Gene Symbol: cheA
Description: fused chemotactic sensory histidine kinase in two-component regulatory system with CheB and CheY: sensory histidine kinase/signal sensing protein
Alias: ECK1889, JW1877
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Stewart R, Van Bruggen R. Association and dissociation kinetics for CheY interacting with the P2 domain of CheA. J Mol Biol. 2004;336:287-301 pubmed
    The chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli makes use of an extended two-component sensory response pathway in which CheA, an autophosphorylating protein histidine kinase (PHK) rapidly passes its phosphoryl group to CheY, a phospho-..
  2. Sourjik V, Berg H. Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 2004;428:437-41 pubmed a protein assembly consisting of transmembrane receptors, a coupling protein (CheW) and a histidine kinase (CheA)...
  3. Briegel A, Ames P, GUMBART J, Oikonomou C, Parkinson J, Jensen G. The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signalling state. Mol Microbiol. 2013;89:831-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences were observed, however, in a keel-like density that we identify here as CheA kinase domains P1 and P2, the phosphorylation site domain and the binding domain for response regulator target ..
  4. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Cellular stoichiometry of the components of the chemotaxis signaling complex. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3687-94 pubmed
    ..4 receptor dimers and 1.6 CheW monomers for each CheA dimer and 2.4 CheY, 0.5 CheZ dimers, 0.08 CheB, and 0.05 CheR per complex...
  5. Cantwell B, Draheim R, Weart R, Nguyen C, Stewart R, Manson M. CheZ phosphatase localizes to chemoreceptor patches via CheA-short. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2354-61 pubmed
    ..Localization was observed in wild-type, DeltacheZ, DeltacheYZ, and DeltacheRB cells but not in cells with cheA, cheW, or all chemoreceptor genes except aer deleted...
  6. Li G, Weis R. Covalent modification regulates ligand binding to receptor complexes in the chemosensory system of Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;100:357-65 pubmed
    ..presented that covalent modification influences ligand binding to receptors in complexes with CheW and the kinase CheA. Kinase inhibition was measured with serine receptor complexes in different modification levels; Ki for serine-..
  7. Borkovich K, Alex L, Simon M. Attenuation of sensory receptor signaling by covalent modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6756-60 pubmed
    ..The extracellular portion of the protein can bind aspartate, and the cytoplasmic portion modulates CheA kinase activity. The receptor can either activate or inhibit the kinase...
  8. Briegel A, Li X, Bilwes A, Hughes K, Jensen G, Crane B. Bacterial chemoreceptor arrays are hexagonally packed trimers of receptor dimers networked by rings of kinase and coupling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..native arrays inside cells to reveal the arrangement of the component transmembrane receptors, histidine kinases (CheA) and CheW coupling proteins...
  9. Mello B, Tu Y. An allosteric model for heterogeneous receptor complexes: understanding bacterial chemotaxis responses to multiple stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17354-9 pubmed
    ..The energetic contribution of the nonligand binding, cytoplasmic parts of the cluster, such as CheA and CheW, is also discussed...

More Information


  1. Miller A, Kohout S, Gilman K, Falke J. CheA Kinase of bacterial chemotaxis: chemical mapping of four essential docking sites. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8699-711 pubmed publisher
    ..the core complex, consists of the transmembrane receptor, the coupling protein CheW, and the histidine kinase CheA. Though the structures of individual components are largely known and the core complex can be functionally ..
  2. Kentner D, Thiem S, Hildenbeutel M, Sourjik V. Determinants of chemoreceptor cluster formation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:407-17 pubmed
    ..fluorescent protein fusions to study in vivo formation of the cluster core, which consists of receptors, a kinase CheA and an assisting protein CheW...
  3. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  4. Gegner J, Graham D, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Cell. 1992;70:975-82 pubmed
    ..of the methylation-dependent chemotaxis receptors Tsr and Tar with the chemotaxis-specific protein kinase CheA and the coupling factor CheW...
  5. Banno S, Shiomi D, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Targeting of the chemotaxis methylesterase/deamidase CheB to the polar receptor-kinase cluster in an Escherichia coli cell. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1051-63 pubmed
    ..stimulation involves reversible methylation of the chemoreceptors that form complexes with the histidine kinase CheA at a cell pole. The methyltransferase CheR targets to the C-terminal NWETF sequence of the chemoreceptor...
  6. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  7. Lai R, Manson J, Bormans A, Draheim R, Nguyen N, Manson M. Cooperative signaling among bacterial chemoreceptors. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14298-307 pubmed
    ..We examined this phenomenon using a receptor-coupled in vitro assay of CheA kinase activity...
  8. Shrout A, Montefusco D, Weis R. Template-directed assembly of receptor signaling complexes. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13379-85 pubmed
    ..The requirements for receptor-mediated activation of CheA, the principal kinase of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis signaling pathway, were investigated using self-assembled ..
  9. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Core unit of chemotaxis signaling complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9390-5 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial chemoreceptors, histidine kinase CheA, and coupling protein CheW form clusters of chemotaxis signaling complexes. In signaling complexes kinase activity is enhanced several hundredfold and placed under receptor control...
  10. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..the YFP variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP)] with the cytoplasmic chemotaxis proteins CheY, CheZ and CheA and the flagellar motor protein FliM, and studied their localization in wild-type and mutant cells of Escherichia ..
  11. Zhang P, Khursigara C, Hartnell L, Subramaniam S. Direct visualization of Escherichia coli chemotaxis receptor arrays using cryo-electron microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3777-81 pubmed
    ..cluster at distinct regions of the cell and form stable ternary complexes with the histidine autokinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW...
  12. Kollmann M, Løvdok L, Bartholomé K, Timmer J, Sourjik V. Design principles of a bacterial signalling network. Nature. 2005;438:504-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems. ..
  13. Skidmore J, Ellefson D, McNamara B, Couto M, Wolfe A, Maddock J. Polar clustering of the chemoreceptor complex in Escherichia coli occurs in the absence of complete CheA function. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:967-73 pubmed
    ..Chemoreceptor-CheA-CheW ternary complexes mediate transduction of the chemotactic signal...
  14. Bren A, Eisenbach M. How signals are heard during bacterial chemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6865-73 pubmed
  15. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  16. O CONNOR C, Matsumura P. The accessibility of cys-120 in CheA(S) is important for the binding of CheZ and enhancement of CheZ phosphatase activity. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6909-16 pubmed
    The cheA gene of Escherichia coli encodes two proteins from in-frame tandem translation start sites. The long form of CheA (CheA(L)) is the histidine kinase responsible for phosphorylating the response regulator, CheY...
  17. Yamamoto K, Macnab R, Imae Y. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:383-8 pubmed
    ..Upon a pH decrease, Trg mediated an attractant response, whereas Tap mediated a repellent response. These results indicate that all the receptors in E. coli have dual functions, mediating both attractant and repellent responses. ..
  18. Zhao J, Parkinson J. Cysteine-scanning analysis of the chemoreceptor-coupling domain of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis signaling kinase CheA. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4321-30 pubmed
    The C-terminal P5 domain of the histidine kinase CheA is essential for coupling CheA autophosphorylation activity to chemoreceptor control through a binding interaction with the CheW protein...
  19. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  20. O CONNOR C, Matsumura P, Campos A. The CheZ binding interface of CheAS is located in alpha-helix E. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5845-8 pubmed publisher
    Specific CheA-short (CheA(S)) residues, L123 and L126, were identified as critical for CheZ binding...
  21. Li J, Li G, Weis R. The serine chemoreceptor from Escherichia coli is methylated through an inter-dimer process. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11851-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for inter-dimer interactions in transmembrane signaling. ..
  22. Shimizu T, Le Novère N, Levin M, Beavil A, Sutton B, Bray D. Molecular model of a lattice of signalling proteins involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:792-6 pubmed
    ..lattice in which the cytoplasmic ends of chemotactic-receptor dimers are inserted into a hexagonal array of CheA and CheW molecules...
  23. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Co-regulation of acetylation and phosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:375-81 pubmed
    ..The phosphodonors of CheY, the histidine kinase CheA and acetyl phosphate, each strongly inhibited both the autoacetylation of the acetylating enzyme, acetyl-CoA ..
  24. Kofoid E, Parkinson J. Tandem translation starts in the cheA locus of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2116-9 pubmed
    The cheA locus of Escherichia coli encodes two protein products, CheAL and CheAS...
  25. Maki N, Gestwicki J, Lake E, Kiessling L, Adler J. Motility and chemotaxis of filamentous cells of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4337-42 pubmed
    ..The implications of this work with regard to the cytoplasmic diffusion of chemotaxis components in normal-sized and filamentous E. coli are discussed. ..
  26. Kehry M, Dahlquist F. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins of Escherichia coli. Identification of the multiple methylation sites on methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein I. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:10378-86 pubmed
    ..The ability to acquire six methylations on MCPI allows the bacterial cells to adapt to a broad range of attractant and repellent concentrations. ..
  27. Igo M, Ninfa A, Stock J, Silhavy T. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a bacterial transcriptional activator by a transmembrane receptor. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1725-34 pubmed
    ..The phosphorylation reaction proceeds by a mechanism shared with the Ntr and Che kinases, NRII, and CheA. EnvZ can phosphorylate NRI and can stimulate transcription from the glnAp2 promoter, and similarly, CheA can ..
  28. Park S, Ham S, Kim K, Crane B. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coli CheA P3 dimerization domain. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2011;67:662-4 pubmed publisher
    The chemotaxis histidine kinase CheA assembles into a dimer in which the P3 dimerization domain forms a four-helix bundle by the parallel association of two ?-helical hairpins from each subunit...
  29. Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M. The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:251-65 pubmed
    ..Also similarly to the case of Acs-mediated acetylation, the phosphodonors of CheY, CheA and acetyl phosphate, each inhibited the autoacetylation of CheY, whereas the phosphatase of CheY, CheZ, enhanced ..
  30. Zhou H, Dahlquist F. Phosphotransfer site of the chemotaxis-specific protein kinase CheA as revealed by NMR. Biochemistry. 1997;36:699-710 pubmed
    ..The phosphotransfer domain, CheA1-134, of the chemotaxis-specific histidine autokinase CheA from Escherichia coli contains the site of phosphorylation, His48, and two other histidine residues, His26 and ..
  31. Gegner J, Dahlquist F. Signal transduction in bacteria: CheW forms a reversible complex with the protein kinase CheA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:750-4 pubmed
    ..step in the signal transduction pathway of Escherichia coli is the control of the protein kinase activity of CheA by the chemotaxis receptor proteins. This control requires the participation of the CheW protein...
  32. Wuichet K, Alexander R, Zhulin I. Comparative genomic and protein sequence analyses of a complex system controlling bacterial chemotaxis. Methods Enzymol. 2007;422:1-31 pubmed
    Molecular machinery governing bacterial chemotaxis consists of the CheA-CheY two-component system, an array of specialized chemoreceptors, and several auxiliary proteins...
  33. Wang E, Koshland D. Receptor structure in the bacterial sensing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:7157-61 pubmed
    ..These results show that the aspartate and serine receptors are transmembrane proteins of a single polypeptide chain with the receptor recognition site on the outside of the membrane and the covalent methylation site on the inside. ..
  34. Manson M, Blank V, Brade G, Higgins C. Peptide chemotaxis in E. coli involves the Tap signal transducer and the dipeptide permease. Nature. 1986;321:253-6 pubmed
    ..Peptide taxis requires the function of a periplasmic component of the dipeptide permease. This protein represents the first example of a periplasmic chemoreceptor that does not have a sugar substrate. ..
  35. Hess J, Oosawa K, Matsumura P, Simon M. Protein phosphorylation is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7609-13 pubmed
    ..We have purified all of the proteins involved in signal transduction and show that the product of the cheA gene is rapidly autophosphorylated, while some mutant CheA proteins cannot be phosphorylated...
  36. Wolanin P, Baker M, Francis N, Thomas D, Derosier D, Stock J. Self-assembly of receptor/signaling complexes in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14313-8 pubmed
    ..Tar, to a leucine zipper dimerization domain produces a hybrid, lzTar(C), that forms soluble complexes with CheA and CheW...
  37. Greenswag A, Li X, Borbat P, Samanta D, Watts K, Freed J, et al. Preformed Soluble Chemoreceptor Trimers That Mimic Cellular Assembly States and Activate CheA Autophosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2015;54:3454-68 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial chemoreceptors associate with the histidine kinase CheA and coupling protein CheW to form extended membrane arrays that receive and transduce environmental signals...
  38. Tawa P, Stewart R. Mutational activation of CheA, the protein kinase in the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4210-8 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, appropriate changes of cell swimming patterns are mediated by CheA, an autophosphorylating histidine protein kinase whose activity is regulated by receptor/transducer proteins...
  39. Boukhvalova M, VanBruggen R, Stewart R. CheA kinase and chemoreceptor interaction surfaces on CheW. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23596-603 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli to aspartic acid are initiated by a ternary protein complex composed of Tar (chemoreceptor), CheA (kinase), and CheW (a coupling protein that binds to both Tar and CheA and links their activities)...
  40. Eisenbach M. A hitchhiker's guide through advances and conceptual changes in chemotaxis. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:574-80 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of these surprises and previously unasked or overlooked questions, and as such it offers a guided tour through conceptual changes in chemotaxis. ..
  41. Shukla D, Matsumura P. Mutations leading to altered CheA binding cluster on a face of CheY. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24414-9 pubmed
    ..CheY can receive phosphate from the histidine kinase, CheA. Phospho-CheY interacts with the motor-switch complex to induce clockwise flagellar rotation, thus causing the cell ..
  42. Baker M, Wolanin P, Stock J. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. Bioessays. 2006;28:9-22 pubmed
    ..that are localized in multimeric assemblies at one or both cell poles together with a histidine protein kinase, CheA, an SH3-like adaptor protein, CheW, and a phosphoprotein phosphatase, CheZ...
  43. Pratt L, Kolter R. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:285-93 pubmed
    ..In light of the observations presented here, a working model is discussed that describes the roles of both motility and type I pili in biofilm development. ..
  44. Wang H, Matsumura P. Characterization of the CheAS/CheZ complex: a specific interaction resulting in enhanced dephosphorylating activity on CheY-phosphate. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:695-703 pubmed
    The cheA gene encodes two overlapping polypeptides with a common carboxyl terminus: CheAL and CheAS...
  45. Gardina P, Conway C, Kossman M, Manson M. Aspartate and maltose-binding protein interact with adjacent sites in the Tar chemotactic signal transducer of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1528-36 pubmed
    ..We conclude that aspartate and maltose-binding protein interact with adjacent and partially overlapping regions in the periplasmic domain of Tar to initiate attractant signalling...
  46. Sanders D, Koshland D. Receptor interactions through phosphorylation and methylation pathways in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8425-9 pubmed
    ..The aspartate-induced methylation on the serine receptor is absent in a strain that lacks cheA and cheW genes and is not the result of physical interaction, such as the formation of heterodimers between the ..
  47. Vladimirov N, Løvdok L, Lebiedz D, Sourjik V. Dependence of bacterial chemotaxis on gradient shape and adaptation rate. PLoS Comput Biol. 2008;4:e1000242 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the unique properties of this gradient, we show that optimal chemotaxis is observed in a narrow range of CheA kinase activity, where concentration of the response regulator CheY-P falls into the operating range of flagellar ..
  48. Nara T, Kawagishi I, Nishiyama S, Homma M, Imae Y. Modulation of the thermosensing profile of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor tar by covalent modification of its methyl-accepting sites. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17932-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is suggested that Tar exists in at least three distinct states, each of which allows it to function as a warm, cold, or null thermoreceptor, depending on the modification patterns of its methylation sites. ..
  49. Lai W, Hazelbauer G. Carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the conserved pentapeptide reduce rates of chemoreceptor adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5115-21 pubmed
    ..No matter what the mechanism, the observations provide a challenging test for mathematical models of chemotaxis. ..
  50. Goldman J, Levin M, Bray D. Signal amplification in a lattice of coupled protein kinases. Mol Biosyst. 2009;5:1853-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this paper, we propose that cooperative interactions occur not between receptors but in the underlying lattice of CheA molecules...
  51. Park S, Beel B, Simon M, Bilwes A, Crane B. In different organisms, the mode of interaction between two signaling proteins is not necessarily conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions are thought to be under strong evolutionary constraints, binding of the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheA to its phosphorylation target CheY suggests otherwise...
  52. Silverman M, Simon M. Genetic analysis of flagellar mutants in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1973;113:105-13 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis of flagellar mutations in region III suggested that the mutations located in cistrons A, B, C, and E are closely linked and mutations in cistrons D and F are closely linked. ..
  53. Johnson M, Rowsell E, Taylor B. Investigation of transphosphorylation between chemotaxis proteins and the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. FEBS Lett. 1995;374:161-4 pubmed
    ..phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) from Escherichia coli was investigated by incubating the CheA, CheW and CheY proteins of the chemotaxis cascade, and Enzyme I, HPr and Enzyme IImtl of the PTS with [gamma-32P]..
  54. Lee G, Lebert M, Lilly A, Hazelbauer G. Transmembrane signaling characterized in bacterial chemoreceptors by using sulfhydryl cross-linking in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3391-5 pubmed
    ..We deduce that transmembrane signaling requires substantial movement between transmembrane helices of a monomer but not between interacting helices across the interface between subunits. ..
  55. Lybarger S, Maddock J. Clustering of the chemoreceptor complex in Escherichia coli is independent of the methyltransferase CheR and the methylesterase CheB. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5527-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli chemoreceptors and their associated cytoplasmic proteins, CheA and CheW, cluster predominantly at the cell poles. The nature of the clustering remains a mystery...
  56. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..Restriction endonuclease analyses of phage and plasmid clones indicated that all of the genetic coding capacity in the tar region is now accounted for. ..
  57. Nowlin D, Bollinger J, Hazelbauer G. Sites of covalent modification in Trg, a sensory transducer of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:6039-45 pubmed
  58. Lai R, Bormans A, Draheim R, Wright G, Manson M. The region preceding the C-terminal NWETF pentapeptide modulates baseline activity and aspartate inhibition of Escherichia coli Tar. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13287-95 pubmed publisher
    The Tar chemoreceptor-CheA-CheW ternary complex of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane allosteric enzyme in which binding of ligands to the periplasmic domain modulates the activity of CheA kinase...
  59. Manson M, Cantwell B. Model is as model does. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E199-201 pubmed
  60. Stewart R, VanBruggen R. Phosphorylation and binding interactions of CheY studied by use of Badan-labeled protein. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8766-77 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli, the response regulator protein CheY is phosphorylated by the receptor-coupled protein kinase CheA. Previous studies of CheY phosphorylation and CheY interactions with other proteins in the chemotaxis pathway have ..
  61. Yaghmai R, Hazelbauer G. Strategies for differential sensory responses mediated through the same transmembrane receptor. EMBO J. 1993;12:1897-905 pubmed
    ..Two-step recognition of ligand allows functional separation of detection and response. ..
  62. Manson M, Armitage J, Hoch J, Macnab R. Bacterial locomotion and signal transduction. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1009-22 pubmed
  63. Irieda H, Homma M, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Control of chemotactic signal gain via modulation of a pre-formed receptor array. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23880-6 pubmed
    ..system, is achieved by methylation/amidation of the transmembrane chemoreceptors that regulate the histidine kinase CheA in response to extracellular stimuli...
  64. Hao S, Hamel D, Zhou H, Dahlquist F. Structural basis for the localization of the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ by CheAS. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5842-4 pubmed publisher
    b>CheA-short interacts with CheZ to localize CheZ to cell poles...
  65. McEvoy M, Muhandiram D, Kay L, Dahlquist F. Structure and dynamics of a CheY-binding domain of the chemotaxis kinase CheA determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1996;35:5633-40 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli histidine autokinase CheA plays an important role in coupling signals received from membrane-bound receptors to changes in the swimming behavior of the cells in order to respond appropriately to environmental signals...
  66. Liao P, Choi Y, Lee K. FSscan: a mechanism-based program to identify +1 ribosomal frameshift hotspots. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..FSscan successfully identified the +1 PRF site in prfB and predicted yehP, pepP, nuoE and cheA as +1 frameshift candidates in the E. coli genome...
  67. Schulmeister S, Grosse K, Sourjik V. Effects of receptor modification and temperature on dynamics of sensory complexes in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:222 pubmed publisher
    ..The stable core of these clusters is formed by transmembrane receptors, a kinase CheA, and an adaptor CheW, whereas adaptation enzymes CheR and CheB dynamically associate with the clusters via ..
  68. Lee G, Burrows G, Lebert M, Dutton D, Hazelbauer G. Deducing the organization of a transmembrane domain by disulfide cross-linking. The bacterial chemoreceptor Trg. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29920-7 pubmed
  69. Nara T, Lee L, Imae Y. Thermosensing ability of Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1120-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that although both Trg and Tap have the ability to sense thermal stimuli, Trg functions as a warm receptor, as reported previously for Tar and Tsr, while Tap functions as a cold receptor. ..
  70. Boukhvalova M, Dahlquist F, Stewart R. CheW binding interactions with CheA and Tar. Importance for chemotaxis signaling in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22251-9 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli to aspartic acid occur within a ternary complex that includes Tar (an aspartate receptor), CheA (a protein kinase), and CheW...
  71. Briegel A, Wong M, Hodges H, Oikonomou C, Piasta K, Harris M, et al. New insights into bacterial chemoreceptor array structure and assembly from electron cryotomography. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the effective determinant of array structure seemed to be CheA and CheW, which formed a "superlattice" of alternating CheA-filled and CheA-empty rings that linked receptor ..
  72. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..This observation emphasizes the central role of methylation and the modular nature of the chemosensory system. ..
  73. Francis N, Levit M, Shaikh T, Melanson L, Stock J, Derosier D. Subunit organization in a soluble complex of tar, CheW, and CheA by electron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36755-9 pubmed
    ..receptors that generate chemotaxis responses by regulating the activity of an associated histidine protein kinase, CheA. Tar is composed of an NH(2)-terminal periplasmic ligand-binding domain linked through a transmembrane sequence to ..
  74. Chi Y, Yokota H, Kim S. Apo structure of the ligand-binding domain of aspartate receptor from Escherichia coli and its comparison with ligand-bound or pseudoligand-bound structures. FEBS Lett. 1997;414:327-32 pubmed
  75. Krikos A, Mutoh N, Boyd A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are composed of discrete structural and functional domains. Cell. 1983;33:615-22 pubmed
  76. Gardina P, Bormans A, Hawkins M, Meeker J, Manson M. Maltose-binding protein interacts simultaneously and asymmetrically with both subunits of the Tar chemoreceptor. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:1181-91 pubmed