cheY

Summary

Gene Symbol: cheY
Description: chemotaxis regulator transmitting signal to flagellar motor component
Alias: ECK1883, JW1871
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Sourjik V, Berg H. Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 2004;428:437-41 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with a number of models that assume long-range cooperative interactions between receptors as a general mechanism for signal integration and amplification. ..
  2. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  3. Lipkow K, Andrews S, Bray D. Simulated diffusion of phosphorylated CheY through the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:45-53 pubmed
    ..These and other results are left as predictions for future experiments. ..
  4. Ramakrishnan R, Schuster M, Bourret R. Acetylation at Lys-92 enhances signaling by the chemotaxis response regulator protein CheY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4918-23 pubmed
    When Escherichia coli cells lacking all chemotaxis proteins except the response regulator CheY are exposed to acetate, clockwise flagellar rotation results, indicating the acetate stimulus has activated signaling by CheY...
  5. Lee S, Cho H, Pelton J, Yan D, Henderson R, King D, et al. Crystal structure of an activated response regulator bound to its target. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:52-6 pubmed
    The chemotactic regulator CheY controls the direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. We have determined the crystal structure of BeF3--activated CheY from E...
  6. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  7. Vaknin A, Berg H. Single-cell FRET imaging of phosphatase activity in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17072-7 pubmed
    ..Such colocalization is inevitable in systems in which the activity of the kinase and the phosphatase are produced by the same enzyme. Evidently, this design enables a more rapid and spatially uniform response. ..
  8. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Acetylation of the response regulator, CheY, is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:731-43 pubmed
    It is well established that the response regulator of the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, CheY, can undergo acetylation at lysine residues 92 and 109 via a reaction mediated by acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs)...
  9. Løvdok L, Kollmann M, Sourjik V. Co-expression of signaling proteins improves robustness of the bacterial chemotaxis pathway. J Biotechnol. 2007;129:173-80 pubmed
    ..to two types of perturbations-the variation in the levels of the adaptation enzymes and a correlated expression of CheY and CheZ...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Dyer C, Dahlquist F. Switched or not?: the structure of unphosphorylated CheY bound to the N terminus of FliM. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7354-63 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of Escherichia coli CheY increases its affinity for its target, FliM, 20-fold...
  2. Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M. The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:251-65 pubmed
    One of the processes by which CheY, the excitatory response regulator of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, can be activated to generate clockwise flagellar rotation is by acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs)-mediated acetylation...
  3. Zhao R, Collins E, Bourret R, Silversmith R. Structure and catalytic mechanism of the E. coli chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:570-5 pubmed
    ..structure in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway, stimulates the dephosphorylation of the response regulator CheY by an unknown mechanism...
  4. Besschetnova T, Montefusco D, Asinas A, Shrout A, Antommattei F, Weis R. Receptor density balances signal stimulation and attenuation in membrane-assembled complexes of bacterial chemotaxis signaling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..coli pathway. Density-dependent mechanisms are likely to be general and may operate when two or more membrane-related processes are influenced differently by the two-dimensional concentration of pathway elements. ..
  5. Yan J, Barak R, Liarzi O, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M. In vivo acetylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:1260-71 pubmed publisher
    b>CheY, the excitatory response regulator in the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, can be modulated by two covalent modifications: phosphorylation and acetylation. Both modifications have been detected in vitro only...
  6. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..fluorescent protein [the YFP variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP)] with the cytoplasmic chemotaxis proteins CheY, CheZ and CheA and the flagellar motor protein FliM, and studied their localization in wild-type and mutant cells ..
  7. Wang H, Matsumura P. Characterization of the CheAS/CheZ complex: a specific interaction resulting in enhanced dephosphorylating activity on CheY-phosphate. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:695-703 pubmed
    ..in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis signalling pathway by autophosphorylation and transferring the phosphate to both CheY and CheB. On the other hand, the physiological functions of CheAS remain unknown...
  8. Mayover T, Halkides C, Stewart R. Kinetic characterization of CheY phosphorylation reactions: comparison of P-CheA and small-molecule phosphodonors. Biochemistry. 1999;38:2259-71 pubmed
    In the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of the CheY protein plays an important role in regulating the swimming pattern of the cell...
  9. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  10. Hess J, Oosawa K, Kaplan N, Simon M. Phosphorylation of three proteins in the signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis. Cell. 1988;53:79-87 pubmed
    ..the phosphate group on CheA can be rapidly transferred to CheB, a protein involved in adaptation to stimuli, or to CheY, a protein involved in the excitation response...
  11. Baker M, Wolanin P, Stock J. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. Bioessays. 2006;28:9-22 pubmed
    ..These multimeric protein assemblies act to control the level of phosphorylation of a response regulator, CheY, which dictates flagellar motion...
  12. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Co-regulation of acetylation and phosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:375-81 pubmed
    b>CheY, a response regulator of the chemotaxis system in Escherichia coli, can be activated by either phosphorylation or acetylation to generate clockwise rotation of the flagellar motor...
  13. Barak R, Abouhamad W, Eisenbach M. Both acetate kinase and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase are involved in acetate-stimulated change in the direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:985-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli strains overproducing the response regulator CheY respond to acetate by increasing their clockwise bias of flagellar rotation, even when they lack other chemotaxis proteins...
  14. Parkinson J, Houts S. Isolation and behavior of Escherichia coli deletion mutants lacking chemotaxis functions. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:106-13 pubmed
    ..An examination of larger deletions indicated that both the cheA-cheW and cheY-cheZ functions were required for the anomalous tumbling behavior observed in these mutants...
  15. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  16. Thiem S, Sourjik V. Stochastic assembly of chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon subsequent anchorage to defined lateral sites, clusters grow with rates that inversely depend on their size, and become polar upon several rounds of cell division. ..
  17. Volz K, Matsumura P. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli CheY refined at 1.7-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15511-9 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of wild-type CheY from Escherichia coli has been refined by stereochemically restrained least squares minimization to a crystallographic R-factor of 15.1% at 1.7-A resolution...
  18. Sagi Y, Khan S, Eisenbach M. Binding of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY to the isolated, intact switch complex of the bacterial flagellar motor: lack of cooperativity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25867-71 pubmed
    ..However, it is not known whether the amplification results from cooperativity of CheY binding to the switch or from a post-binding step...
  19. Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe A, Eisenbach M. Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:383-401 pubmed
    Acetylation of CheY, the excitatory response regulator of bacterial chemotaxis, by the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) is involved in Escherichia coli chemotaxis, but its function is obscure. Here, we overproduced Acs from E...
  20. Sourjik V, Berg H. Binding of the Escherichia coli response regulator CheY to its target measured in vivo by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12669-74 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli chemotaxis, signaling depends on modulation of the level of phosphorylation of CheY, a small protein that couples receptors and flagellar motors...
  21. Barak R, Welch M, Yanovsky A, Oosawa K, Eisenbach M. Acetyladenylate or its derivative acetylates the chemotaxis protein CheY in vitro and increases its activity at the flagellar switch. Biochemistry. 1992;31:10099-107 pubmed
    b>CheY, a key protein in the mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis, is known to interact with the flagellar switch and thereby cause clockwise rotation...
  22. Bruix M, Munoz V, Campos Olivas R, Del Bosque J, Serrano L, Rico M. Characterisation of the isolated Che Y C-terminal fragment (79-129)--Exploring the structure/stability/folding relationship of the alpha/beta parallel protein Che Y. Eur J Biochem. 1997;243:384-92 pubmed
  23. Wilcock D, Pisabarro M, López Hernández E, Serrano L, Coll M. Structure analysis of two CheY mutants: importance of the hydrogen-bond contribution to protein stability. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998;54:378-85 pubmed
    The crystal structures of two double mutants (F14N/V21T and F14N/V86T) of the signal transduction protein CheY have been determined to a resolution of 2.4 and 2.2 A, respectively...
  24. Lee S, Cho H, Pelton J, Yan D, Berry E, Wemmer D. Crystal structure of activated CheY. Comparison with other activated receiver domains. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16425-31 pubmed
    The crystal structure of BeF(3)(-)-activated CheY, with manganese in the magnesium binding site, was determined at 2.4-A resolution...
  25. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  26. Tu Y. The nonequilibrium mechanism for ultrasensitivity in a biological switch: sensing by Maxwell's demons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11737-41 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli flagellar motor senses the intracellular concentration of the response regulator CheY-P and responds by varying the bias between its counterclockwise (CCW) and clockwise (CW) rotational states...
  27. Silversmith R. High mobility of carboxyl-terminal region of bacterial chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ is diminished upon binding divalent cation or CheY-P substrate. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7768-76 pubmed
    ..coli chemotaxis, the CheZ phosphatase catalyzes the removal of the phosphoryl group from the signaling molecule, CheY. The cocrystal structure of CheZ with CheY x BeF3- x Mg2+ (a stable analogue of CheY-P) revealed that CheZ is a ..
  28. Rowsell E, Smith J, Wolfe A, Taylor B. CheA, CheW, and CheY are required for chemotaxis to oxygen and sugars of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6011-4 pubmed
    ..in a null strain, we determined that all pathways examined required the products of the genes cheA, cheW, and cheY. Thus, we conclude that both the methylation-independent and methylation-dependent pathways converge at CheA, the ..
  29. Dyer C, Quillin M, Campos A, Lu J, McEvoy M, Hausrath A, et al. Structure of the constitutively active double mutant CheYD13K Y106W alone and in complex with a FliM peptide. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:1325-35 pubmed
    b>CheY is a member of the response regulator protein superfamily that controls the chemotactic swimming response of motile bacteria...
  30. Vladimirov N, Løvdok L, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Dependence of bacterial chemotaxis on gradient shape and adaptation rate. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000242 pubmed publisher
    ..chemotaxis is observed in a narrow range of CheA kinase activity, where concentration of the response regulator CheY-P falls into the operating range of flagellar motors...
  31. Lukat G, Stock A, Stock J. Divalent metal ion binding to the CheY protein and its significance to phosphotransfer in bacterial chemotaxis. Biochemistry. 1990;29:5436-42 pubmed
    ..in bacterial chemotaxis involves transfer of a phosphoryl group between the cytoplasmic proteins CheA and CheY. In addition to the established metal ion requirement for autophosphorylation of CheA, divalent magnesium ions are ..
  32. Mutoh N, Simon M. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:161-6 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined...
  33. Wright S, Walia B, Parkinson J, Khan S. Differential activation of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors by blue-light stimuli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3962-71 pubmed
    ..The response required the chemotaxis signal protein CheY and receptor-dependent activation of its kinase CheA...
  34. Koshland D, Sanders D, Weis R. Roles of methylation and phosphorylation in the bacterial sensing system. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1988;53 Pt 1:11-7 pubmed
    ..That system ultimately generates or inhibits phosphorylation of a small peptide, the CheY protein, which apparently is the response regulator...
  35. Saier M. Bacterial sensor kinase/response regulator systems: an introduction. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:349-55 pubmed
  36. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  37. Filimonov V, Prieto J, Martinez J, Bruix M, Mateo P, Serrano L. Thermodynamic analysis of the chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, CheY. Biochemistry. 1993;32:12906-21 pubmed
    b>CheY, the 129 amino acid chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, is a good model for studies of folding of parallel alpha/beta proteins...
  38. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  39. McDonald L, Whitley M, Boyer J, Lee A. Colocalization of fast and slow timescale dynamics in the allosteric signaling protein CheY. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The response regulator, Escherichia coli CheY, allosterically responds to phosphorylation with a change in dynamics on both the microsecond-to-millisecond (?s-ms)..
  40. Matsumura P. Last, but not least. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:563-4 pubmed
  41. Simonovic M, Volz K. A distinct meta-active conformation in the 1.1-A resolution structure of wild-type ApoCheY. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28637-40 pubmed
    b>CheY is the best characterized member of the response regulator superfamily, and as such it has become the principal model for understanding the initial molecular mechanisms of signaling in two-component systems...
  42. Santoro J, Bruix M, Pascual J, Lopez E, Serrano L, Rico M. Three-dimensional structure of chemotactic Che Y protein in aqueous solution by nuclear magnetic resonance methods. J Mol Biol. 1995;247:717-25 pubmed
    ..92 A for the backbone residues (2 to 129). The highly refined solution structure determined herewith provides an essential background to delineate functionally important conformational changes brought about by different effectors. ..
  43. Hess J, Bourret R, Simon M. Histidine phosphorylation and phosphoryl group transfer in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 1988;336:139-43 pubmed
    ..Similar mechanisms of transient protein phosphorylation and phosphoryl group transfer seem to be involved in processing sensory data and in activating specific gene expression. ..
  44. Bellsolell L, Cronet P, Majolero M, Serrano L, Coll M. The three-dimensional structure of two mutants of the signal transduction protein CheY suggest its molecular activation mechanism. J Mol Biol. 1996;257:116-28 pubmed publisher
    ..crystal structures of the single mutant M17G and the triple mutant F14G-S15G-M17G of the response regulator protein CheY have been determined to 2.3 and 1.9 angstrom, respectively...
  45. Kim C, Jackson M, Lux R, Khan S. Determinants of chemotactic signal amplification in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:119-35 pubmed
    ..The protein CheY shuttles between flagellar motors and methyl-accepting chemoreceptor (MCP) complexes containing the linker CheW and ..
  46. Sourjik V, Vaknin A, Shimizu T, Berg H. In vivo measurement by FRET of pathway activity in bacterial chemotaxis. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:365-91 pubmed
    ..in cell populations and on a single-cell level to study the interaction of the phosphorylated response regulator CheY with its phosphatase CheZ...
  47. Sarkar M, Paul K, Blair D. Chemotaxis signaling protein CheY binds to the rotor protein FliN to control the direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to the chemotaxis signaling molecule phospho-CheY (CheY(P)), the motors can switch to clockwise (CW) rotation, causing dissociation of the filament bundle and ..
  48. Eisenbach M. Control of bacterial chemotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:903-10 pubmed
    ..The regulation is carried out by the chemotaxis protein, CheY. This protein is activated by a stimulus-dependent phosphorylation mediated by an autophosphorylatable kinase (CheA)..
  49. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  50. Fraiberg M, Afanzar O, Cassidy C, Gabashvili A, Schulten K, Levin Y, et al. CheY's acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2015;95:231-44 pubmed publisher
    Stimulation of Escherichia coli with acetate elevates the acetylation level of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY. This elevation, in an unknown mechanism, activates CheY to generate clockwise rotation...
  51. Cases Gonzalez C, Gutierrez Rivas M, Menendez Arias L. Coupling ribose selection to fidelity of DNA synthesis. The role of Tyr-115 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19759-67 pubmed
  52. Boyd A, Krikos A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are encoded by homologous genes. Cell. 1981;26:333-43 pubmed
    ..The polar effects of Tn5 insertions in the tar-cheR-cheB-cheY-cheZ region indicated that these genes are cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of tar and revealed the existence ..
  53. Alexandre G, Zhulin I. Different evolutionary constraints on chemotaxis proteins CheW and CheY revealed by heterologous expression studies and protein sequence analysis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:544-52 pubmed
    CheW and CheY are single-domain proteins from a signal transduction pathway that transmits information from transmembrane receptors to flagellar motors in bacterial chemotaxis...
  54. Li R, Gu J, Chen Y, Xiao C, Wang L, Zhang Z, et al. CobB regulates Escherichia coli chemotaxis by deacetylating the response regulator CheY. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1162-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Western blotting and mass spectrometry to show that the response regulator CheY is a substrate of CobB...
  55. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  56. Yuan J, Berg H. Ultrasensitivity of an adaptive bacterial motor. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1760-4 pubmed publisher
    ..motor of Escherichia coli adapts to changes in the steady-state level of the chemotaxis response regulator, CheY-P, by adjusting the number of FliM molecules to which CheY-P binds...
  57. Oleksiuk O, Jakovljevic V, Vladimirov N, Carvalho R, Paster E, Ryu W, et al. Thermal robustness of signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. Cell. 2011;145:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar compensatory mechanisms are expected to ensure thermal robustness in other systems. ..
  58. Bruix M, Pascual J, Santoro J, Prieto J, Serrano L, Rico M. 1H- and 15N-NMR assignment and solution structure of the chemotactic Escherichia coli Che Y protein. Eur J Biochem. 1993;215:573-85 pubmed
  59. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Four of those genes (cheR, cheB, cheY and cheZ) are required for all chemotactic responses; consequently, polar mutations in the tar gene resulted in a ..
  60. Yuan J, Fahrner K, Berg H. Switching of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the CW-->CCW and CCW-->CW switching rates increased linearly with motor torque. Evidently, the switch senses stator-rotor interactions as well as the CheY-P concentration.
  61. Jenal U, Galperin M. Single domain response regulators: molecular switches with emerging roles in cell organization and dynamics. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli protein CheY, the paradigm member of this family, regulates chemotaxis by relaying information between chemoreceptors and the ..
  62. Sol M, L pez Hern ndez E, Cronet P, Lacroix E, Serrano L, Coll M, et al. Towards understanding a molecular switch mechanism: thermodynamic and crystallographic studies of the signal transduction protein CheY. J Mol Biol. 2000;303:213-25 pubmed publisher
    The signal transduction protein CheY displays an alpha/beta-parallel polypeptide folding, including a highly unstable helix alpha4 and a strongly charged active site...
  63. Khan S, Jain S, Reid G, Trentham D. The fast tumble signal in bacterial chemotaxis. Biophys J. 2004;86:4049-58 pubmed
    ..an estimate of the increase in the rate of formation of CheYP, the phosphorylated form of the signal protein CheY. The estimated increase gives a lower limit receptor kinase coupling ratio of 6.0...
  64. Stewart R, VanBruggen R. Phosphorylation and binding interactions of CheY studied by use of Badan-labeled protein. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8766-77 pubmed
    In the chemotaxis signal transduction pathway of Escherichia coli, the response regulator protein CheY is phosphorylated by the receptor-coupled protein kinase CheA...
  65. Silversmith R, Guanga G, Betts L, Chu C, Zhao R, Bourret R. CheZ-mediated dephosphorylation of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis response regulator CheY: role for CheY glutamate 89. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1495-502 pubmed
    ..is dictated by the intracellular concentration of the phosphorylated form of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY, which binds to the base of the flagellar motor...
  66. Pazy Y, Wollish A, Thomas S, Miller P, Collins E, Bourret R, et al. Matching biochemical reaction kinetics to the timescales of life: structural determinants that influence the autodephosphorylation rate of response regulator proteins. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:1205-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies identified two variable active-site residues, corresponding to Escherichia coli CheY residues 59 and 89, that modulate response regulator autodephosphorylation rates about 100-fold...
  67. Lipkow K. Changing cellular location of CheZ predicted by molecular simulations. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e39 pubmed
    ..coli, signals are carried from a cluster of receptors to the flagellar motors by the diffusion of the protein CheY-phosphate (CheYp) through the cytoplasm...
  68. Halkides C, McEvoy M, Casper E, Matsumura P, Volz K, Dahlquist F. The 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of phosphono-CheY, an analogue of the active form of the response regulator, CheY. Biochemistry. 2000;39:5280-6 pubmed
    To structurally characterize the activated state of the transiently phosphorylated signal transduction protein CheY, we have constructed an alpha-thiophosphonate derivative of the CheY D57C point mutant and determined its three-..
  69. Park S, Beel B, Simon M, Bilwes A, Crane B. In different organisms, the mode of interaction between two signaling proteins is not necessarily conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..strong evolutionary constraints, binding of the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheA to its phosphorylation target CheY suggests otherwise...
  70. Zhu X, Rebello J, Matsumura P, Volz K. Crystal structures of CheY mutants Y106W and T87I/Y106W. CheY activation correlates with movement of residue 106. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:5000-6 pubmed
    Position 106 in CheY is highly conserved as an aromatic residue in the response regulator superfamily...
  71. Sanna M, Swanson R, Bourret R, Simon M. Mutations in the chemotactic response regulator, CheY, that confer resistance to the phosphatase activity of CheZ. Mol Microbiol. 1995;15:1069-79 pubmed
    b>CheY, a small cytoplasmic response regulator, plays an essential role in the chemotaxis pathway...
  72. Clegg D, Koshland D. The role of a signaling protein in bacterial sensing: behavioral effects of increased gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5056-60 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli cheY gene, whose function is unknown, has been subcloned behind the synthetic inducible tac promoter...
  73. Cho H, Lee S, Yan D, Pan X, Parkinson J, Kustu S, et al. NMR structure of activated CheY. J Mol Biol. 2000;297:543-51 pubmed publisher
    The CheY protein is the response regulator in bacterial chemotaxis. Phosphorylation of a conserved aspartyl residue induces structural changes that convert the protein from an inactive to an active state...
  74. McAdams K, Casper E, Matthew Haas R, Santarsiero B, Eggler A, Mesecar A, et al. The structures of T87I phosphono-CheY and T87I/Y106W phosphono-CheY help to explain their binding affinities to the FliM and CheZ peptides. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;479:105-13 pubmed publisher
    b>CheY is a response regulator in bacterial chemotaxis. Escherichia coli CheY mutants T87I and T87I/Y106W CheY are phosphorylatable on Asp57 but unable to generate clockwise rotation of the flagella...
  75. Parkinson J. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:45-53 pubmed
    ..Mutants of the "cheB" class defined four genes, cheX, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, which also constituted a transcriptional unit...