Gene Symbol: ccmD
Description: cytochrome c biogenesis protein; heme export ABC transporter holo-CcmE release factor
Alias: ECK2190, JW2186, yojM
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Grove J, Tanapongpipat S, Thomas G, Griffiths L, Crooke H, Cole J. Escherichia coli K-12 genes essential for the synthesis of c-type cytochromes and a third nitrate reductase located in the periplasm. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:467-81 pubmed
    ..5' promoter) and from constitutive or weakly regulated promoters apparently located within the downstream nap and ccm genes. ..
  2. Tanapongpipat S, Reid E, Cole J, Crooke H. Transcriptional control and essential roles of the Escherichia coli ccm gene products in formate-dependent nitrite reduction and cytochrome c synthesis. Biochem J. 1998;334 ( Pt 2):355-65 pubmed
  3. Richard Fogal C, Frawley E, Kranz R. Topology and function of CcmD in cytochrome c maturation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3489-93 pubmed publisher
    The system I cytochrome c biogenesis pathway requires CcmD, a small polypeptide of 69 residues in Escherichia coli. Here it is shown that CcmD is a component of the CcmABC ATP-binding cassette transporter complex...
  4. Darwin A, Stewart V. Nitrate and nitrite regulation of the Fnr-dependent aeg-46.5 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12 is mediated by competition between homologous response regulators (NarL and NarP) for a common DNA-binding site. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:15-29 pubmed
    ..5 binding site to regulate aeg-46.5 operon expression in response to nitrate and nitrite. Apparently, only the NarP protein is competent to activate transcription of the aeg-46.5 operon when bound to the -44.5 region...
  5. Feissner R, Richard Fogal C, Frawley E, Loughman J, Earley K, Kranz R. Recombinant cytochromes c biogenesis systems I and II and analysis of haem delivery pathways in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:563-77 pubmed
    ..It is shown that this allows system I to use holo-CcmE as a haem reservoir, a capability system II does not possess. ..
  6. Schulz H, Pellicioli E, Thony Meyer L. New insights into the role of CcmC, CcmD and CcmE in the haem delivery pathway during cytochrome c maturation by a complete mutational analysis of the conserved tryptophan-rich motif of CcmC. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1379-88 pubmed
    ..Enhanced expression of ccmD suppressed this mutant phenotype by increasing the amounts of CcmC and CcmE polypeptides in the membrane...
  7. Choe M, Reznikoff W. Anaerobically expressed Escherichia coli genes identified by operon fusion techniques. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6139-46 pubmed
    ..5 expression were observed in all medium conditions regardless of the presence or absence of nitrate. This suggests that narL has a regulatory function in the absence of exogenously added nitrate. ..
  8. Allen J, Ferguson S. Variation of the axial haem ligands and haem-binding motif as a probe of the Escherichia coli c-type cytochrome maturation (Ccm) system. Biochem J. 2003;375:721-8 pubmed
  9. Turkarslan S, Sanders C, Daldal F. Extracytoplasmic prosthetic group ligation to apoproteins: maturation of c-type cytochromes. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:537-41 pubmed

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Stevens J, Gordon E, Ferguson S. Overproduction of CcmABCDEFGH restores cytochrome c maturation in a DsbD deletion strain of E. coli: another route for reductant?. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:81-5 pubmed
    ..The Ccm proteins do not, however, restore the normal disulfide mis-isomerisation phenotype of the deletion strain, as shown by assay of the multidisulfide-bonded enzyme urokinase. ..
  2. Ahuja U, Thöny Meyer L. CcmD is involved in complex formation between CcmC and the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:236-43 pubmed
    b>CcmD is a small membrane protein involved in heme delivery to the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation. Here we show that it physically interacts with CcmE and CcmC, another essential component of the heme delivery system...
  3. Thony Meyer L. Haem-polypeptide interactions during cytochrome c maturation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1459:316-24 pubmed
    ..CcmC is required for binding of haem to CcmE, and CcmF for releasing it from CcmE and transferring it onto the apocytochrome. The mechanism by which haem crosses the cytoplasmic membrane is currently unknown. ..
  4. Richard Fogal C, Frawley E, Feissner R, Kranz R. Heme concentration dependence and metalloporphyrin inhibition of the system I and II cytochrome c assembly pathways. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:455-63 pubmed
    ..We propose that the targets are the heme binding proteins in the pathways (CcmC, CcmE, and CcmF for system I and CcsA for system II). ..
  5. Allen J, Barker P, Ferguson S. A cytochrome b562 variant with a c-type cytochrome CXXCH heme-binding motif as a probe of the Escherichia coli cytochrome c maturation system. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52075-83 pubmed
    ..This contrasts with previous reports indicating that DsbA is essential for cytochrome c biogenesis in E. coli. ..
  6. Schulz H, Fabianek R, Pellicioli E, Hennecke H, Thony Meyer L. Heme transfer to the heme chaperone CcmE during cytochrome c maturation requires the CcmC protein, which may function independently of the ABC-transporter CcmAB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6462-7 pubmed
    ..b>CcmD was found to be involved in stabilizing the heme chaperone CcmE in the membrane...
  7. Choe M, Reznikoff W. Identification of the regulatory sequence of anaerobically expressed locus aeg-46.5. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1165-72 pubmed
    ..The proposed NarL site was found in a perfect-symmetry element. The aeg-46.5 regulatory elements are adjacent to, but divergent from, those of the eco gene. ..
  8. Thony Meyer L, Fischer F, Kunzler P, Ritz D, Hennecke H. Escherichia coli genes required for cytochrome c maturation. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4321-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the E. coli ccm gene cluster present in the aeg-46.5 region is required for a general pathway involved in cytochrome c maturation. ..