Gene Symbol: cadA
Description: lysine decarboxylase, acid-inducible
Alias: ECK4125, JW4092, ldcI
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Goldemberg S. Lysine decarboxylase mutants of Escherichia coli: evidence for two enzyme forms. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:1428-31 pubmed
    ..These mutants could not produce induced enzyme, showing only a very low level of an apparently constitutive form. Both enzyme forms could be demonstrated in the parental strain. ..
  2. Popkin P, Maas W. Escherichia coli regulatory mutation affecting lysine transport and lysine decarboxylase. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:485-92 pubmed
    ..All thiosine-resistant recombinants assayed showed reduced lysine transport. In many of these recombinants the derepression of lysine decarboxylase was not expressed. ..
  3. Vienozinskiene J, Januseviciute R, Pauliukonis A, Kazlauskas D. Lysine decarboxylase assay by the pH-stat method. Anal Biochem. 1985;146:180-3 pubmed
    ..The continuous recording of the reaction progress may be easily performed. Using the pH-stat method the Km for lysine decarboxylase from E. coli is 2.0 mM. ..
  4. Tabor C, Tabor H, Hafner E. Mass screening for mutants in the biosynthetic pathway for polyamines in Escherichia coli: a general method for mutants in enzymatic reactions producing CO2. Methods Enzymol. 1983;94:83-91 pubmed
  5. Fritz G, Koller C, Burdack K, Tetsch L, Haneburger I, Jung K, et al. Induction kinetics of a conditional pH stress response system in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:272-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the analysis puts causal constraints on the precise mechanism of signal transduction via the regulatory protein CadC. ..
  6. Gonzalez O, Kuper C, Jung K, Naval P, Mendoza E. Parameter estimation using Simulated Annealing for S-system models of biochemical networks. Bioinformatics. 2007;23:480-6 pubmed All the necessary programs including the required compiler are described in a document archived with the source code. Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  7. Mandic A. Effects of cadA gene on cell division phenotype. Med Pregl. 1998;51:21-8 pubmed
    Studying cell division regulatory mechanisms in Escherichia coli an important role of cad operon was discovered. The cadA gene is part of the cad operon...
  8. Jores J, Torres A, Wagner S, Tutt C, Kaper J, Wieler L. Identification and characterization of "pathoadaptive mutations" of the cadBA operon in several intestinal Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:547-52 pubmed
    ..and EIEC strains. Interestingly, the alterations of the cad genes were similar to those previously reported, pointing towards a parallel evolution of LDC silencing in different intestinal E. coli pathotypes. ..
  9. Chalova V, Woodward C, Ricke S. Induction of cadBA in an Escherichia coli lysine auxotroph transformed with a cad-gfp transcriptional fusion. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2009;95:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..08 micromol/g cell dry weight). For the latter, the detectable level of induction was delayed for 1 h but the maximum level of induction response was higher. ..

More Information


  1. Wertheimer S, Leifer Z. Putrescine and spermidine sensitivity of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli: evidence for a constitutive enzyme and its mode of regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983;114:882-8 pubmed
    ..This provides evidence for the existence of a biosynthetic enzyme and suggests a mechanism to explain the appearance of cadaverine in polyamine-depleted cells. ..
  2. Cascieri T, Mallette M. Stimulation of lysine decarboxylase production in Escherichia coli by amino acids and peptides. Appl Microbiol. 1973;26:975-81 pubmed
    ..53 mM) was the most effective. Added pyridoxine increased lysine decarboxylase activity 30%, whereas other B vitamins and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate had no effect. ..
  3. Sabo D, Fischer E. Chemical properties of Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase including a segment of its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site. Biochemistry. 1974;13:670-6 pubmed
  4. Day W, Fern ndez R, Maurelli A. Pathoadaptive mutations that enhance virulence: genetic organization of the cadA regions of Shigella spp. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the product of LDC activity, cadaverine, blocks the action of Shigella enterotoxins and that the gene encoding LDC, cadA, was abolished by large chromosomal deletions in each Shigella species...
  5. Auger E, Redding K, Plumb T, Childs L, Meng S, Bennett G. Construction of lac fusions to the inducible arginine- and lysine decarboxylase genes of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:609-20 pubmed
    ..The position of the Mudlac fusion in lysine decarboxylase-deficient strains has been mapped to the cadA gene at 93...
  6. Meng S, Bennett G. Regulation of the Escherichia coli cad operon: location of a site required for acid induction. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2670-8 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis of the upstream region and cloning of various fragments to make cadA::lacZ or cadB::lacZ protein fusions or operon fusions showed that cadA was translated more efficiently than cadB ..
  7. Watson N, Dunyak D, Rosey E, Slonczewski J, Olson E. Identification of elements involved in transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli cad operon by external pH. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:530-40 pubmed
    Expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene (cadA) of Escherichia coli is induced upon external acidification. To dissect the molecular mechanisms responsible for this regulation, we analyzed a 4.2-kbp region upstream from cadA...
  8. Casalino M, Latella M, Prosseda G, Colonna B. CadC is the preferential target of a convergent evolution driving enteroinvasive Escherichia coli toward a lysine decarboxylase-defective phenotype. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5472-9 pubmed
    ..Comparative analysis between the cad regions of S. flexneri and EIEC suggests that the LDC(-) phenotype has been attained by different strategies within the E. coli species...
  9. Chattopadhyay M, Tabor C, Tabor H. Polyamines are not required for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli: preparation of a strain with deletions in all of the genes for polyamine biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5549-52 pubmed publisher
    ..spe D (adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), speE (spermidine synthase), speF (inducible ornithine decarboxylase), cadA (lysine decarboxylase), and ldcC (lysine decarboxylase)--had been deleted...
  10. Neely M, Olson E. Kinetics of expression of the Escherichia coli cad operon as a function of pH and lysine. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5522-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that CadC senses the lysine- and pH-induced signals separately and that one of the roles of lysine in inducing cadBA may be to repress expression of lysP, thus eliminating the repressing effects of LysP. ..
  11. Meng S, Bennett G. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli cad operon: a system for neutralization of low extracellular pH. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2659-69 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli has been the subject of enzymological studies, and the gene encoding lysine decarboxylase (cadA) and a regulatory gene (cadR) have been mapped...
  12. Alexopoulos E, Kanjee U, Snider J, Houry W, Pai E. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:700-6 pubmed publisher
    The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C222(1); the Ta6Br12(2+) cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals...
  13. Shi X, Bennett G. Effects of multicopy LeuO on the expression of the acid-inducible lysine decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:810-4 pubmed
    ..that mutations in hns, the structural gene for the histone-like protein H-NS, cause derepressed expression of cadA, which encodes the acid-inducible lysine decarboxylase at noninducing pH (pH 8.0)...
  14. Kikuchi Y, Kojima H, Tanaka T, Takatsuka Y, Kamio Y. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4486-92 pubmed
    ..The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4...
  15. Maurelli A, Fernandez R, Bloch C, Rode C, Fasano A. "Black holes" and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3943-8 pubmed
    ..coli strains but is uniformly absent in Shigella strains. When the gene for LDC, cadA, was introduced into Shigella flexneri 2a, virulence became attenuated, and enterotoxin activity was inhibited ..
  16. Lemonnier M, Lane D. Expression of the second lysine decarboxylase gene of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 3):751-60 pubmed
    ..In the case of lysine, an inducible decarboxylase (CadA) has been extensively characterized, but evidence for the existence of a second lysine decarboxylase is fragmentary ..
  17. Samartzidou H, Delcour A. Excretion of endogenous cadaverine leads to a decrease in porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:791-8 pubmed
    ..The results presented here support the notion that polyamines can act as endogenous modulators of outer membrane permeability, possibly as part of an adaptive response to acidic conditions...
  18. McCormick B, Fernandez M, Siber A, Maurelli A. Inhibition of Shigella flexneri-induced transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by cadaverine. Cell Microbiol. 1999;1:143-55 pubmed
    ..An example is cadA (encoding lysine decarboxylase), which is uniformly absent in Shigella spp...
  19. Soksawatmaekhin W, Kuraishi A, Sakata K, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K. Excretion and uptake of cadaverine by CadB and its physiological functions in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1401-12 pubmed
    ..At acidic pH, the operon containing cadB and cadA, encoding lysine decarboxylase, was induced in the presence of lysine...
  20. Rowbury R. Regulatory components, including integration host factor, CysB and H-NS, that influence pH responses in Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1997;24:319-28 pubmed
    ..H-NS, IHF and CysB; acid induction of LysU has similar requirements but also needs Lrp; lysine decarboxylase (CadA) formation at acid pH is controlled quite differently, needing the CadC activator and interaction of lysine/lysine ..
  21. Torres A. The cad locus of Enterobacteriaceae: more than just lysine decarboxylation. Anaerobe. 2009;15:1-6 pubmed publisher
  22. Neely M, Dell C, Olson E. Roles of LysP and CadC in mediating the lysine requirement for acid induction of the Escherichia coli cad operon. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3278-85 pubmed
    ..To better understand the nature of the lysine-dependent signal, mutants were isolated which expressed a cadA-lacZ transcription fusion in the absence of lysine while retaining pH regulation...
  23. Dell C, Neely M, Olson E. Altered pH and lysine signalling mutants of cadC, a gene encoding a membrane-bound transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli cadBA operon. Mol Microbiol. 1994;14:7-16 pubmed
    ..6). Eight cadC mutants were isolated based on their ability to confer expression of a cadA-lacZ fusion independent of low external pH or exogenous lysine...
  24. Sabo D, Boeker E, Byers B, Waron H, Fischer E. Purification and physical properties of inducible Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase. Biochemistry. 1974;13:662-70 pubmed
  25. Moreau P. The lysine decarboxylase CadA protects Escherichia coli starved of phosphate against fermentation acids. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2249-61 pubmed
    ..b>CadA plays a key role in the defense of Salmonella at pH 3 but was thought to be ineffective in Escherichia coli since ..
  26. Yamamoto Y, Miwa Y, Miyoshi K, Furuyama J, Ohmori H. The Escherichia coli ldcC gene encodes another lysine decarboxylase, probably a constitutive enzyme. Genes Genet Syst. 1997;72:167-72 pubmed
    ..coli (CadA, acid-inducible LDC, 715 aa) or from Hafnia alvei (739 aa)...
  27. Takayama M, Ohyama T, Igarashi K, Kobayashi H. Escherichia coli cad operon functions as a supplier of carbon dioxide. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:913-8 pubmed
    We examined the gene expression of the Escherichia coli cad operon, which consisted of the genes cadB and cadA (lysine decarboxylase), using cells possessing cadB-lacZ fusion gene...
  28. Beretskene S, Bruzgulis P, Ragavichus A. [Conditions of the synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by Escherichia coli MRE 600]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1980;16:351-5 pubmed
    ..0 at 29--30 degrees C. Aeration increased the yield by about 3 times and decreased LDC activity by 5.5 times. ..
  29. Cheeseman G, Fuller R. Changes in the pH activity profile of the lysine decarboxylase during incubation of Escherichia coli. J Appl Bacteriol. 1968;31:253-8 pubmed
  30. Snider J, Gutsche I, Lin M, Baby S, Cox B, Butland G, et al. Formation of a distinctive complex between the inducible bacterial lysine decarboxylase and a novel AAA+ ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1532-46 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we demonstrate that RavA interacts strongly with inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI or CadA) forming a large cage-like structure consisting of two LdcI decamers linked by a maximum of five RavA oligomers...
  31. Reams S, Lee N, Mat Jan F, Clark D. Effect of chelating agents and respiratory inhibitors on regulation of the cadA gene in Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1997;167:209-16 pubmed
    The cadA gene that encodes lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli is induced by low pH and - during anaerobic growth - by the substrate, lysine...
  32. El Bakkouri M, Gutsche I, Kanjee U, Zhao B, Yu M, Goret G, et al. Structure of RavA MoxR AAA+ protein reveals the design principles of a molecular cage modulating the inducible lysine decarboxylase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22499-504 pubmed publisher
    ..MoxR protein, RavA (Regulatory ATPase variant A), tightly interacts with the inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI/CadA, to form a unique cage-like structure...
  33. Kuper C, Jung K. CadC-mediated activation of the cadBA promoter in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;10:26-39 pubmed
    ..a member of the ToxR-like proteins, activates transcription of the cadBA operon encoding the lysine decarboxylase CadA and the lysine-cadaverine antiporter CadB...
  34. Kikuchi Y, Kurahashi O, Nagano T, Kamio Y. RpoS-dependent expression of the second lysine decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:1267-70 pubmed
    ..J. Baceriol. 179, 4486-4492 (1997)]. This report showes that the expression of ldc as well as cadA was induced at stationary phase in the wild type of E. coli...
  35. Tabor H, Hafner E, Tabor C. Construction of an Escherichia coli strain unable to synthesize putrescine, spermidine, or cadaverine: characterization of two genes controlling lysine decarboxylase. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:952-6 pubmed
    ..rule out the possibility that the presence of cadaverine permitted the growth of this strain, we isolated a mutant (cadA) that is deficient in cadaverine biosynthesis, namely, a mutant lacking lysine decarboxylase, and transduced this ..
  36. Auger E, Bennett G. Regulation of lysine decarboxylase activity in Escherichia coli K-12. Arch Microbiol. 1989;151:466-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that the pH and air responses were independent and that these known regulatory processes are not responsible for this regulation of the biodegradative lysine decarboxylase. ..
  37. Prüss B, Markovic D, Matsumura P. The Escherichia coli flagellar transcriptional activator flhD regulates cell division through induction of the acid response gene cadA. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3818-21 pubmed
    FlhD is a positive regulator of cadA. A mutant with a transposon-mediated lacZ fusion to cadA exhibited a cell division phenotype similar to that of the flhD mutant and had FlhD-dependent beta-galactosidase activity...
  38. Blarzino C, De Marco C. Selenalysine as substrate of lysine decarboxylase. Ital J Biochem. 1977;26:444-50 pubmed
    ..In other words either sulfur- or selenium-containing substrate analogs are acted upon in the same way by lysine decarboxylase. ..
  39. Park Y, Bearson B, Bang S, Bang I, Foster J. Internal pH crisis, lysine decarboxylase and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:605-11 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that S. typhimurium has a variety of means of fulfilling the pH homeostasis requirement of the ATR in the form of inducible amino acid decarboxylases. ..
  40. Shi X, Waasdorp B, Bennett G. Modulation of acid-induced amino acid decarboxylase gene expression by hns in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1182-6 pubmed
    Biodegradative arginine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase, encoded by adi and cadA, respectively, are induced to maximal levels when Escherichia coli is grown anaerobically in rich medium at acidic pH...
  41. Kamio Y, Terawaki Y. Purification and properties of Selenomonas ruminantium lysine decarboxylase. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:658-64 pubmed
    ..Several properties of the enzyme were determined and compared with those of the lysine decarboxylases from Escherichia coli and Bacterium cadaverisis. ..
  42. Lu W, Mallette M. Colorimetric assay for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol. 1970;19:367-9 pubmed
    ..The new method is valuable in the study of peptide fractions and amino acid mixtures which stimulate induction of lysine decarboxylase. It may be useful for work on enzyme structure and modification, genetics, and kinetics. ..
  43. Kanjee U, Gutsche I, Alexopoulos E, Zhao B, El Bakkouri M, Thibault G, et al. Linkage between the bacterial acid stress and stringent responses: the structure of the inducible lysine decarboxylase. EMBO J. 2011;30:931-44 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI/CadA, together with the inner-membrane lysine-cadaverine antiporter, CadB, provide cells with protection against mild acidic conditions (pH?5)...