Gene Symbol: cheW
Description: purine-binding chemotaxis protein
Alias: ECK1888, JW1876
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gegner J, Dahlquist F. Signal transduction in bacteria: CheW forms a reversible complex with the protein kinase CheA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:750-4 pubmed
    ..This control requires the participation of the CheW protein...
  2. Liu J, Parkinson J. Role of CheW protein in coupling membrane receptors to the intracellular signaling system of bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:8703-7 pubmed
    ..This study concerns the role of CheW, a cytoplasmic protein, in coupling methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), the major class of membrane ..
  3. Kehry M, Dahlquist F. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins of Escherichia coli. Identification of the multiple methylation sites on methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein I. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:10378-86 pubmed
    ..The ability to acquire six methylations on MCPI allows the bacterial cells to adapt to a broad range of attractant and repellent concentrations. ..
  4. Zhao J, Parkinson J. Mutational analysis of the chemoreceptor-coupling domain of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis signaling kinase CheA. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3299-307 pubmed Escherichia coli, autophosphorylation of the histidine kinase CheA is coupled to chemoreceptor control by the CheW protein, which interacts with the C-terminal P5 domain of CheA...
  5. Miller A, Kohout S, Gilman K, Falke J. CheA Kinase of bacterial chemotaxis: chemical mapping of four essential docking sites. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8699-711 pubmed publisher
    ..of this signaling complex, termed the core complex, consists of the transmembrane receptor, the coupling protein CheW, and the histidine kinase CheA...
  6. Lai R, Manson J, Bormans A, Draheim R, Nguyen N, Manson M. Cooperative signaling among bacterial chemoreceptors. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14298-307 pubmed
    ..the fundamental "cooperative receptor unit" is relatively static, even in the absence of CheA and CheW. Finally, we observed that inhibition of receptor-stimulated CheA activity by serine or aspartate required ..
  7. Gegner J, Graham D, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Cell. 1992;70:975-82 pubmed
    ..chemotaxis receptors Tsr and Tar with the chemotaxis-specific protein kinase CheA and the coupling factor CheW. Receptor directly bound CheW, but receptor-CheA binding was dependent upon the presence of CheW...
  8. Boukhvalova M, VanBruggen R, Stewart R. CheA kinase and chemoreceptor interaction surfaces on CheW. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23596-603 pubmed aspartic acid are initiated by a ternary protein complex composed of Tar (chemoreceptor), CheA (kinase), and CheW (a coupling protein that binds to both Tar and CheA and links their activities)...
  9. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..core in Escherichia coli comprises a ternary complex composed of receptors, kinase CheA, and adaptor protein CheW. All other chemotaxis proteins localize to clusters by binding either directly to receptors or to CheA...

More Information


  1. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  2. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Core unit of chemotaxis signaling complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9390-5 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial chemoreceptors, histidine kinase CheA, and coupling protein CheW form clusters of chemotaxis signaling complexes. In signaling complexes kinase activity is enhanced several hundredfold and placed under receptor control...
  3. Li G, Weis R. Covalent modification regulates ligand binding to receptor complexes in the chemosensory system of Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;100:357-65 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that covalent modification influences ligand binding to receptors in complexes with CheW and the kinase CheA...
  4. Underbakke E, Zhu Y, Kiessling L. Protein footprinting in a complex milieu: identifying the interaction surfaces of the chemotaxis adaptor protein CheW. J Mol Biol. 2011;409:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of this superstructure depends on the adaptor protein CheW, which mediates a functionally important bridging interaction between transmembrane receptors and histidine kinase...
  5. Briegel A, Li X, Bilwes A, Hughes K, Jensen G, Crane B. Bacterial chemoreceptor arrays are hexagonally packed trimers of receptor dimers networked by rings of kinase and coupling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..inside cells to reveal the arrangement of the component transmembrane receptors, histidine kinases (CheA) and CheW coupling proteins...
  6. Shrout A, Montefusco D, Weis R. Template-directed assembly of receptor signaling complexes. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13379-85 pubmed
    ..In the presence of the adaptor protein CheW, CheA bound to and was activated approximately 180-fold by vesicle-bound CF...
  7. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..Co-localization of CheY and CheZ with MCPs was CheA dependent, and co-localization of CheA with MCPs was CheW dependent, as expected...
  8. Greenfield D, McEvoy A, Shroff H, Crooks G, Wingreen N, Betzig E, et al. Self-organization of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis network imaged with super-resolution light microscopy. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000137 pubmed publisher
    ..PALM) to map the cellular locations of three proteins central to bacterial chemotaxis (the Tar receptor, CheY, and CheW) with a precision of 15 nm...
  9. Sanders D, Mendez B, Koshland D. Role of the CheW protein in bacterial chemotaxis: overexpression is equivalent to absence. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6271-8 pubmed
    The cheW gene from Escherichia coli has been cloned an inducible promoter, and the effects of the overproduction of the CheW protein on chemotactic behavior and receptor covalent modification have been examined...
  10. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  11. Li J, Li G, Weis R. The serine chemoreceptor from Escherichia coli is methylated through an inter-dimer process. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11851-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for inter-dimer interactions in transmembrane signaling. ..
  12. Boukhvalova M, Dahlquist F, Stewart R. CheW binding interactions with CheA and Tar. Importance for chemotaxis signaling in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22251-9 pubmed
    ..acid occur within a ternary complex that includes Tar (an aspartate receptor), CheA (a protein kinase), and CheW. Because CheW can bind to CheA and to Tar, it is thought to serve as an adapter protein in this complex...
  13. Alexandre G, Zhulin I. Different evolutionary constraints on chemotaxis proteins CheW and CheY revealed by heterologous expression studies and protein sequence analysis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:544-52 pubmed
    b>CheW and CheY are single-domain proteins from a signal transduction pathway that transmits information from transmembrane receptors to flagellar motors in bacterial chemotaxis...
  14. Kentner D, Thiem S, Hildenbeutel M, Sourjik V. Determinants of chemoreceptor cluster formation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:407-17 pubmed study in vivo formation of the cluster core, which consists of receptors, a kinase CheA and an assisting protein CheW. We show that receptors aggregate through their cytoplasmic domains even in the absence of other chemotaxis ..
  15. Baker M, Wolanin P, Stock J. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. Bioessays. 2006;28:9-22 pubmed
    ..assemblies at one or both cell poles together with a histidine protein kinase, CheA, an SH3-like adaptor protein, CheW, and a phosphoprotein phosphatase, CheZ...
  16. Studdert C, Parkinson J. Insights into the organization and dynamics of bacterial chemoreceptor clusters through in vivo crosslinking studies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15623-8 pubmed
    ..of different detection specificities form mixed trimers of dimers that bind the cytoplasmic proteins CheA and CheW to form ternary signaling complexes clustered at the cell poles...
  17. Rice M, Dahlquist F. Sites of deamidation and methylation in Tsr, a bacterial chemotaxis sensory transducer. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9746-53 pubmed
    ..Single glutamate mutants have shown that one deamidation (at glutamine 311) proceeds rapidly, while the other deamidation (at glutamine 297) has a half-life of approximately 60 min under our experimental conditions. ..
  18. Borkovich K, Alex L, Simon M. Attenuation of sensory receptor signaling by covalent modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6756-60 pubmed
    ..Reversible modification provides a mechanism that allows the cell to accumulate a population of receptor molecules capable of generating a wide range of signaling intensities. ..
  19. Besschetnova T, Montefusco D, Asinas A, Shrout A, Antommattei F, Weis R. Receptor density balances signal stimulation and attenuation in membrane-assembled complexes of bacterial chemotaxis signaling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..coli pathway. Density-dependent mechanisms are likely to be general and may operate when two or more membrane-related processes are influenced differently by the two-dimensional concentration of pathway elements. ..
  20. Lybarger S, Maddock J. Clustering of the chemoreceptor complex in Escherichia coli is independent of the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5527-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli chemoreceptors and their associated cytoplasmic proteins, CheA and CheW, cluster predominantly at the cell poles. The nature of the clustering remains a mystery...
  21. Zhang P, Khursigara C, Hartnell L, Subramaniam S. Direct visualization of Escherichia coli chemotaxis receptor arrays using cryo-electron microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3777-81 pubmed
    ..regions of the cell and form stable ternary complexes with the histidine autokinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW. Here we report the direct visualization and spatial organization of chemoreceptor arrays in intact Escherichia ..
  22. Wang E, Koshland D. Receptor structure in the bacterial sensing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:7157-61 pubmed
    ..These results show that the aspartate and serine receptors are transmembrane proteins of a single polypeptide chain with the receptor recognition site on the outside of the membrane and the covalent methylation site on the inside. ..
  23. McNally D, Matsumura P. Bacterial chemotaxis signaling complexes: formation of a CheA/CheW complex enhances autophosphorylation and affinity for CheY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:6269-73 pubmed
    We have demonstrated that a complex of the proteins CheA (CheAL and CheAS) and CheW can be isolated and constitutes a functional unit that responds to the signaling state of the chemoreceptors...
  24. Sanders D, Koshland D. Receptor interactions through phosphorylation and methylation pathways in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8425-9 pubmed
    ..The aspartate-induced methylation on the serine receptor is absent in a strain that lacks cheA and cheW genes and is not the result of physical interaction, such as the formation of heterodimers between the aspartate ..
  25. Wolanin P, Baker M, Francis N, Thomas D, Derosier D, Stock J. Self-assembly of receptor/signaling complexes in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14313-8 pubmed a leucine zipper dimerization domain produces a hybrid, lzTar(C), that forms soluble complexes with CheA and CheW. The three-dimensional reconstruction of these complexes was different from that anticipated based solely on ..
  26. Ames P, Parkinson J. Constitutively signaling fragments of Tsr, the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6340-8 pubmed
    ..receptors, the fragments appeared to generate signals through interactions with the CheA autokinase and the CheW coupling factor. CheA was required for both signaling activities, whereas CheW was needed only for CW signaling...
  27. Rowsell E, Smith J, Wolfe A, Taylor B. CheA, CheW, and CheY are required for chemotaxis to oxygen and sugars of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6011-4 pubmed
    ..of the pathways in a null strain, we determined that all pathways examined required the products of the genes cheA, cheW, and cheY...
  28. Bairoch A, Boeckmann B. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3093-6 pubmed
  29. Iwama T, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Uncoupling of ligand-binding affinity of the bacterial serine chemoreceptor from methylation- and temperature-modulated signaling states. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13810-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the structure of the periplasmic domain of the receptor is uncoupled from the signaling states of the cytoplasmic domain. This ligand-binding assay system should be applicable to other receptors. ..
  30. Liu Y, Levit M, Lurz R, Surette M, Stock J. Receptor-mediated protein kinase activation and the mechanism of transmembrane signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. EMBO J. 1997;16:7231-40 pubmed
  31. Hess J, Oosawa K, Matsumura P, Simon M. Protein phosphorylation is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7609-13 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the phosphorylation of CheA by ATP plays a central role in signal transduction in chemotaxis. ..
  32. Nara T, Kawagishi I, Nishiyama S, Homma M, Imae Y. Modulation of the thermosensing profile of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor tar by covalent modification of its methyl-accepting sites. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17932-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is suggested that Tar exists in at least three distinct states, each of which allows it to function as a warm, cold, or null thermoreceptor, depending on the modification patterns of its methylation sites. ..
  33. Toews M, Goy M, Springer M, Adler J. Attractants and repellents control demethylation of methylated chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5544-8 pubmed
    ..It is therefore concluded that control of demethylation plays a crucial role in changing the level of methylation of MCP in response to attractants and repellents. ..
  34. Jiang L, Ouyang Q, Tu Y. A mechanism for precision-sensing via a gradient-sensing pathway: a model of Escherichia coli thermotaxis. Biophys J. 2009;97:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism for precision sensing in an adaptive gradient-sensing system may apply to other organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Caenorhabditis elegans. ..
  35. Mutoh N, Simon M. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:161-6 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined...
  36. Bollinger J, Park C, Harayama S, Hazelbauer G. Structure of the Trg protein: Homologies with and differences from other sensory transducers of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:3287-91 pubmed
    ..The location of specific mutations within trg provides support for the suggestion that ligand-binding sites are in the NH2-terminal domains. ..
  37. Shimizu T, Le Novère N, Levin M, Beavil A, Sutton B, Bray D. Molecular model of a lattice of signalling proteins involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:792-6 pubmed which the cytoplasmic ends of chemotactic-receptor dimers are inserted into a hexagonal array of CheA and CheW molecules...
  38. Rajagopala S, Hughes K, Uetz P. Benchmarking yeast two-hybrid systems using the interactions of bacterial motility proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5296-302 pubmed publisher
  39. Levit M, Liu Y, Stock J. Stimulus response coupling in bacterial chemotaxis: receptor dimers in signalling arrays. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:459-66 pubmed
    ..have been shown to be predominantly dimeric, but in the presence of the kinase CheA plus an adapter protein, CheW, much higher order structures have been observed...
  40. Cashman D, Ortega D, Zhulin I, Baudry J. Homology modeling of the CheW coupling protein of the chemotaxis signaling complex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70705 pubmed publisher
    Homology models of the E. coli and T. maritima chemotaxis protein CheW were constructed to assess the quality of structural predictions and their applicability in chemotaxis research: i) a model of E. coli CheW was constructed using the T...
  41. Lybarger S, Maddock J. Differences in the polar clustering of the high- and low-abundance chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8057-62 pubmed
    ..CheA and CheW distributions in strains expressing only one chemoreceptor type coincide with MCP localization, indicating that the ..
  42. Manson M, Armitage J, Hoch J, Macnab R. Bacterial locomotion and signal transduction. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1009-22 pubmed
  43. Yamamoto K, Macnab R, Imae Y. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:383-8 pubmed
    ..Upon a pH decrease, Trg mediated an attractant response, whereas Tap mediated a repellent response. These results indicate that all the receptors in E. coli have dual functions, mediating both attractant and repellent responses. ..
  44. Bren A, Eisenbach M. How signals are heard during bacterial chemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6865-73 pubmed
  45. Li Y, Hu Y, Fu W, Xia B, Jin C. Solution structure of the bacterial chemotaxis adaptor protein CheW from Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360:863-7 pubmed
    The bacterial chemotaxis adaptor protein CheW physically links the chemoreceptors (MCPs) and the histidine kinase CheA...
  46. Irieda H, Homma M, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Control of chemotactic signal gain via modulation of a pre-formed receptor array. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23880-6 pubmed
    ..The chemoreceptors cluster at a cell pole together with CheA and the adaptor CheW. Several lines of evidence have led to models that assume high cooperativity and sensitivity via collaboration of ..
  47. Schulmeister S, Grosse K, Sourjik V. Effects of receptor modification and temperature on dynamics of sensory complexes in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:222 pubmed publisher
    ..The stable core of these clusters is formed by transmembrane receptors, a kinase CheA, and an adaptor CheW, whereas adaptation enzymes CheR and CheB dynamically associate with the clusters via interactions with receptors ..
  48. Greenswag A, Li X, Borbat P, Samanta D, Watts K, Freed J, et al. Preformed Soluble Chemoreceptor Trimers That Mimic Cellular Assembly States and Activate CheA Autophosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2015;54:3454-68 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial chemoreceptors associate with the histidine kinase CheA and coupling protein CheW to form extended membrane arrays that receive and transduce environmental signals...
  49. Nara T, Lee L, Imae Y. Thermosensing ability of Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1120-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that although both Trg and Tap have the ability to sense thermal stimuli, Trg functions as a warm receptor, as reported previously for Tar and Tsr, while Tap functions as a cold receptor. ..
  50. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  51. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  52. Kofoid E, Parkinson J. Tandem translation starts in the cheA locus of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2116-9 pubmed
    ..Both starts are flanked by inverted repeats that may play a role in regulating the relative expression rates of the CheA proteins through alternative mRNA secondary structures. ..
  53. Mello B, Tu Y. An allosteric model for heterogeneous receptor complexes: understanding bacterial chemotaxis responses to multiple stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17354-9 pubmed
    ..The energetic contribution of the nonligand binding, cytoplasmic parts of the cluster, such as CheA and CheW, is also discussed...
  54. Francis N, Levit M, Shaikh T, Melanson L, Stock J, Derosier D. Subunit organization in a soluble complex of tar, CheW, and CheA by electron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36755-9 pubmed
    ..fused to a leucine zipper sequence forms a soluble complex with CheA and the Src homology 3-like kinase activator, CheW. Activity of the CheA kinase in the soluble complex is essentially the same as in fully active complexes with the ..
  55. Briegel A, Wong M, Hodges H, Oikonomou C, Piasta K, Harris M, et al. New insights into bacterial chemoreceptor array structure and assembly from electron cryotomography. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the effective determinant of array structure seemed to be CheA and CheW, which formed a "superlattice" of alternating CheA-filled and CheA-empty rings that linked receptor trimers-of-..
  56. Lee G, Burrows G, Lebert M, Dutton D, Hazelbauer G. Deducing the organization of a transmembrane domain by disulfide cross-linking. The bacterial chemoreceptor Trg. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29920-7 pubmed
  57. Chi Y, Yokota H, Kim S. Apo structure of the ligand-binding domain of aspartate receptor from Escherichia coli and its comparison with ligand-bound or pseudoligand-bound structures. FEBS Lett. 1997;414:327-32 pubmed
  58. Krikos A, Mutoh N, Boyd A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are composed of discrete structural and functional domains. Cell. 1983;33:615-22 pubmed
  59. Ames P, Yu Y, Parkinson J. Methylation segments are not required for chemotactic signalling by cytoplasmic fragments of Tsr, the methyl-accepting serine chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:737-46 pubmed
    ..b>CheW couples CheA to chemoreceptor control by promoting formation of MCP/CheW/CheA ternary complexes...
  60. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  61. Gardina P, Bormans A, Hawkins M, Meeker J, Manson M. Maltose-binding protein interacts simultaneously and asymmetrically with both subunits of the Tar chemoreceptor. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:1181-91 pubmed
  62. Francis N, Wolanin P, Stock J, Derosier D, Thomas D. Three-dimensional structure and organization of a receptor/signaling complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17480-5 pubmed
    ..These studies have provided a wealth of detailed molecular structures, including the structures of CheA, CheW, and the cytoplasmic domain of the serine receptor Tsr...
  63. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Correlation between phosphorylation of the chemotaxis protein CheY and its activity at the flagellar motor. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1821-6 pubmed
    ..This increase in activity requires additional cytoplasmic constituents, the identity of which is not yet known. ..
  64. Rao C, Frenklach M, Arkin A. An allosteric model for transmembrane signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:291-303 pubmed
    ..chemotaxis based on the "trimer of dimers" model, where three receptor dimers form a stable complex with CheW and CheA. The mechanism is used to integrate a diverse set of experimental data in a consistent framework...
  65. Chalah A, Weis R. Site-specific and synergistic stimulation of methylation on the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr by serine and CheW. BMC Microbiol. 2005;5:12 pubmed
    ..MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA) and an adaptor protein (CheW), but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown...
  66. Silverman M, Simon M. Identification of polypeptides necessary for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;130:1317-25 pubmed
    ..Six genes were resolved: cheA, cheW, cheX, cheB, cheY, and cheZ...
  67. Pedetta A, Parkinson J, Studdert C. Signalling-dependent interactions between the kinase-coupling protein CheW and chemoreceptors in living cells. Mol Microbiol. 2014;93:1144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..are networked through interactions between their cytoplasmic tips, CheA, and the small coupling protein CheW. To explore the conformational changes that occur within this protein assembly during signalling, we used in vivo ..
  68. Nowlin D, Bollinger J, Hazelbauer G. Sites of covalent modification in Trg, a sensory transducer of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:6039-45 pubmed
  69. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Restriction endonuclease analyses of phage and plasmid clones indicated that all of the genetic coding capacity in the tar region is now accounted for. ..
  70. Lai W, Hazelbauer G. Carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the conserved pentapeptide reduce rates of chemoreceptor adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5115-21 pubmed
    ..No matter what the mechanism, the observations provide a challenging test for mathematical models of chemotaxis. ..
  71. Yaghmai R, Hazelbauer G. Strategies for differential sensory responses mediated through the same transmembrane receptor. EMBO J. 1993;12:1897-905 pubmed
    ..Two-step recognition of ligand allows functional separation of detection and response. ..
  72. Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed
    ..gene products were found to be confined exclusively to the inner cytoplasmic membrane fraction, whereas the cheY, cheW, and cheA (66,000 daltons) polypeptides appeared only in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction...
  73. Manson M, Cantwell B. Model is as model does. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E199-201 pubmed
  74. Studdert C, Parkinson J. Crosslinking snapshots of bacterial chemoreceptor squads. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2117-22 pubmed
    ..These receptor "squads" then recruit the cytoplasmic signaling proteins CheA and CheW to form ternary signaling teams, which typically cluster at the poles of the cell...