Gene Symbol: clpP
Description: proteolytic subunit of ClpA-ClpP and ClpX-ClpP ATP-dependent serine proteases
Alias: ECK0431, JW0427, lopP, wseA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     clpP

Top Publications

  1. Pruteanu M, Baker T. Controlled degradation by ClpXP protease tunes the levels of the excision repair protein UvrA to the extent of DNA damage. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:912-24 pubmed publisher
  2. Flynn J, Neher S, Kim Y, Sauer R, Baker T. Proteomic discovery of cellular substrates of the ClpXP protease reveals five classes of ClpX-recognition signals. Mol Cell. 2003;11:671-83 pubmed
    ..To date, however, only a handful of ClpXP substrates have been identified. Using a tagged and inactive variant of ClpP, substrates of E. coli ClpXP were trapped in vivo, purified, and identified by mass spectrometry...
  3. Kim Y, Burton R, Burton B, Sauer R, Baker T. Dynamics of substrate denaturation and translocation by the ClpXP degradation machine. Mol Cell. 2000;5:639-48 pubmed a protein machine composed of the ClpX ATPase, a member of the Clp/Hsp100 family of remodeling enzymes, and the ClpP peptidase. Here, ClpX and ClpXP are shown to catalyze denaturation of GFP modified with an ssrA degradation tag...
  4. Doronina V, Murray N. The proteolytic control of restriction activity in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:416-28 pubmed
    ..The molecular basis for the distinction between unmodified resident and foreign DNA remains to be determined. ..
  5. O Neill M, Powell L, Murray N. Target recognition by EcoKI: the recognition domain is robust and restriction-deficiency commonly results from the proteolytic control of enzyme activity. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:951-63 pubmed
    ..The significance of four of the six residues (G91, G105, F107 and G141) is enhanced by the finding that even conservative substitutions for these residues impair modification, thereby conferring an r(-)m(-) phenotype. ..
  6. Engelberg Kulka H, Reches M, Narasimhan S, Schoulaker Schwarz R, Klemes Y, Aizenman E, et al. rexB of bacteriophage lambda is an anti-cell death gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15481-6 pubmed
    ..inhibits the degradation of the antitoxic labile components Phd and MazE of these systems, which are substrates of ClpP proteases...
  7. Hoskins J, Yanagihara K, Mizuuchi K, Wickner S. ClpAP and ClpXP degrade proteins with tags located in the interior of the primary sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11037-42 pubmed
    ..We also found that ClpA recognizes the NH2-terminal 15 aa RepA tag, when it is fused to the COOH terminus of GFP. Moreover, ClpA recognizes the RepA tag in either the authentic or inverse orientation. ..
  8. Hoskins J, Wickner S. Two peptide sequences can function cooperatively to facilitate binding and unfolding by ClpA and degradation by ClpAP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:909-14 pubmed
  9. Neher S, Villen J, Oakes E, Bakalarski C, Sauer R, Gygi S, et al. Proteomic profiling of ClpXP substrates after DNA damage reveals extensive instability within SOS regulon. Mol Cell. 2006;22:193-204 pubmed

More Information


  1. Pruteanu M, Baker T. Proteolysis in the SOS response and metal homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:677-83 pubmed publisher
  2. Kolodkin Gal I, Engelberg Kulka H. The extracellular death factor: physiological and genetic factors influencing its production and response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant strain differences in EDF production and response explain variations in the induction of mazEF-mediated cell death. ..
  3. Blakely G, Murray N. Control of the endonuclease activity of type I restriction-modification systems is required to maintain chromosome integrity following homologous recombination. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:883-93 pubmed
    ..coli K-12. Previously, the potential of the second pathway has only been demonstrated when expression of lar has been elevated. Our data identify the effect of lar from the repressed prophage. ..
  4. Makovets S, Titheradge A, Murray N. ClpX and ClpP are essential for the efficient acquisition of genes specifying type IA and IB restriction systems. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:25-35 pubmed
    ..We show that ClpX and ClpP, the components of ClpXP protease, are necessary for the efficient transmission of the genes encoding EcoKI and ..
  5. Makovets S, Powell L, Titheradge A, Blakely G, Murray N. Is modification sufficient to protect a bacterial chromosome from a resident restriction endonuclease?. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:135-47 pubmed
    ..In the absence of efficient restriction alleviation, a Type I restriction enzyme cleaves host DNA and, under these conditions, homologous recombination maintains the integrity of the bacterial chromosome. ..
  6. Jain R, Chan M. Support for a potential role of E. coli oligopeptidase A in protein degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:486-90 pubmed
    ..Herein, we provide initial support for this hypothesis by demonstrating that OpdA efficiently cleaves the peptides generated by the activity of the three primary ATP-dependent proteases from E. coli-Lon, HslUV, and ClpAP. ..
  7. Rouquette C, Serre M, Lane D. Protective role for H-NS protein in IS1 transposition. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2091-8 pubmed
    ..A mutation in lon, but not in ftsH or clpP, restored InsAB' synthesis in the hns strain, and a mutation in ssrA partially restored it, implying that the ..
  8. Hersch G, Burton R, Bolon D, Baker T, Sauer R. Asymmetric interactions of ATP with the AAA+ ClpX6 unfoldase: allosteric control of a protein machine. Cell. 2005;121:1017-27 pubmed
    ..These studies further emphasize commonalities between distant AAA+ family members, including protein and DNA translocases, helicases, motor proteins, clamp loaders, and other ATP-dependent enzymes. ..
  9. Bougdour A, Cunning C, Baptiste P, Elliott T, Gottesman S. Multiple pathways for regulation of sigmaS (RpoS) stability in Escherichia coli via the action of multiple anti-adaptors. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:298-313 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that multiple anti-adaptor proteins allow the regulation of sigmaS stability through the regulation of RssB activity under a variety of stress conditions...
  10. Fredriksson A, Ballesteros M, Peterson C, Persson O, Silhavy T, Nystrom T. Decline in ribosomal fidelity contributes to the accumulation and stabilization of the master stress response regulator sigmaS upon carbon starvation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:862-74 pubmed
    ..The data further suggest that sigma(S) becomes stabilized upon starvation as a result of ClpP sequestration and this sequestration is enhanced by oxidative modifications of aberrant proteins produced by ..
  11. Seol J, Woo K, Kang M, Ha D, Chung C. Requirement of ATP hydrolysis for assembly of ClpA/ClpP complex, the ATP-dependent protease Ti in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;217:41-51 pubmed
    The ATP-dependent protease Ti (Clp) consists of two distinct components, ClpP containing the serine active sites for proteolysis and ClpA having two ATP-binding sites...
  12. Damerau K, St John A. Role of Clp protease subunits in degradation of carbon starvation proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:53-63 pubmed
    ..During starvation, mutants lacking either the ClpA or ClpP subunit of the ATP-dependent Clp protease showed a partial reduction in the degradation of starvation proteins...
  13. Wah D, Levchenko I, Rieckhof G, Bolon D, Baker T, Sauer R. Flexible linkers leash the substrate binding domain of SspB to a peptide module that stabilizes delivery complexes with the AAA+ ClpXP protease. Mol Cell. 2003;12:355-63 pubmed
  14. Rosenberg S. Life, death, differentiation, and the multicellularity of bacteria. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000418 pubmed publisher
  15. Tobias J, Shrader T, Rocap G, Varshavsky A. The N-end rule in bacteria. Science. 1991;254:1374-7 pubmed
    ..The adenosine triphosphate-dependent protease Clp (Ti) is required for the degradation of N-end rule substrates in E. coli. ..
  16. Peterson C, Mandel M, Silhavy T. Escherichia coli starvation diets: essential nutrients weigh in distinctly. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7549-53 pubmed
  17. Weichart D, Querfurth N, Dreger M, Hengge Aronis R. Global role for ClpP-containing proteases in stationary-phase adaptation of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:115-25 pubmed
    To elucidate the involvement of proteolysis in the regulation of stationary-phase adaptation, the clpA, clpX, and clpP protease mutants of Escherichia coli were subjected to proteome analysis during growth and during carbon starvation...
  18. Bohn C, Binet E, Bouloc P. Screening for stabilization of proteins with a trans-translation signature in Escherichia coli selects for inactivation of the ClpXP protease. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;266:827-31 pubmed
    ..Only disruption of the clpX or clpP gene resulted in stabilization of the tagged substrates...
  19. Shin D, Lee C, Chung C, Suh S. Molecular symmetry of the ClpP component of the ATP-dependent Clp protease, an Escherichia coli homolog of 20 S proteasome. J Mol Biol. 1996;262:71-6 pubmed
    The ClpP component Clp protease from Escherichia coli has been crystallized and examined by X-ray crystallography and self-rotation function calculations...
  20. Kim Y, Wood T. Toxins Hha and CspD and small RNA regulator Hfq are involved in persister cell formation through MqsR in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..opp genes and dppA), outer membrane protein-related genes (ybfM and ybfN), toxins (hha), and proteases (clpX, clpP, and lon)...
  21. Wickner S, Gottesman S, Skowyra D, Hoskins J, McKenney K, Maurizi M. A molecular chaperone, ClpA, functions like DnaK and DnaJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12218-22 pubmed
    ..RepA is activated by the conversion of dimers to monomers. We show that ClpA targets RepA for degradation by ClpP, demonstrating a direct link between the protein unfolding function of chaperones and proteolysis...
  22. Choi K, Licht S. Control of peptide product sizes by the energy-dependent protease ClpAP. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13921-31 pubmed
    ..This analysis may also prove to be useful in characterizing the mechanisms of other proteases and nucleases, such as the proteasome and Dicer, which control the sizes of their products. ..
  23. Farrell C, Baker T, Sauer R. Altered specificity of a AAA+ protease. Mol Cell. 2007;25:161-6 pubmed
  24. Frank E, Ennis D, Gonzalez M, Levine A, Woodgate R. Regulation of SOS mutagenesis by proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10291-6 pubmed
    ..The apparent half-life of the heterodimeric UmuD/D' complex is greatly increased in the clpX::Kan and clpP::Kan strains and these strains are correspondingly rendered virtually UV non-mutable...
  25. Thompson M, Maurizi M. Activity and specificity of Escherichia coli ClpAP protease in cleaving model peptide substrates. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18201-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli ClpAP protease is an ATP-dependent protease composed of the proteolytic component ClpP and a regulatory ATPase, ClpA...
  26. Schmidt R, Bukau B, Mogk A. Principles of general and regulatory proteolysis by AAA+ proteases in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:629-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we summarize the various strategies that tightly control substrate degradation from both sides: the generation of accessible degrons and their specific recognition by AAA+ proteases and cognate adaptor proteins. ..
  27. Flynn J, Levchenko I, Sauer R, Baker T. Modulating substrate choice: the SspB adaptor delivers a regulator of the extracytoplasmic-stress response to the AAA+ protease ClpXP for degradation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2292-301 pubmed
    ..Thus, these experiments elucidate the final steps in induction of the extracytoplasmic stress response and reveal that SspB delivers a broader spectrum of substrates to ClpXP than has been recognized. ..
  28. Rami A, Toutain C, Jacq A. An increased level of alternative sigma factor RpoS partially suppresses drug hypersensitivity associated with inactivation of the multidrug resistance pump AcrAB in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:356-60 pubmed
  29. Maisonneuve E, Fraysse L, Moinier D, Dukan S. Existence of abnormal protein aggregates in healthy Escherichia coli cells. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:887-93 pubmed
    ..Our results led us to speculate that protein aggregates may function as a temporary "trash organelle" for cellular detoxification. ..
  30. Beuron F, Maurizi M, Belnap D, Kocsis E, Booy F, Kessel M, et al. At sixes and sevens: characterization of the symmetry mismatch of the ClpAP chaperone-assisted protease. J Struct Biol. 1998;123:248-59 pubmed
    ClpAP, a typical energy-dependent protease, consists of a proteolytic component (ClpP) and a chaperone-like ATPase (ClpA)...
  31. Ninnis R, Spall S, Talbo G, Truscott K, Dougan D. Modification of PATase by L/F-transferase generates a ClpS-dependent N-end rule substrate in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2009;28:1732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have identified a new element within the N-degron, which is required for substrate delivery to ClpA. ..
  32. Davis J, Baker T, Sauer R. Engineering synthetic adaptors and substrates for controlled ClpXP degradation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21848-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, this degradation is regulated by a small molecule without the need for new adaptor or enzyme biosynthesis. ..
  33. Wegrzyn A, Czyz A, Gabig M, Wegrzyn G. ClpP/ClpX-mediated degradation of the bacteriophage lambda O protein and regulation of lambda phage and lambda plasmid replication. Arch Microbiol. 2000;174:89-96 pubmed
    ..other elements of the replication complex, in a free form is rapidly degraded in the host, Escherichia coli, by the ClpP/ClpX protease. Nevertheless, the physiological role of this rapid degradation remains unclear...
  34. Chuang S, Blattner F. Characterization of twenty-six new heat shock genes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:5242-52 pubmed
    ..this work, we confirmed that the catalytic subunit of the ATP-dependent Clp protease (also known as Ti protease), ClpP, is derived from a larger precursor protein...
  35. Vera A, Aris A, Carrió M, Gonzalez Montalban N, Villaverde A. Lon and ClpP proteases participate in the physiological disintegration of bacterial inclusion bodies. J Biotechnol. 2005;119:163-71 pubmed
    ..fusion protein produced in Escherichia coli, we show in this study that the main ATP-dependent proteases Lon and ClpP participate in the physiological disintegration of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, their absence minimizing the ..
  36. Kenniston J, Burton R, Siddiqui S, Baker T, Sauer R. Effects of local protein stability and the geometric position of the substrate degradation tag on the efficiency of ClpXP denaturation and degradation. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:130-40 pubmed
    ..Here, we explore the role of protein stability in ClpX denaturation and subsequent ClpP degradation of model substrates bearing ssrA degradation tags at different positions. ClpXP degraded T...
  37. Gottesman S, Clark W, De Crecy Lagard V, Maurizi M. ClpX, an alternative subunit for the ATP-dependent Clp protease of Escherichia coli. Sequence and in vivo activities. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:22618-26 pubmed
    The ATP-dependent Clp protease of Escherichia coli consists of two subunits, the ClpP subunit, which has the proteolytic active site, and ClpA, which possesses ATPase activity and activates the proteolytic activity of ClpP in vitro...
  38. Maxwell K, Davidson A, Murialdo H, Gold M. Thermodynamic and functional characterization of protein W from bacteriophage lambda. The three C-terminal residues are critical for activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18879-86 pubmed
    ..Using secondary structure prediction as a guide, we also designed destabilized gpW mutants. The hydrophobic nature of the gpW C terminus caused these mutants to be degraded by the ClpP-containing proteases in Escherichia coli.
  39. Rajagopal S, Sudarsan N, Nickerson K. Sodium dodecyl sulfate hypersensitivity of clpP and clpB mutants of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:4117-21 pubmed
    We studied the hypersensitivity of clpP and clpB mutants of Escherichia coli to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Both wild-type E...
  40. Lo J, Baker T, Sauer R. Characterization of the N-terminal repeat domain of Escherichia coli ClpA-A class I Clp/HSP100 ATPase. Protein Sci. 2001;10:551-9 pubmed
    ..showed ATP-dependent oligomerization, protein-stimulated ATPase activity, and the ability to complex with the ClpP peptidase and mediate degradation of peptide and protein substrates, including casein and ssrA-tagged proteins...
  41. Holland I, Jones H, Campbell A, Jacq A. An assessment of the role of intracellular free Ca2+ in E. coli. Biochimie. 1999;81:901-7 pubmed
    ..The evidence reviewed increasingly supports a role for Ca(2+) in cellular processes in bacteria, however, any direct link to the control of cell cycle events remains to be established. ..
  42. Wang L, Elliott M, Elliott T. Conditional stability of the HemA protein (glutamyl-tRNA reductase) regulates heme biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1211-9 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by the finding that HemA turnover is completely blocked in a lon clpP double mutant of E. coli. Each single mutant shows only a small effect...
  43. Wang J, Hartling J, Flanagan J. Crystal structure determination of Escherichia coli ClpP starting from an EM-derived mask. J Struct Biol. 1998;124:151-63 pubmed
    ..In this study, we exploited the inherent symmetry of Escherichia coli ClpP, the proteolytic component of the ClpAP/XP ATP-dependent protease, to determine its x-ray crystal structure to 2...
  44. Ades S. Proteolysis: Adaptor, adaptor, catch me a catch. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R924-6 pubmed
    ..New work in Escherichia coli implicates adaptor proteins in enhancing substrate selectivity and regulating the flow of substrates to cellular proteases. ..
  45. Barkow S, Levchenko I, Baker T, Sauer R. Polypeptide translocation by the AAA+ ClpXP protease machine. Chem Biol. 2009;16:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..repeated cycles of ATP hydrolysis to pull native proteins apart and to translocate the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we probe polypeptide features important for translocation...
  46. Wang K, Oakes E, Sauer R, Baker T. Tuning the strength of a bacterial N-end rule degradation signal. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define in vitro the sequence and structural requirements for the function of bacterial N-end signals. ..
  47. Erbse A, Schmidt R, Bornemann T, Schneider Mergener J, Mogk A, Zahn R, et al. ClpS is an essential component of the N-end rule pathway in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2006;439:753-6 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, N-end rule substrates are degraded by the AAA + chaperone ClpA in complex with the ClpP peptidase (ClpAP)...
  48. Farrell C, Grossman A, Sauer R. Cytoplasmic degradation of ssrA-tagged proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:1750-61 pubmed
    ..Levels of ClpA and ClpP increased about threefold during this transition, whereas ClpX, ClpS and SspB levels remained nearly constant...
  49. Jennings L, Bohon J, Chance M, Licht S. The ClpP N-terminus coordinates substrate access with protease active site reactivity. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..coli protease ClpAP, require regulated interactions between the ATPase component (ClpA) and the protease component (ClpP) for function...
  50. Ojima Y, Komaki M, Nishioka M, Iwatani S, Tsujimoto N, Taya M. Introduction of a stress-responsive gene, yggG, enhances the yield of L-phenylalanine with decreased acetic acid production in a recombinant Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the formation of a bottleneck for acetic acid production brings about a metabolic flow favorable to L-phenylalanine synthesis in the recombinant strain over-expressing the yggG gene. ..
  51. Riehle M, Bennett A, Lenski R, Long A. Evolutionary changes in heat-inducible gene expression in lines of Escherichia coli adapted to high temperature. Physiol Genomics. 2003;14:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus evolution at high temperature led to significant changes at the molecular level in heat-inducible gene expression and at the organismal level in inducible thermotolerance and fitness...
  52. Maillard R, Chistol G, Sen M, Righini M, Tan J, Kaiser C, et al. ClpX(P) generates mechanical force to unfold and translocate its protein substrates. Cell. 2011;145:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, alone, and in complex with the ClpP peptidase. ClpX hydrolyzes ATP to generate mechanical force and translocate polypeptides through its central pore...
  53. McGinness K, Baker T, Sauer R. Engineering controllable protein degradation. Mol Cell. 2006;22:701-7 pubmed
  54. García Fruitós E, Martínez Alonso M, Gonzalez Montalban N, Valli M, Mattanovich D, Villaverde A. Divergent genetic control of protein solubility and conformational quality in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:195-205 pubmed
    ..tested genetic deficiencies in different cytosolic chaperones and proteases (affecting DnaK, GroEL, GroES, ClpB, ClpP and Lon at different extents) resulted in much less soluble but unexpectedly more fluorescent polypeptides...
  55. Alexopoulos J, Ahsan B, Homchaudhuri L, Husain N, Cheng Y, Ortega J. Structural determinants stabilizing the axial channel of ClpP for substrate translocation. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:167-80 pubmed publisher
    Acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) antibiotics bind to Escherichia coli?ClpP mimicking the interactions that the IGL/F loops in ClpA or ClpX ATPases establish with the hydrophobic pockets surrounding the axial pore of the tetradecamer that the ..
  56. Stokes N, Murray H, Subramaniam C, Gourse R, Louis P, Bartlett W, et al. A role for mechanosensitive channels in survival of stationary phase: regulation of channel expression by RpoS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15959-64 pubmed
    ..Conversely, clpP or rssB mutations, which cause enhanced levels of sigmaS, show increased MS channel protein synthesis...
  57. Lehnherr H, Yarmolinsky M. Addiction protein Phd of plasmid prophage P1 is a substrate of the ClpXP serine protease of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3274-7 pubmed
    ..This conclusion situates P1 among plasmids that elicit severe withdrawal symptoms and are able to do so because they encode both a cell toxin and an actively degraded macromolecule that blocks the synthesis or function of the toxin...
  58. Pak M, Hoskins J, Singh S, Maurizi M, Wickner S. Concurrent chaperone and protease activities of ClpAP and the requirement for the N-terminal ClpA ATP binding site for chaperone activity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19316-22 pubmed
    ..ClpA(K220V) is unable to activate RepA, but the presence of ClpP or chemically inactivated ClpP restores its ability to activate RepA...
  59. Weber Ban E, Reid B, Miranker A, Horwich A. Global unfolding of a substrate protein by the Hsp100 chaperone ClpA. Nature. 1999;401:90-3 pubmed
    ..of the Hsp100 chaperone family, forms hexameric rings that bind to the free ends of the double-ring serine protease ClpP. ClpA directs the ATP-dependent degradation of substrate proteins bearing specific sequences, much as the 19S ..
  60. Czyz A, Zielke R, Wegrzyn G. Rapid degradation of bacteriophage lambda O protein by ClpP/ClpX protease influences the lysis-versus-lysogenization decision of the phage under certain growth conditions of the host cells. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1487-98 pubmed
    The initiator of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication, the O protein, is rapidly degraded in Escherichia coli by the ClpP/ClpX protease encoded by the host...
  61. Zeth K, Ravelli R, Paal K, Cusack S, Bukau B, Dougan D. Structural analysis of the adaptor protein ClpS in complex with the N-terminal domain of ClpA. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..From this model, we proposed a molecular mechanism to explain the ClpS-mediated switch in ClpA substrate specificity...
  62. Bewley M, Graziano V, Griffin K, Flanagan J. The asymmetry in the mature amino-terminus of ClpP facilitates a local symmetry match in ClpAP and ClpXP complexes. J Struct Biol. 2006;153:113-28 pubmed
    b>ClpP is a self-compartmentalized proteolytic assembly comprised of two, stacked, heptameric rings that, when associated with its cognate hexameric ATPase (ClpA or ClpX), form the ClpAP and ClpXP ATP-dependent protease, respectively...
  63. Gottesman S, Squires C, Pichersky E, Carrington M, Hobbs M, Mattick J, et al. Conservation of the regulatory subunit for the Clp ATP-dependent protease in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3513-7 pubmed
    ..The high degree of similarity among the ClpA-like proteins suggests that Clp-like proteases are likely to be important participants in energy-dependent proteolysis in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ..
  64. Flanagan J, Wall J, Capel M, Schneider D, Shanklin J. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and small-angle scattering provide evidence that native Escherichia coli ClpP is a tetradecamer with an axial pore. Biochemistry. 1995;34:10910-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli ATP-dependent caseinolytic protease (Clp) is composed of two distinct subunits; protease, ClpP, and ATPase, ClpA. Active ClpP has been overexpressed to approximately 50% of soluble protein in E...
  65. Gonciarz Swiatek M, Wawrzynow A, Um S, Learn B, McMacken R, Kelley W, et al. Recognition, targeting, and hydrolysis of the lambda O replication protein by the ClpP/ClpX protease. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:13999-4005 pubmed
    ..established that sequences at the C termini of polypeptide substrates are critical for efficient hydrolysis by the ClpP/ClpX ATP-dependent protease...
  66. Dibden D, Green J. In vivo cycling of the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR between active and inactive states. Microbiology. 2005;151:4063-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, the simplest explanation for the observations reported here is that the FNR protein can be switched between inactive and active forms in vivo in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. ..
  67. Joshi S, Hersch G, Baker T, Sauer R. Communication between ClpX and ClpP during substrate processing and degradation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:404-11 pubmed
    ..ClpX ATPase bind, denature and then translocate protein substrates into the degradation chamber of the double-ring ClpP(14) peptidase...
  68. Szyk A, Maurizi M. Crystal structure at 1.9A of E. coli ClpP with a peptide covalently bound at the active site. J Struct Biol. 2006;156:165-74 pubmed
    b>ClpP, the proteolytic component of the ATP-dependent ClpAP and ClpXP chaperone/protease complexes, has 14 identical subunits organized in two stacked heptameric rings...
  69. Seol J, Baek S, Kang M, Ha D, Chung C. Distinctive roles of the two ATP-binding sites in ClpA, the ATPase component of protease Ti in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:8087-92 pubmed
    ..from the wild-type, 84-kDa ClpA in its ability to hydrolyze ATP and to support the casein-degrading activity of ClpP. Therefore, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to generate mutations in either of the two ATP-binding sites of ..
  70. Wojtkowiak D, Georgopoulos C, Zylicz M. Isolation and characterization of ClpX, a new ATP-dependent specificity component of the Clp protease of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:22609-17 pubmed
    ..The 23,000-Da component (LopP) was identified as the previously characterized ClpP protein, known to complex with ClpA to form the ClpAP, an ATP-..
  71. Wojtyra U, Thibault G, Tuite A, Houry W. The N-terminal zinc binding domain of ClpX is a dimerization domain that modulates the chaperone function. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48981-90 pubmed
    ..Removal of ZBD from the ClpX sequence renders the ATPase activity of ClpX largely insensitive to the presence of ClpP, substrates, or the SspB cofactor...
  72. Jennings L, Lun D, Médard M, Licht S. ClpP hydrolyzes a protein substrate processively in the absence of the ClpA ATPase: mechanistic studies of ATP-independent proteolysis. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here data showing that in the absence of the ATPase subunit ClpA, the protease subunit ClpP can degrade full-length protein substrates processively, albeit at a greatly reduced rate...
  73. Ortega J, Lee H, Maurizi M, Steven A. ClpA and ClpX ATPases bind simultaneously to opposite ends of ClpP peptidase to form active hybrid complexes. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:217-26 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli ATP-dependent ClpAP and ClpXP proteases are composed of a single proteolytic component, ClpP, complexed with either of the two related chaperones, ClpA or ClpX...
  74. Stephani K, Weichart D, Hengge R. Dynamic control of Dps protein levels by ClpXP and ClpAP proteases in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1605-14 pubmed
    ..This turnover is dependent on the clpP and clpX genes...
  75. Biran D, Gur E, Gollan L, Ron E. Control of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by proteolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1436-43 pubmed
    ..The enzyme is stable in triple mutants defective in Lon-, HslVU- and ClpP-dependent proteases...
  76. Webb C, Moreno M, Wilmes Riesenberg M, Curtiss R, Foster J. Effects of DksA and ClpP protease on sigma S production and virulence in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:112-23 pubmed
    ..Two genes associated with regulating sigmaS levels in S. typhimurium have been identified. The first is clpP, encoding the protease known to be responsible for degrading sigmaS in Escherichia coli...
  77. Singh S, Rozycki J, Ortega J, Ishikawa T, Lo J, Steven A, et al. Functional domains of the ClpA and ClpX molecular chaperones identified by limited proteolysis and deletion analysis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29420-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli ClpA and ClpX are ATP-dependent protein unfoldases that each interact with the protease, ClpP, to promote specific protein degradation...
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    ..mutations in the essential rpoB gene, there is a modest, but appreciable increase in mutagenesis in Delta(clpP-clpX) cells relative to wild-type cells...
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    ..composed entirely of purified proteins, we have tested the accessibility of the short-lived lambda O protein to the ClpP/ClpX protease during the various stages of lambda DNA replication...
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    ..coli consists of the ATP-binding regulatory component, ClpA (subunit Mr 84 165), and the proteolytic component, ClpP (subunit Mr 21 563)...
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    We have determined the crystal structure of the proteolytic component of the caseinolytic Clp protease (ClpP) from E. coli at 2...
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    ..These data indicate that the O157:H7 Sakai ClpXP protease is a positive regulator for LEE expression and that this regulation occurs by two pathways: the sigma(S)-dependent and -independent pathways. ..
  83. Martin A, Baker T, Sauer R. Distinct static and dynamic interactions control ATPase-peptidase communication in a AAA+ protease. Mol Cell. 2007;27:41-52 pubmed unfold protein substrates and translocate them through a central pore and into the degradation chamber of ClpP. Here, we demonstrate a bipartite system of ClpX-ClpP interactions that serves multiple functional roles...
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    ..The protein was stabilized by the presence of the chaperones ClpA and ClpX and degraded by their cognate protease ClpP. The dnaA204 mutant was not viable in the absence of ClpY, indicating that this chaperone is essential for DnaA204 ..
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    The highly conserved, 300-kDa cylindrical protease ClpP is an important component of the cellular protein quality machinery...
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    ..protease composed of ClpX, an ATP-dependent chaperone that recognizes and unfolds specific substrates, and ClpP, a serine protease. One ClpXP substrate in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, which is essential for cell division...
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    ..We engineered a ClpB variant, BAP, which associates with the ClpP peptidase and thereby is converted into a degrading disaggregase...
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    ..We propose that ClpS functions, at least in part, as an allosteric effector of ClpAP, broadening our understanding of how AAA+ adaptors control substrate selection. ..
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    ..In Escherichia coli, Clpp protease is one of the components of the protein quality control system that handles misfolded proteins...