Gene Symbol: bluF
Description: anti-repressor for YcgE, blue light-responsive; FAD-binding; inactive c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase-like EAL domain protein
Alias: ECK1150, JW1150, ycgF
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Nakasone Y, Ono T, Ishii A, Masuda S, Terazima M. Transient dimerization and conformational change of a BLUF protein: YcgF. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:7028-35 pubmed
    The photochemical reaction dynamics of YcgF, a BLUF protein, were investigated by the pulsed laser-induced transient grating (TG) technique. The TG signal showed three reaction time constants: 2.7 micros, 13 micros, and 2 ms...
  2. Rajagopal S, Key J, Purcell E, Boerema D, Moffat K. Purification and initial characterization of a putative blue light-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli. Photochem Photobiol. 2004;80:542-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli protein YcgF contains a photosensory flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding BLUF domain covalently linked to an EAL domain, which is predicted to have cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate (GMP) phosphodiesterase ..
  3. Tschowri N, Busse S, Hengge R. The BLUF-EAL protein YcgF acts as a direct anti-repressor in a blue-light response of Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2009;23:522-34 pubmed publisher
    The blue light using FAD (BLUF)-EAL protein YcgF is a known blue-light sensor of Escherichia coli, but its direct regulatory output and physiological function have remained unknown...
  4. Polissi A, De Laurentis W, Zangrossi S, Briani F, Longhi V, Pesole G, et al. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:573-80 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found that PNPase both negatively and positively modulated the transcript abundance of some of these genes, thus suggesting a complex role of PNPase in controlling cold adaptation. ..
  5. Gomelsky M, Kaplan S. AppA, a redox regulator of photosystem formation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1, is a flavoprotein. Identification of a novel fad binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:35319-25 pubmed
    ..The binding of FAD by AppA may be the first clue as to how this regulatory protein is involved in redox-regulated reactions. ..
  6. Regonesi M, Del Favero M, Basilico F, Briani F, Benazzi L, Tortora P, et al. Analysis of the Escherichia coli RNA degradosome composition by a proteomic approach. Biochimie. 2006;88:151-61 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that normalized score values obtain by MudPIT analysis may be taken as quantitative estimates of the relative protein abundance in different degradosome preparations. ..
  7. Hasegawa K, Masuda S, Ono T. Light induced structural changes of a full-length protein and its BLUF domain in YcgF(Blrp), a blue-light sensing protein that uses FAD (BLUF). Biochemistry. 2006;45:3785-93 pubmed
    Blue-light sensing proteins that use FAD (BLUF) are members of a blue-light receptor family that is widely distributed among microorganisms...
  8. Schroeder C, Werner K, Otten H, Krätzig S, Schwalbe H, Essen L. Influence of a joining helix on the BLUF domain of the YcgF photoreceptor from Escherichia coli. Chembiochem. 2008;9:2463-73 pubmed publisher
    b>BLUF-domain-comprising photoreceptors sense blue light by utilizing FAD as a chromophore...
  9. Tschowri N, Lindenberg S, Hengge R. Molecular function and potential evolution of the biofilm-modulating blue light-signalling pathway of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:893-906 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli senses blue light via the BLUF-EAL protein BluF (YcgF)...

More Information


  1. Grigorenko B, Knyazeva M, Nemukhin A. Analysis of proton wires in the enzyme active site suggests a mechanism of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by the EAL domain phosphodiesterases. Proteins. 2016;84:1670-1680 pubmed publisher
    ..The suggested mechanism is consistent with the structural, mutagenesis, and kinetic experimental studies on the EAL domain phosphodiesterases. Proteins 2016; 84:1670-1680. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..