Gene Symbol: cheB
Description: fused chemotaxis regulator: protein-glutamate methylesterase in two-component regulatory system with CheA
Alias: ECK1884, JW1872
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Sourjik V, Berg H. Receptor sensitivity in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:123-7 pubmed
    ..Analyses of cheR and/or cheB mutants, defective in receptor methylation/demethylation, show that response sensitivity depends on the activity of ..
  2. Parkinson J, Houts S. Isolation and behavior of Escherichia coli deletion mutants lacking chemotaxis functions. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:106-13 pubmed
    ..Although the phenotype of cheR mutants (smooth swimming) was expected to be epistatic to that of cheB mutants (tumbly swimming), we found that deletion mutants lacking both of these functions exhibited frequent ..
  3. Banno S, Shiomi D, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Targeting of the chemotaxis methylesterase/deamidase CheB to the polar receptor-kinase cluster in an Escherichia coli cell. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1051-63 pubmed
    ..In contrast, localization of the methylesterase CheB is largely unknown, although regulation of its activity via phosphorylation is central to adaptation...
  4. Skoge M, Endres R, Wingreen N. Receptor-receptor coupling in bacterial chemotaxis: evidence for strongly coupled clusters. Biophys J. 2006;90:4317-26 pubmed
  5. Stewart R. Activating and inhibitory mutations in the regulatory domain of CheB, the methylesterase in bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:1921-30 pubmed
    In the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, CheB promotes sensory adaptation by interacting with the chemotaxis receptor-transducer proteins to catalyze removal of their gamma-glutamyl methyl ester groups...
  6. Keymer J, Endres R, Skoge M, Meir Y, Wingreen N. Chemosensing in Escherichia coli: two regimes of two-state receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1786-91 pubmed
    ..e., high Hill coefficient. For homogeneous receptors, we predict an observable transition between regime I and regime II with increasing receptor methylation or amidation. ..
  7. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  8. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  9. Kentner D, Sourjik V. Dynamic map of protein interactions in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:238 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed an additional regulation through activity dependence of interactions involving the adaptation enzyme CheB, and showed complex rearrangement of chemosensory receptors...

More Information


  1. Anand G, Goudreau P, Lewis J, Stoc A. Evidence for phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in methylesterase CheB. Protein Sci. 2000;9:898-906 pubmed
    Enhancement of methylesterase activity of the response regulator CheB is dependent upon phosphorylation of the N-terminal regulatory domain of the enzyme...
  2. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  3. Stewart R, Russell C, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Interaction of CheB with chemotaxis signal transduction components in Escherichia coli: modulation of the methylesterase activity and effects on cell swimming behavior. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1988;53 Pt 1:27-40 pubmed
  4. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..and demethylation (or deamidation) of specific modification sites of the chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively...
  5. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  6. Lupas A, Stock J. Phosphorylation of an N-terminal regulatory domain activates the CheB methylesterase in bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:17337-42 pubmed
    ..b>CheB is a bifunctional enzyme that is involved in both these modification processes...
  7. Schulmeister S, Ruttorf M, Thiem S, Kentner D, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Protein exchange dynamics at chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the rates of protein turnover at the cluster have evolved to ensure optimal performance of the chemotaxis pathway. ..
  8. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Adaptational assistance in clusters of bacterial chemoreceptors. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1617-26 pubmed
    ..assistance involves not only the previously documented assistance for methylation but also assistance for the two CheB-catalysed reactions...
  9. Lai W, Barnakova L, Barnakov A, Hazelbauer G. Similarities and differences in interactions of the activity-enhancing chemoreceptor pentapeptide with the two enzymes of adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5646-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the relative importance of each pentapeptide side chain for the two enhancing interactions. ..
  10. Armstrong J, Adler J. Complementation of nonchemotactic mutants of Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1969;61:61-6 pubmed
  11. Lybarger S, Maddock J. Clustering of the chemoreceptor complex in Escherichia coli is independent of the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5527-9 pubmed immunoelectron microscopy in strains lacking either the methyltransferase CheR or the methylesterase CheB. The localization data revealed that, in vivo, aggregation of the chemoreceptor complex was independent of either ..
  12. Kim C, Jackson M, Lux R, Khan S. Determinants of chemotactic signal amplification in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:119-35 pubmed
    ..deleted for CheZ, a catalyst of CheY-P dephosphorylation, or the methyltransferase CheR and/or the methylesterase CheB to examine the roles of accelerated CheY-P dephosphorylation and MCP methylation in enhancement of the chemotactic ..
  13. Bray D, Levin M, Lipkow K. The chemotactic behavior of computer-based surrogate bacteria. Curr Biol. 2007;17:12-9 pubmed
    ..effective accumulation in a gradient, we also had to increase the activities of the adaptational enzymes CheR and CheB at least an order of magnitude greater than published values...
  14. Albert R, Chiu Y, Othmer H. Dynamic receptor team formation can explain the high signal transduction gain in Escherichia coli. Biophys J. 2004;86:2650-9 pubmed
    ..Only recently has a source of gain in the signal transduction network been identified experimentally, and here we present a mathematical model based on dynamic assembly of receptor teams that can explain this observation. ..
  15. Parkinson J. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:45-53 pubmed
    ..Mutants of the "cheB" class defined four genes, cheX, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, which also constituted a transcriptional unit...
  16. Barnakov A, Barnakova L, Hazelbauer G. Location of the receptor-interaction site on CheB, the methylesterase response regulator of bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32984-9 pubmed
    ..specifically methylation and demethylation of glutamates catalyzed by methyltransferase CheR and methylesterase CheB. The methylesterase is a two-domain response regulator in which phosphorylation of the regulatory domain enhances ..
  17. Russell C, Stewart R, Dahlquist F. Control of transducer methylation levels in Escherichia coli: investigation of components essential for modulation of methylation and demethylation reactions. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3609-18 pubmed
    ..Methyl groups are added by the CheR protein in a slow response to attractants and removed by the CheB protein in response to repellents...
  18. Lai W, Hazelbauer G. Carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the conserved pentapeptide reduce rates of chemoreceptor adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5115-21 pubmed
    ..residues are methylated and demethylated in reactions catalyzed by methyltransferase CheR and methylesterase CheB. In the well-characterized chemosensory systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp...
  19. Saxl R, Anand G, Stock A. Synthesis and biochemical characterization of a phosphorylated analogue of the response regulator CheB. Biochemistry. 2001;40:12896-903 pubmed
    b>CheB is a response regulator protein in the bacterial chemotaxis two-component signal transduction pathway...
  20. Park H, Guet C, Emonet T, Cluzel P. Fine-tuning of chemotactic response in E. coli determined by high-throughput capillary assay. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that is robust to changes in the intracellular concentration of the chemotactic proteins, such as CheR and CheB. However, the robustness of the perfect adaptation does not explicitly imply a robust chemotactic response...
  21. Hansen C, Endres R, Wingreen N. Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli: a molecular model for robust precise adaptation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Precise adaptation relies on methylation and demethylation of chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively...
  22. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Four of those genes (cheR, cheB, cheY and cheZ) are required for all chemotactic responses; consequently, polar mutations in the tar gene resulted ..
  23. Hess J, Oosawa K, Kaplan N, Simon M. Phosphorylation of three proteins in the signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis. Cell. 1988;53:79-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, the phosphate group on CheA can be rapidly transferred to CheB, a protein involved in adaptation to stimuli, or to CheY, a protein involved in the excitation response...
  24. Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed
    ..The cheB, cheX, cheZ, and cheA (76,000 daltons) proteins, however, were distributed in both the cytoplasm and the inner ..
  25. Maki N, Gestwicki J, Lake E, Kiessling L, Adler J. Motility and chemotaxis of filamentous cells of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4337-42 pubmed
    ..The implications of this work with regard to the cytoplasmic diffusion of chemotaxis components in normal-sized and filamentous E. coli are discussed. ..
  26. Simms S, Cornman E, Mottonen J, Stock J. Active site of the enzyme which demethylates receptors during bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:29-31 pubmed
    The CheB methylesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamyl methyl esters in bacterial chemoreceptor proteins. Studies with residue-specific inhibitors suggest that a cysteine residue is required...
  27. Dang C, Niwano M, Ryu J, Taylor B. Inversion of aerotactic response in Escherichia coli deficient in cheB protein methylesterase. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:275-80 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium that were deficient in protein methylesterase activity encoded by cheB had an inverted response to oxygen; they were repelled by concentrations of oxygen that attract wild-type bacteria...
  28. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  29. Kundu T, Kusano S, Ishihama A. Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigmaF holoenzyme involved in transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4264-9 pubmed
    ..Alteration of the promoter structure after binding of E sigmaF was suggested...
  30. Nishiyama S, Umemura T, Nara T, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Conversion of a bacterial warm sensor to a cold sensor by methylation of a single residue in the presence of an attractant. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:357-65 pubmed
    ..In a strain defective in both methyltransferase (CheR) and methylesterase (CheB) activities, all of the mutant Tar proteins functioned as warm sensors...
  31. Stewart R, Dahlquist F. N-terminal half of CheB is involved in methylesterase response to negative chemotactic stimuli in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:5728-38 pubmed
    ..The activities of a chemotaxis-specific methyltransferase (CheR) and a chemotaxis-specific methylesterase (CheB) are regulated in response to chemotactic stimuli to enable sensory adaptation to unchanging levels of stimuli by ..
  32. Krueger J, Stock J, Schutt C. Evidence that the methylesterase of bacterial chemotaxis may be a serine hydrolase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1119:322-6 pubmed
    b>CheB, the methylesterase of chemotactic bacteria, catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamyl-methyl esters in bacterial chemoreceptor proteins. The two cysteines predicted by the amino acid sequence of CheB were replaced by alanine residues...
  33. Schulmeister S, Grosse K, Sourjik V. Effects of receptor modification and temperature on dynamics of sensory complexes in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:222 pubmed publisher formed by transmembrane receptors, a kinase CheA, and an adaptor CheW, whereas adaptation enzymes CheR and CheB dynamically associate with the clusters via interactions with receptors and/or CheA...
  34. Mutoh N, Simon M. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:161-6 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined...
  35. Boyd A, Krikos A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are encoded by homologous genes. Cell. 1981;26:333-43 pubmed
    ..The polar effects of Tn5 insertions in the tar-cheR-cheB-cheY-cheZ region indicated that these genes are cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of tar and revealed the ..
  36. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  37. Bibikov S, Miller A, Gosink K, Parkinson J. Methylation-independent aerotaxis mediated by the Escherichia coli Aer protein. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3730-7 pubmed
    ..MCP-mediated behaviors are dependent on two specific enzymes, CheR (methyltransferase) and CheB (methylesterase)...
  38. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..