Gene Symbol: cheZ
Description: chemotaxis regulator, protein phosphatase for CheY
Alias: ECK1882, JW1870
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Blat Y, Eisenbach M. Mutants with defective phosphatase activity show no phosphorylation-dependent oligomerization of CheZ. The phosphatase of bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1232-6 pubmed
    b>CheZ is the phosphatase of CheY, the response regulator in bacterial chemotaxis. The mechanism by which the activity of CheZ is regulated is not known...
  2. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  3. Silversmith R. High mobility of carboxyl-terminal region of bacterial chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ is diminished upon binding divalent cation or CheY-P substrate. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7768-76 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli chemotaxis, the CheZ phosphatase catalyzes the removal of the phosphoryl group from the signaling molecule, CheY...
  4. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  5. Lipkow K, Andrews S, Bray D. Simulated diffusion of phosphorylated CheY through the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:45-53 pubmed
    ..We explore different possible locations for the phosphatase CheZ and show conditions under which a gradient of CheYp exists in the cell...
  6. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..protein [the YFP variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP)] with the cytoplasmic chemotaxis proteins CheY, CheZ and CheA and the flagellar motor protein FliM, and studied their localization in wild-type and mutant cells of ..
  7. Cantwell B, Draheim R, Weart R, Nguyen C, Stewart R, Manson M. CheZ phosphatase localizes to chemoreceptor patches via CheA-short. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2354-61 pubmed
    We have investigated the conditions required for polar localization of the CheZ phosphatase by using a CheZ-green fluorescent protein fusion protein that, when expressed from a single gene in the chromosome, restored chemotaxis to a ..
  8. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  9. Silversmith R, Levin M, Schilling E, Bourret R. Kinetic characterization of catalysis by the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ. Modulation of activity by the phosphorylated CheY substrate. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:756-65 pubmed
    b>CheZ catalyzes the dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY in the two-component regulatory system that mediates chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. CheZ is a homodimer with two active sites for dephosphorylation...

More Information


  1. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  2. Wang H, Matsumura P. Characterization of the CheAS/CheZ complex: a specific interaction resulting in enhanced dephosphorylating activity on CheY-phosphate. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:695-703 pubmed
    ..cells increased counterclockwise-biased flagellar rotation, and this effect is dependent on the presence of CheZ. CheZ specifically facilitates CheY-phosphate (CheY-P) dephosphorylation and generates a smooth swimming signal...
  3. Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed
    ..The cheB, cheX, cheZ, and cheA (76,000 daltons) proteins, however, were distributed in both the cytoplasm and the inner membrane ..
  4. Kim C, Jackson M, Lux R, Khan S. Determinants of chemotactic signal amplification in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:119-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we used behavioral analysis of mutants deleted for CheZ, a catalyst of CheY-P dephosphorylation, or the methyltransferase CheR and/or the methylesterase CheB to examine ..
  5. Zhao R, Collins E, Bourret R, Silversmith R. Structure and catalytic mechanism of the E. coli chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:570-5 pubmed
    The protein CheZ, which has the last unknown structure in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway, stimulates the dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY by an unknown mechanism...
  6. Lipkow K. Changing cellular location of CheZ predicted by molecular simulations. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e39 pubmed
    ..A second protein, CheZ, which promotes dephosphorylation of CheYp, partially colocalizes with receptors in the plasma membrane...
  7. Blat Y, Eisenbach M. Oligomerization of the phosphatase CheZ upon interaction with the phosphorylated form of CheY. The signal protein of bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1226-31 pubmed
    Earlier studies have suggested that CheZ, the phosphatase of the signaling protein CheY in bacterial chemotaxis, may be in an oligomeric state both when bound to phosphorylated CheY (CheY approximately P) (Blat, Y., and Eisenbach, M...
  8. Vaknin A, Berg H. Single-cell FRET imaging of phosphatase activity in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17072-7 pubmed
    ..Such colocalization is inevitable in systems in which the activity of the kinase and the phosphatase are produced by the same enzyme. Evidently, this design enables a more rapid and spatially uniform response. ..
  9. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  10. Sourjik V, Vaknin A, Shimizu T, Berg H. In vivo measurement by FRET of pathway activity in bacterial chemotaxis. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:365-91 pubmed
    ..on a single-cell level to study the interaction of the phosphorylated response regulator CheY with its phosphatase CheZ. Since this interaction defines the rate of CheY dephosphorylation, which at steady state equals the rate of CheY ..
  11. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  12. Boyd A, Krikos A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are encoded by homologous genes. Cell. 1981;26:333-43 pubmed
    ..The polar effects of Tn5 insertions in the tar-cheR-cheB-cheY-cheZ region indicated that these genes are cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of tar and revealed the existence of a ..
  13. Mutoh N, Simon M. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:161-6 pubmed
    ..sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined...
  14. Blat Y, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of the chemotaxis signal molecule CheY to its phosphatase, CheZ. Biochemistry. 1994;33:902-6 pubmed
    ..The regulatory mechanism appears to be phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of CheY. Here we demonstrate that CheZ, which accelerates the dephosphorylation of CheY, binds to CheY (immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose beads), ..
  15. Blat Y, Eisenbach M. Conserved C-terminus of the phosphatase CheZ is a binding domain for the chemotactic response regulator CheY. Biochemistry. 1996;35:5679-83 pubmed
    b>CheZ is the phosphatase of the chemotactic response regulator, CheY. There are three conserved domains on CheZ. Here we determined the function of the C-terminal domain (residues 202-214)...
  16. Manson M, Armitage J, Hoch J, Macnab R. Bacterial locomotion and signal transduction. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1009-22 pubmed
  17. Freeman A, Mole B, Silversmith R, Bourret R. Action at a distance: amino acid substitutions that affect binding of the phosphorylated CheY response regulator and catalysis of dephosphorylation can be far from the CheZ phosphatase active site. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ stimulates the dephosphorylation of CheYp...
  18. Boesch K, Silversmith R, Bourret R. Isolation and characterization of nonchemotactic CheZ mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3544-52 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli CheZ protein stimulates dephosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in the chemotaxis signal transduction pathway, by an unknown mechanism...
  19. Jeng A, Sharkey N, Blumberg P. Purification of stable protein kinase C from mouse brain cytosol by specific ligand elution using fast protein liquid chromatography. Cancer Res. 1986;46:1966-71 pubmed
    ..Polyclonal antibodies to the purified receptor have been prepared from rabbits. These antibodies recognized the purified receptor in electroblotting assays and were able to immunoprecipitate the purified receptor. ..
  20. Scharf B, Fahrner K, Berg H. CheZ has no effect on flagellar motors activated by CheY13DK106YW. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5123-8 pubmed
    The behaviors of both cheZ-deleted and wild-type cells of Escherichia coli were found to be very sensitive to the level of expression of CheZ, a protein known to accelerate the dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY-phosphate (..
  21. Løvdok L, Kollmann M, Sourjik V. Co-expression of signaling proteins improves robustness of the bacterial chemotaxis pathway. J Biotechnol. 2007;129:173-80 pubmed
    ..of perturbations-the variation in the levels of the adaptation enzymes and a correlated expression of CheY and CheZ. Although the design features that are responsible for this higher robustness still remain to be understood, our ..
  22. Sourjik V, Berg H. Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 2004;428:437-41 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with a number of models that assume long-range cooperative interactions between receptors as a general mechanism for signal integration and amplification. ..
  23. McNamara B, Wolfe A. Coexpression of the long and short forms of CheA, the chemotaxis histidine kinase, by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1813-8 pubmed CheAL, it exhibits both kinase activity and the ability to interact with and enhance the activity of CheZ, a chemotaxis protein that accelerates dephosphorylation of the two-component response regulator CheY...
  24. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  25. Muff T, Ordal G. Assays for CheC, FliY, and CheX as representatives of response regulator phosphatases. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:336-48 pubmed
    ..It has long been known that CheZ is the phosphatase in the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli and related bacteria...
  26. Hao S, Hamel D, Zhou H, Dahlquist F. Structural basis for the localization of the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ by CheAS. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5842-4 pubmed publisher
    CheA-short interacts with CheZ to localize CheZ to cell poles...
  27. Stewart R, VanBruggen R. Phosphorylation and binding interactions of CheY studied by use of Badan-labeled protein. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8766-77 pubmed
    ..CheY exhibited reduced ability to autodephosphorylate and could not interact productively with the phosphatase CheZ. However, with respect to autophosphorylation and interactions with CheA, Badan-CheY performed identically to wild-..
  28. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Four of those genes (cheR, cheB, cheY and cheZ) are required for all chemotactic responses; consequently, polar mutations in the tar gene resulted in a generally ..
  29. Hess J, Oosawa K, Matsumura P, Simon M. Protein phosphorylation is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7609-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of stoichiometric levels of two other purified components in the chemotaxis system, the CheY and CheZ proteins, induces dephosphorylation...
  30. Cantwell B, Manson M. Protein domains and residues involved in the CheZ/CheAS interaction. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5838-41 pubmed publisher
    b>CheZ localizes to chemoreceptor patches by binding CheA-short (CheA(S)). Residues 70 to 134 of CheZ, constituting the apical loops and part of the dimerization domain, suffice for localization...
  31. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  32. Bren A, Welch M, Blat Y, Eisenbach M. Signal termination in bacterial chemotaxis: CheZ mediates dephosphorylation of free rather than switch-bound CheY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10090-3 pubmed
    ..rotation is terminated when CheY is dephosphorylated either spontaneously or, faster, by a specific phosphatase, CheZ. Logically, one might expect CheZ to act directly on FliM-bound CheY...
  33. Appleby J, Bourret R. Proposed signal transduction role for conserved CheY residue Thr87, a member of the response regulator active-site quintet. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:3563-9 pubmed
    ..with amino acid substitutions T87A and T87C could generate clockwise flagellar rotation either in the absence of CheZ, a protein that stimulates dephosphorylation of CheY, or when paired with a second site-activating mutation, Asp13--..
  34. Oleksiuk O, Jakovljevic V, Vladimirov N, Carvalho R, Paster E, Ryu W, et al. Thermal robustness of signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. Cell. 2011;145:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar compensatory mechanisms are expected to ensure thermal robustness in other systems. ..
  35. Wille T, Barlag B, Jakovljevic V, Hensel M, Sourjik V, Gerlach R. A gateway-based system for fast evaluation of protein-protein interactions in bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0123646 pubmed publisher
    ..The suitability for FRET analysis as well as functionality of fusions with SNAP- and HaloTag could be demonstrated by studying the transient interaction between chemotaxis response regulator CheY and its phosphatase CheZ.
  36. Parkinson J. Bacterial chemotaxis: a new player in response regulator dephosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1492-4 pubmed
  37. Kundu T, Kusano S, Ishihama A. Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigmaF holoenzyme involved in transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4264-9 pubmed
    ..Alteration of the promoter structure after binding of E sigmaF was suggested...
  38. O CONNOR C, Matsumura P. The accessibility of cys-120 in CheA(S) is important for the binding of CheZ and enhancement of CheZ phosphatase activity. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6909-16 pubmed
    ..Reduced CheA(S) bound to and enhanced the activity of the phosphatase of phospho-CheY, CheZ. Oxidized CheA(S) was unable to interact with CheZ...
  39. O CONNOR C, Matsumura P, Campos A. The CheZ binding interface of CheAS is located in alpha-helix E. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5845-8 pubmed publisher
    Specific CheA-short (CheA(S)) residues, L123 and L126, were identified as critical for CheZ binding...
  40. Baker M, Wolanin P, Stock J. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. Bioessays. 2006;28:9-22 pubmed
    ..with a histidine protein kinase, CheA, an SH3-like adaptor protein, CheW, and a phosphoprotein phosphatase, CheZ. These multimeric protein assemblies act to control the level of phosphorylation of a response regulator, CheY, ..
  41. Matsumura P, Rydel J, Linzmeier R, Vacante D. Overexpression and sequence of the Escherichia coli cheY gene and biochemical activities of the CheY protein. J Bacteriol. 1984;160:36-41 pubmed
    ..The amino acid composition of the CheY protein predicted by the DNA sequence of the cheY gene and the amino acid analysis of the CheY protein were in agreement, confirming the authenticity of the purified CheY protein. ..
  42. D Auria S, Ausili A, Marabotti A, Varriale A, Scognamiglio V, Staiano M, et al. Binding of glucose to the D-galactose/D-glucose-binding protein from Escherichia coli restores the native protein secondary structure and thermostability that are lost upon calcium depletion. J Biochem. 2006;139:213-21 pubmed
    ..Mutations and/or labelling of amino acid residues located in the protein C-terminal domain may affect the stability of the whole protein structure. ..
  43. Parkinson J, Houts S. Isolation and behavior of Escherichia coli deletion mutants lacking chemotaxis functions. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:106-13 pubmed
    ..An examination of larger deletions indicated that both the cheA-cheW and cheY-cheZ functions were required for the anomalous tumbling behavior observed in these mutants...
  44. Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M. The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:251-65 pubmed
    ..of CheY, CheA and acetyl phosphate, each inhibited the autoacetylation of CheY, whereas the phosphatase of CheY, CheZ, enhanced it...
  45. Sanna M, Simon M. Isolation and in vitro characterization of CheZ suppressors for the Escherichia coli chemotactic response regulator mutant CheYN23D. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7357-61 pubmed
    ..has an intrinsic autophosphatase activity; however, this reaction is greatly accelerated by the presence of the CheZ protein...
  46. van Albada S, ten Wolde P. Differential affinity and catalytic activity of CheZ in E. coli chemotaxis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000378 pubmed publisher
    ..example is the chemotaxis system of the bacterium Escherichia coli, in which the kinase CheA and the phosphatase CheZ regulate the phosphorylation level of the messenger protein CheY...
  47. Sourjik V, Berg H. Receptor sensitivity in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:123-7 pubmed
    ..we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer to monitor interactions of CheY approximately P with its phosphatase, CheZ, that reveal changes in the activity of the receptor kinase, CheA, resulting from the addition of attractants or ..
  48. Matsumura P. Last, but not least. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:563-4 pubmed
  49. Silversmith R, Guanga G, Betts L, Chu C, Zhao R, Bourret R. CheZ-mediated dephosphorylation of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis response regulator CheY: role for CheY glutamate 89. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1495-502 pubmed
    ..CheY is phosphorylated on Asp57 by the sensor kinase CheA and dephosphorylated by CheZ. Previous work (Silversmith et al., J. Biol. Chem...
  50. Topp S, Gallivan J. Guiding bacteria with small molecules and RNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:6807-11 pubmed
    ..Here we show that by using a synthetic riboswitch rather than an engineered protein to recognize a ligand, E. coli can be guided toward and precisely localized to a completely new chemical signal. ..
  51. Sanna M, Swanson R, Bourret R, Simon M. Mutations in the chemotactic response regulator, CheY, that confer resistance to the phosphatase activity of CheZ. Mol Microbiol. 1995;15:1069-79 pubmed
    ..The dephosphorylation rate is controlled by the intrinsic autohydrolytic activity of phospho-CheY and by the CheZ protein, which accelerates dephosphorylation...
  52. Parkinson J. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:45-53 pubmed
    ..Mutants of the "cheB" class defined four genes, cheX, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, which also constituted a transcriptional unit...
  53. Sanna M, Simon M. In vivo and in vitro characterization of Escherichia coli protein CheZ gain- and loss-of-function mutants. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6275-80 pubmed
    ..The CheZ protein has been shown to control the level of phosphorylated CheY by regulating its rate of dephosphorylation...
  54. Welch M, Oosawa K, Aizawa S, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a signal molecule to the flagellar switch of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8787-91 pubmed
    ..This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule. ..