelong C, Geiselmann J. Crl, a low temperature-induced protein in Escherichia coli that binds directly to the stationary phase sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19540-50 pubmed
    ..these genes are transcribed by the sigma(S) factor, and expression of the operon is enhanced by the small protein Crl. It has been shown that Crl stimulates the activity of sigma(S), leading to an increased transcription rate of a ..
  3. Kang M, Lee Y, Yoon S, Kim J, Ock S, Jung K, et al. Identification of genes affecting lycopene accumulation in Escherichia coli using a shot-gun method. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;91:636-42 pubmed
    ..Six clones with enhanced lycopene production were isolated. Among 13 genes in these clones, dxs, appY, crl, and rpoS were found to be involved in enhanced lycopene production...
  4. Robbe Saule V, Jaumouill V, Pr vost M, Guadagnini S, Talhouarne C, Mathout H, et al. Crl activates transcription initiation of RpoS-regulated genes involved in the multicellular behavior of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3983-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The Crl protein of Escherichia coli interacts with sigma(S) and activates expression of sigma(S)-regulated genes, such as ..
  5. Lelong C, Rolland M, Louwagie M, Garin J, Geiselmann J. Mutual regulation of Crl and Fur in Escherichia coli W3110. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:660-8 pubmed
    The small regulatory protein Crl controls the expression of curli...
  6. Olsen A, Jonsson A, Normark S. Fibronectin binding mediated by a novel class of surface organelles on Escherichia coli. Nature. 1989;338:652-5 pubmed
    ..Although the gene encoding this structural subunit, crl, is present and transcribed in most natural isolates of E...
  7. Pratt L, Silhavy T. Crl stimulates RpoS activity during stationary phase. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1225-36 pubmed
    ..Here, we present evidence that suggests that RpoS is regulated at yet another level by the product of the crl gene...
  8. Schnetz K. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by RpoS requires Crl. Microbiology. 2002;148:2573-8 pubmed
    ..Here it is shown that the repression of the bgl operon by RpoS requires Crl. Crl is a protein that is necessary for the RpoS-dependent expression of the csgBA operon and that enhances the ..
  9. Faure D, Frederick R, Włoch D, Portier P, Blot M, Adams J. Genomic changes arising in long-term stab cultures of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6437-42 pubmed
    ..It is speculated that the loss of the crl locus is responsible for the selective advantage of the deletions.

More Information


  1. Weiss Muszkat M, Shakh D, Zhou Y, Pinto R, Belausov E, Chapman M, et al. Biofilm formation by and multicellular behavior of Escherichia coli O55:H7, an atypical enteropathogenic strain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1545-54 pubmed publisher the csgFG genes, required for assembly and secretion of curli fimbriae, while a second mutant had a mutation in crl, a thermosensitive global regulator that modulates sigma(S) activity and downstream expression of curli and ..
  2. Typas A, Barembruch C, Possling A, Hengge R. Stationary phase reorganisation of the Escherichia coli transcription machinery by Crl protein, a fine-tuner of sigmas activity and levels. EMBO J. 2007;26:1569-78 pubmed
    ..Here we report that during stationary phase, the unorthodox Crl regulator supports a specific sigma factor, sigma(S) (RpoS), in its competition with sigma(70) for core RNAP by ..
  3. Pesavento C, Becker G, Sommerfeldt N, Possling A, Tschowri N, Mehlis A, et al. Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2434-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data reveal the logic and sequence of molecular events underlying the motile-to-adhesive "lifestyle" switch in E. coli...
  4. Banta A, Chumanov R, Yuan A, Lin H, Campbell E, Burgess R, et al. Key features of ?S required for specific recognition by Crl, a transcription factor promoting assembly of RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15955-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli and other ?-proteobacteria, the transcription factor Crl stimulates ?(S)-dependent transcription during times of cellular stress by promoting the association of ?(S) with ..
  5. Arnqvist A, Olsen A, Pfeifer J, Russell D, Normark S. The Crl protein activates cryptic genes for curli formation and fibronectin binding in Escherichia coli HB101. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:2443-52 pubmed
    ..cryptic curlin subunit gene, csgA, in HB101 is transcriptionally activated by expressing the cytoplasmic Crl on a multicopy plasmid...
  6. Freddolino P, Amini S, Tavazoie S. Newly identified genetic variations in common Escherichia coli MG1655 stock cultures. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:303-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutations are likely to cause loss of function of the glpR and crl genes, which may have serious implications for physiological experiments using the affected strains.
  7. Provence D, Curtiss R. Role of crl in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli: a knockout mutation of crl does not affect hemagglutination activity, fibronectin binding, or Curli production. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4460-7 pubmed
    This study determined the role of crl in the production of curli by, the hemagglutination activity of, and fibronectin binding by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli chi 7122...
  8. Gaal T, Mandel M, Silhavy T, Gourse R. Crl facilitates RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7966-70 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli Crl protein has been described as a transcriptional coactivator for the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma(S)...
  9. Henrich B, Plapp R. Locations of the genes from pepD through proA on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7407-8 pubmed