Gene Symbol: cheR
Description: chemotaxis regulator, protein-glutamate methyltransferase
Alias: ECK1885, JW1873, cheX
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Shiomi D, Banno S, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Stabilization of polar localization of a chemoreceptor via its covalent modifications and its communication with a different chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7647-54 pubmed
    ..on receptor localization was reinforced by the fact that localization of a noncatalytic mutant version of GFP-CheR that targets to the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence of Tar was similarly facilitated by receptor amidation...
  2. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  3. Keymer J, Endres R, Skoge M, Meir Y, Wingreen N. Chemosensing in Escherichia coli: two regimes of two-state receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1786-91 pubmed
    ..e., high Hill coefficient. For homogeneous receptors, we predict an observable transition between regime I and regime II with increasing receptor methylation or amidation. ..
  4. Shiomi D, Zhulin I, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Dual recognition of the bacterial chemoreceptor by chemotaxis-specific domains of the CheR methyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42325-33 pubmed
    ..g. Tar) catalyzed by the CheR methyltransferase...
  5. Skoge M, Endres R, Wingreen N. Receptor-receptor coupling in bacterial chemotaxis: evidence for strongly coupled clusters. Biophys J. 2006;90:4317-26 pubmed
  6. Sourjik V, Berg H. Receptor sensitivity in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:123-7 pubmed
    ..Analyses of cheR and/or cheB mutants, defective in receptor methylation/demethylation, show that response sensitivity depends on the ..
  7. Levin M, Shimizu T, Bray D. Binding and diffusion of CheR molecules within a cluster of membrane receptors. Biophys J. 2002;82:1809-17 pubmed
    ..coli is attributable to the methylation of its transmembrane chemotactic receptors by the methyltransferase CheR. This protein contains two binding domains, one for the sites of methylation themselves and the other for a ..
  8. Parkinson J, Houts S. Isolation and behavior of Escherichia coli deletion mutants lacking chemotaxis functions. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:106-13 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome by homologous recombination. Although the phenotype of cheR mutants (smooth swimming) was expected to be epistatic to that of cheB mutants (tumbly swimming), we found that ..
  9. Shrout A, Montefusco D, Weis R. Template-directed assembly of receptor signaling complexes. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13379-85 pubmed
    ..found to serve as a substrate for receptor methylation in a reaction catalyzed by the receptor methyltransferase, CheR. Since neither CheA activation nor CF methylation was observed in comparable samples in the absence of vesicles, it ..

More Information


  1. Matthäus F, Jagodic M, Dobnikar J. E. coli superdiffusion and chemotaxis-search strategy, precision, and motility. Biophys J. 2009;97:946-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In E. coli, the power-law behavior can be induced through stochastic fluctuations in the level of CheR, one of the key enzymes in the chemotaxis signal transmission pathway...
  2. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  3. Yi X, Weis R. The receptor docking segment and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine bind independently to the methyltransferase of bacterial chemotaxis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1596:28-35 pubmed
    To mediate adaptation to stimuli, the methyltransferase (CheR) catalyzes methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to glutamyl residues in the transmembrane receptors of the bacterial chemosensory signaling pathway...
  4. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  5. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..methylation and demethylation (or deamidation) of specific modification sites of the chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively...
  6. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  7. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  8. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  9. Thiem S, Kentner D, Sourjik V. Positioning of chemosensory clusters in E. coli and its relation to cell division. EMBO J. 2007;26:1615-23 pubmed
    ..The chemoreceptor cluster positioning is thus intricately related to the overall structure and division of an E. coli cell. ..
  10. Kundu T, Kusano S, Ishihama A. Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigmaF holoenzyme involved in transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4264-9 pubmed
    ..Alteration of the promoter structure after binding of E sigmaF was suggested...
  11. Maki N, Gestwicki J, Lake E, Kiessling L, Adler J. Motility and chemotaxis of filamentous cells of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4337-42 pubmed
    ..The implications of this work with regard to the cytoplasmic diffusion of chemotaxis components in normal-sized and filamentous E. coli are discussed. ..
  12. Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed
    ..The cheB, cheX, cheZ, and cheA (76,000 daltons) proteins, however, were distributed in both the cytoplasm and the inner membrane ..
  13. Antommattei F, Munzner J, Weis R. Ligand-specific activation of Escherichia coli chemoreceptor transmethylation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7556-63 pubmed
    ..MCPs can be methylated in trans, where the methyltransferase (CheR) molecule catalyzing methyl group transfer is tethered to the C terminus of a neighboring receptor...
  14. Hansen C, Endres R, Wingreen N. Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli: a molecular model for robust precise adaptation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Precise adaptation relies on methylation and demethylation of chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively...
  15. Park H, Guet C, Emonet T, Cluzel P. Fine-tuning of chemotactic response in E. coli determined by high-throughput capillary assay. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..adaptation that is robust to changes in the intracellular concentration of the chemotactic proteins, such as CheR and CheB. However, the robustness of the perfect adaptation does not explicitly imply a robust chemotactic response...
  16. Muppirala U, Desensi S, Lybrand T, Hazelbauer G, Li Z. Molecular modeling of flexible arm-mediated interactions between bacterial chemoreceptors and their modification enzyme. Protein Sci. 2009;18:1702-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation is catalyzed by methyltransferase CheR. In E...
  17. Lai W, Hazelbauer G. Carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the conserved pentapeptide reduce rates of chemoreceptor adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5115-21 pubmed
    ..Specific glutamyl residues are methylated and demethylated in reactions catalyzed by methyltransferase CheR and methylesterase CheB. In the well-characterized chemosensory systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp...
  18. Bray D, Levin M, Lipkow K. The chemotactic behavior of computer-based surrogate bacteria. Curr Biol. 2007;17:12-9 pubmed
    ..achieve an effective accumulation in a gradient, we also had to increase the activities of the adaptational enzymes CheR and CheB at least an order of magnitude greater than published values...
  19. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Four of those genes (cheR, cheB, cheY and cheZ) are required for all chemotactic responses; consequently, polar mutations in the tar gene ..
  20. Russell C, Stewart R, Dahlquist F. Control of transducer methylation levels in Escherichia coli: investigation of components essential for modulation of methylation and demethylation reactions. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3609-18 pubmed
    ..Methyl groups are added by the CheR protein in a slow response to attractants and removed by the CheB protein in response to repellents...
  21. Albert R, Chiu Y, Othmer H. Dynamic receptor team formation can explain the high signal transduction gain in Escherichia coli. Biophys J. 2004;86:2650-9 pubmed
    ..Only recently has a source of gain in the signal transduction network been identified experimentally, and here we present a mathematical model based on dynamic assembly of receptor teams that can explain this observation. ..
  22. Parkinson J. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:45-53 pubmed
    ..Mutants of the "cheB" class defined four genes, cheX, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, which also constituted a transcriptional unit...
  23. Shiomi D, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Intragenic suppressors of a mutation in the aspartate chemoreceptor gene that abolishes binding of the receptor to methyltransferase. Microbiology. 2002;148:3265-75 pubmed
    In the chemotaxis of Escherichia coli, receptor methylation is the key process of adaptation. The methyltransferase CheR binds to the carboxy-terminal NWETF sequence of major chemoreceptors...
  24. Kim C, Jackson M, Lux R, Khan S. Determinants of chemotactic signal amplification in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:119-35 pubmed
    ..behavioral analysis of mutants deleted for CheZ, a catalyst of CheY-P dephosphorylation, or the methyltransferase CheR and/or the methylesterase CheB to examine the roles of accelerated CheY-P dephosphorylation and MCP methylation in ..
  25. Bibikov S, Miller A, Gosink K, Parkinson J. Methylation-independent aerotaxis mediated by the Escherichia coli Aer protein. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3730-7 pubmed
    ..MCP-mediated behaviors are dependent on two specific enzymes, CheR (methyltransferase) and CheB (methylesterase)...
  26. Besschetnova T, Montefusco D, Asinas A, Shrout A, Antommattei F, Weis R. Receptor density balances signal stimulation and attenuation in membrane-assembled complexes of bacterial chemotaxis signaling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..coli pathway. Density-dependent mechanisms are likely to be general and may operate when two or more membrane-related processes are influenced differently by the two-dimensional concentration of pathway elements. ..
  27. Lybarger S, Maddock J. Clustering of the chemoreceptor complex in Escherichia coli is independent of the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5527-9 pubmed
    ..The nature of the clustering remains a mystery. Recent studies suggest that CheR binding to and/or methylation of the chemoreceptors may play a role in chemoreceptor complex aggregation...
  28. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  29. Minoshima S, Hayashi H. Studies on bacterial chemotaxis. VI. Effect of cheX mutation on the methylation of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1980;87:1371-7 pubmed
    A membrane from Escherichia coli cheX mutants failed to accept the methyl-moiety when incubated with a cytoplasm of wild type bacteria...
  30. Saier M. Bacterial sensor kinase/response regulator systems: an introduction. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:349-55 pubmed
  31. Lai W, Barnakova L, Barnakov A, Hazelbauer G. Similarities and differences in interactions of the activity-enhancing chemoreceptor pentapeptide with the two enzymes of adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5646-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the relative importance of each pentapeptide side chain for the two enhancing interactions. ..
  32. Boyd A, Krikos A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are encoded by homologous genes. Cell. 1981;26:333-43 pubmed
    ..The polar effects of Tn5 insertions in the tar-cheR-cheB-cheY-cheZ region indicated that these genes are cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of tar and revealed the ..
  33. Li M, Hazelbauer G. The carboxyl-terminal linker is important for chemoreceptor function. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:469-79 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, methyltransferase CheR and methylesterase CheB bind both substrate sites and a carboxyl-terminal pentapeptide sequence carried by certain ..
  34. Okumura H, Nishiyama S, Sasaki A, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Chemotactic adaptation is altered by changes in the carboxy-terminal sequence conserved among the major methyl-accepting chemoreceptors. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1862-8 pubmed
    ..demethylation of receptors are responsible for chemotactic adaptation and are catalyzed by the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB, respectively...
  35. Mutoh N, Simon M. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:161-6 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined...
  36. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  37. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  38. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  39. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  40. Schulmeister S, Grosse K, Sourjik V. Effects of receptor modification and temperature on dynamics of sensory complexes in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:222 pubmed publisher
    ..these clusters is formed by transmembrane receptors, a kinase CheA, and an adaptor CheW, whereas adaptation enzymes CheR and CheB dynamically associate with the clusters via interactions with receptors and/or CheA...
  41. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  42. Perez E, West A, Stock A, Djordjevic S. Discrimination between different methylation states of chemotaxis receptor Tar by receptor methyltransferase CheR. Biochemistry. 2004;43:953-61 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the crystal structure of the gamma-glutamyl methyltransferase CheR, we have postulated that positively charged residues in helix alpha2 in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme may be ..
  43. Hess J, Bourret R, Simon M. Histidine phosphorylation and phosphoryl group transfer in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 1988;336:139-43 pubmed
    ..Similar mechanisms of transient protein phosphorylation and phosphoryl group transfer seem to be involved in processing sensory data and in activating specific gene expression. ..
  44. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  45. Nishiyama S, Umemura T, Nara T, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Conversion of a bacterial warm sensor to a cold sensor by methylation of a single residue in the presence of an attractant. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:357-65 pubmed
    ..In a strain defective in both methyltransferase (CheR) and methylesterase (CheB) activities, all of the mutant Tar proteins functioned as warm sensors...
  46. Shiomi D, Okumura H, Homma M, Kawagishi I. The aspartate chemoreceptor Tar is effectively methylated by binding to the methyltransferase mainly through hydrophobic interaction. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:132-40 pubmed
    ..requires the methylation and demethylation of transmembrane receptors, which are catalysed by the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB respectively...