Gene Symbol: bglG
Description: transcriptional antiterminator of the bgl operon
Alias: ECK3716, JW3701, bglC, bglR, bglS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Prasad I, Schaefler S. Regulation of the beta-glucoside system in Escherchia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1974;120:638-50 pubmed
    ..B (bglB(+)) and a beta-glucoside-specific species of enzyme II (beta-glucoside transport I [bglC(+)]); an additional mutation (bglS(+) to bglS4) allows these enzymes to be formed constitutively...
  2. Madhusudan S, Paukner A, Klingen Y, Schnetz K. Independent regulation of H-NS-mediated silencing of the bgl operon at two levels: upstream by BglJ and LeuO and downstream by DnaKJ. Microbiology. 2005;151:3349-59 pubmed
    ..Together, the data show that the two levels of bgl silencing by H-NS are regulated independently. ..
  3. Mukerji M, Mahadevan S. Characterization of the negative elements involved in silencing the bgl operon of Escherichia coli: possible roles for DNA gyrase, H-NS, and CRP-cAMP in regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:617-27 pubmed
  4. Dole S, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K. The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:589-600 pubmed
    ..region located approximately 600-700 base pairs downstream of the promoter, within the coding region of first gene, bglG, resulting in a approximately sevenfold further decrease of expression...
  5. Schnetz K, Toloczyki C, Rak B. Beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli K-12: nucleotide sequence, genetic organization, and possible evolutionary relationship to regulatory components of two Bacillus subtilis genes. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2579-90 pubmed
    ..We have defined the extent and location of three structural genes, bglC, bglS, and bglB, and have determined their DNA sequence...
  6. Schnetz K. Silencing of Escherichia coli bgl promoter by flanking sequence elements. EMBO J. 1995;14:2545-50 pubmed
  7. Schaefler S, Maas W. Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. II. Description of mutant types and genetic analysis. J Bacteriol. 1967;93:264-72 pubmed
  8. Schaefler S. Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. I. Active transport and utilization of beta-glucosides. J Bacteriol. 1967;93:254-63 pubmed
    ..The induction lag and competition do not exist in GP(-) beta-gl(+) strains. It is assumed that phosphorylated alkyl and thioalkyl beta-glucosides inhibit the induction, and that this inhibition is responsible for the induction lag. ..
  9. Mahadevan S, Reynolds A, Wright A. Positive and negative regulation of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2570-8 pubmed
    ..regions of the operon to complement a series of Bgl- point mutations, we show that the three bgl structural genes, bglC, bglS, and bglB, are located downstream of the regulatory locus bglR in the order indicated...

More Information


  1. Madan R, Kolter R, Mahadevan S. Mutations that activate the silent bgl operon of Escherichia coli confer a growth advantage in stationary phase. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7912-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a possible evolutionary advantage in retaining the silent bgl operon by wild-type bacteria. ..
  2. Reichenbach B, Breustedt D, Stülke J, Rak B, Görke B. Genetic dissection of specificity determinants in the interaction of HPr with enzymes II of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4603-13 pubmed
    ..subtilis cannot efficiently phosphorylate the EIIs of E. coli. In contrast, activation of the E. coli BglG regulatory protein by HPr-catalyzed phosphorylation works well with the B. subtilis HPr protein...
  3. Ueguchi C, Ohta T, Seto C, Suzuki T, Mizuno T. The leuO gene product has a latent ability to relieve bgl silencing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:190-3 pubmed
    ..A leuO deletion mutant was also characterized in terms of expression of bgl. From these results, the possible function of LeuO in bgl expression will be discussed from an evolutionary and/or ecological point of view. ..
  4. Khan M, Isaacson R. In vivo expression of the beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli occurs in mouse liver. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:4746-9 pubmed
    ..fragment contained a promoter and a rho-independent transcription terminator which were flanked by the 3' end of bglG and the 5' end of bglF...
  5. Reynolds A, Mahadevan S, LeGrice S, Wright A. Enhancement of bacterial gene expression by insertion elements or by mutation in a CAP-cAMP binding site. J Mol Biol. 1986;191:85-95 pubmed
    The regulatory region (bglR) of the cryptic bgl operon was characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcription mapping. Bgl(-)-specific transcription was found to occur in both the wild-type Bgl- and mutant Bgl+ cells...
  6. Raghunand T, Mahadevan S. The beta-glucoside genes of Klebsiella aerogenes: conservation and divergence in relation to the cryptic bgl genes of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;223:267-74 pubmed
    ..The Klebsiella equivalents of bglG, bglB and bglR have been cloned using the genome sequence database of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
  7. Giel M, Desnoyer M, Lopilato J. A mutation in a new gene, bglJ, activates the bgl operon in Escherichia coli K-12. Genetics. 1996;143:627-35 pubmed
    ..The putative protein encoded by the bglJ gene has homolgy to a family of transcriptional activators. Evidence is presented that increased expression of the bglJ product is needed for activation of the bgl operon. ..
  8. Reynolds A, Felton J, Wright A. Insertion of DNA activates the cryptic bgl operon in E. coli K12. Nature. 1981;293:625-9 pubmed
  9. Görke B. Regulation of the Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG by phosphorylation at multiple sites and evidence for transfer of phosphoryl groups between monomers. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46219-29 pubmed
    Activity of antiterminator protein BglG regulating the beta-glucoside operon in Escherichia coli is controlled by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) in a dual manner...
  10. Defez R, De Felice M. Cryptic operon for beta-glucoside metabolism in Escherichia coli K12: genetic evidence for a regulatory protein. Genetics. 1981;97:11-25 pubmed
    ..Mutants carrying lesions in the cis-acting regulatory site bglR metabolize beta-glucosides as a consequence of expression of this cryptic operon (Prasad and Schaefler 1974)...
  11. Baglioni P, Bini L, Liberatori S, Pallini V, Marri L. Proteome analysis of Escherichia coli W3110 expressing an heterologous sigma factor. Proteomics. 2003;3:1060-5 pubmed
    ..Among the proteins identified, thiol peroxidase (Tpx) was the only one up-regulated. The possible involvement of bgl and tpx in the survival of the pathogen E. coli during infection is discussed. ..
  12. Schnetz K, Rak B. Regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by transcriptional antitermination. EMBO J. 1988;7:3271-7 pubmed
    ..termination/antitermination of transcription at two signal structures flanking the first gene of the operon, bglG. Antitermination is mediated by the product of gene bglG...
  13. Schnetz K, Rak B. IS5: a mobile enhancer of transcription in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:1244-8 pubmed
    ..Activation of gene expression by means of interaction of a defective mobile element in cis with functions encoded by a nondefective element in trans has so far been described only for a maize controlling element. ..
  14. Sammartano L, Tuveson R, Davenport R. Control of sensitivity to inactivation by H2O2 and broad-spectrum near-UV radiation by the Escherichia coli katF locus. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:13-21 pubmed
    ..Extracts of nur and katF strains lack catalase (hydroperoxidase II) as revealed by polyacrylamide gels stained for such activity, which is consistent with the genetic results. ..
  15. Gulati A, Mahadevan S. The Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG stabilizes the 5'region of the bgl mRNA. J Biosci. 2001;26:193-203 pubmed
    The beta-glucoside utilization (bgl) genes of Escherichia coli are positively regulated by the product of the bglG gene, which functions as an antiterminator by binding to specific sequences present within the bgl mRNA...
  16. Dole S, Klingen Y, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K. The protease Lon and the RNA-binding protein Hfq reduce silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2708-16 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that the specific repression by H-NS can (directly or indirectly) be modulated and controlled by other pleiotropic regulators. ..
  17. Manna D, Wang X, Higgins N. Mu and IS1 transpositions exhibit strong orientation bias at the Escherichia coli bgl locus. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3328-35 pubmed
    ..Transposon hot-spot behavior and orientation bias may relate to an asymmetry of transposon DNA-protein complexes and to interactions with proteins that produce transcriptionally silenced chromatin. ..
  18. Aymerich S, Steinmetz M. Specificity determinants and structural features in the RNA target of the bacterial antiterminator proteins of the BglG/SacY family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10410-4 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli bgl operon is mediated by structurally homologous antiterminators encoded by the sacY, sacT, and bglG genes, respectively...
  19. Ohta T, Ueguchi C, Mizuno T. rpoS function is essential for bgl silencing caused by C-terminally truncated H-NS in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6278-83 pubmed
    ..We also examined whether the H-NS homolog StpA has such an adapter function, as was previously proposed. Our results did not support the idea that StpA has an adapter function in the genetic background used. ..
  20. Caramel A, Schnetz K. Lac and lambda repressors relieve silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter. Activation by alteration of a repressing nucleoprotein complex. J Mol Biol. 1998;284:875-83 pubmed
  21. Free A, Porter M, Deighan P, Dorman C. Requirement for the molecular adapter function of StpA at the Escherichia coli bgl promoter depends upon the level of truncated H-NS protein. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:903-17 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the involvement of other proteins in H-NS-dependent transcriptional repression. ..
  22. Chen Q, Postma P, Amster Choder O. Dephosphorylation of the Escherichia coli transcriptional antiterminator BglG by the sugar sensor BglF is the reversal of its phosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:2033-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, BglF is a membrane sensor which reversibly phosphorylates the transcriptional regulator BglG, depending on beta-glucoside availability...
  23. Sankar T, Neelakanta G, Sangal V, Plum G, Achtman M, Schnetz K. Fate of the H-NS-repressed bgl operon in evolution of Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000405 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests horizontal transfer of bgl genes to an ancestral Enterobacterium. Conservation and weak expression of bgl in isolates of phylogenetic group B2 may indicate a functional role of bgl in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. ..
  24. Manival X, Yang Y, Strub M, Kochoyan M, Steinmetz M, Aymerich S. From genetic to structural characterization of a new class of RNA-binding domain within the SacY/BglG family of antiterminator proteins. EMBO J. 1997;16:5019-29 pubmed
    ..This suggests a new mode of protein-RNA interaction. ..
  25. Sonden B, Uhlin B. Coordinated and differential expression of histone-like proteins in Escherichia coli: regulation and function of the H-NS analog StpA. EMBO J. 1996;15:4970-80 pubmed
    ..Evidently, these proteins have both overlapping and distinct functions in the cell, and they are both important for normal cell growth and gene control. ..
  26. Amster Choder O, Houman F, Wright A. Protein phosphorylation regulates transcription of the beta-glucoside utilization operon in E. coli. Cell. 1989;58:847-55 pubmed
    We have investigated the interaction between BglF and BglG, two proteins that regulate expression of the E. coli bgl operon...
  27. Lopian L, Nussbaum Shochat A, O Day Kerstein K, Wright A, Amster Choder O. The BglF sensor recruits the BglG transcription regulator to the membrane and releases it on stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7099-104 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein is a sugar-sensor that controls the activity of the transcriptional antiterminator BglG by reversibly phosphorylating it, depending on beta-glucoside availability...
  28. Schnetz K. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by RpoS requires Crl. Microbiology. 2002;148:2573-8 pubmed
    ..coli strains. Crl may therefore account for some of the observed strain-dependent variations of bgl operon expression levels and effects of pleiotropic regulators on bgl operon regulation. ..
  29. Monderer Rothkoff G, Amster Choder O. Genetic dissection of the divergent activities of the multifunctional membrane sensor BglF. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8601-15 pubmed
    ..expression of beta-glucoside utilization genes by reversibly phosphorylating the transcriptional antiterminator BglG. Thus, BglF can exist in two opposed states: a nonstimulated state that inactivates BglG by phosphorylation and a ..
  30. Caramel A, Schnetz K. Antagonistic control of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter by FIS and CAP in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:85-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FIS contributes to silencing of the wild-type bgl promoter in vivo, presumably in the early exponential phase when FIS is predominantly expressed. ..
  31. Chen Q, Engelberg Kulka H, Amster Choder O. The localization of the phosphorylation site of BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl sensory system. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17263-8 pubmed
    b>BglG, the response regulator of the bgl sensory system, was recently shown to be phosphorylated on a histidine residue. We report here the localization of the phosphorylation site to histidine 208...
  32. Mahadevan S, Wright A. A bacterial gene involved in transcription antitermination: regulation at a rho-independent terminator in the bgl operon of E. coli. Cell. 1987;50:485-94 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional fusions containing the terminator require the bglC gene in trans for expression; fusions deleted for the sequence show bglC-independent expression...
  33. Dole S, Kühn S, Schnetz K. Post-transcriptional enhancement of Escherichia coli bgl operon silencing by limitation of BglG-mediated antitermination at low transcription rates. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:217-26 pubmed
    ..expression depends on specific transcriptional antitermination within the operon by the antiterminator protein BglG. Here, we show that BglG-mediated antitermination limits expression of the bgl operon when the cellular ..
  34. Schnetz K, Rak B. Beta-glucoside permease represses the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by phosphorylation of the antiterminator protein and also interacts with glucose-specific enzyme III, the key element in catabolite control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5074-8 pubmed
    ..enzyme IIBgl exerts its negative control by phosphorylating and thereby inactivating the antiterminator protein, BglG. Specifically, our model postulated that the transport protein enzyme IIBgl exhibits protein-phosphotransferase ..
  35. Declerck N, Vincent F, Hoh F, Aymerich S, van Tilbeurgh H. RNA recognition by transcriptional antiterminators of the BglG/SacY family: functional and structural comparison of the CAT domain from SacY and LicT. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:389-402 pubmed
    Transcriptional antiterminators of the BglG/SacY family are regulatory proteins that mediate the induction of sugar metabolizing operons in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
  36. Yasuzawa K, Hayashi N, Goshima N, Kohno K, Imamoto F, Kano Y. Histone-like proteins are required for cell growth and constraint of supercoils in DNA. Gene. 1992;122:9-15 pubmed
    ..The bgl operon was expressed in cells depleted of both HU and H-NS as well as in cells depleted of H-NS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  37. Gershanovich V. [PO-independent termination of transcription of catabolite operons in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 1999;:3-7 pubmed
    ..coli and B. subtilis. The functional role of antiterminators BglG (in E. coli), SacY, SacT, BglG, LicT, and GlcT (in B. subtilis) is described...
  38. Görke B, Rak B. Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations. EMBO J. 1999;18:3370-9 pubmed
    ..The phosphoryl groups are donated by the phosphocarrier protein HPr. BglG, the positively acting regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli bgl (beta-glucoside utilization) operon, is known ..
  39. Boss A, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. Characterization of the dimerization domain in BglG, an RNA-binding transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1755-66 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli transcriptional antiterminator protein BglG inhibits transcription termination of the bgl operon in response to the presence of beta-glucosides in the growth medium...
  40. Chen Q, Amster Choder O. BglF, the sensor of the bgl system and the beta-glucosides permease of Escherichia coli: evidence for dimerization and intersubunit phosphotransfer. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8714-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, BglF has the ability, unusual for an EII, to regulate the activity of a transcriptional regulator, BglG, by phosphorylating and dephosphorylating it according to beta-glucoside availability...
  41. Raveh H, Lopian L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Wright A, Amster Choder O. Modulation of transcription antitermination in the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by the PTS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13523-8 pubmed publisher
    b>BglG, which regulates expression of the beta-glucoside utilization (bgl) operon in Escherichia coli, represents a family of RNA-binding transcriptional antiterminators that positively regulate transcription of sugar utilization genes in ..
  42. Amster Choder O. The bgl sensory system: a transmembrane signaling pathway controlling transcriptional antitermination. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:127-34 pubmed
    ..different activities depending on its stimulation state: in its non-stimulated state, it phosphorylates the BglG transcriptional regulator, thus inactivating it; in the presence of the stimulating sugar, it transports the sugar ..
  43. Ben Zeev E, Fux L, Amster Choder O, Eisenstein M. Experimental and computational characterization of the dimerization of the PTS-regulation domains of BglG from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2005;347:693-706 pubmed
    b>BglG and LicT are transcriptional antiterminators from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively, that control the expression of genes and operons involved in transport and catabolism of carbohydrates...
  44. Hall B. Activation of the bgl operon by adaptive mutation. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1-5 pubmed
    ..the cryptic bgl operon is activated 98% of the time by insertions of IS1 or IS5 into the control region, designated bglR. The activated bgl operon permits utilization of the beta-glucoside sugar arbutin as a sole carbon and energy ..
  45. Free A, Williams R, Dorman C. The StpA protein functions as a molecular adapter to mediate repression of the bgl operon by truncated H-NS in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:994-7 pubmed
    ..The DNA-binding function of the H-NS-like protein StpA was found to be necessary for repression, which is consistent with a role for StpA as a DNA-binding adapter for mutant derivatives of H-NS. ..
  46. Singh J, Mukerji M, Mahadevan S. Transcriptional activation of the Escherichia coli bgl operon: negative regulation by DNA structural elements near the promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:1085-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cryptic nature of the bgl promoter is because of the presence of DNA structural elements near the promoter that negatively affect transcription. ..
  47. Kawula T, Lelivelt M. Mutations in a gene encoding a new Hsp70 suppress rapid DNA inversion and bgl activation, but not proU derepression, in hns-1 mutant Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:610-9 pubmed
    ..The mutation defining the hscA1 allele resulted in a phenylalanine substituting a conserved serine residue located in the ATP-binding region of other Hsp70 proteins. ..
  48. Houman F, Diaz Torres M, Wright A. Transcriptional antitermination in the bgl operon of E. coli is modulated by a specific RNA binding protein. Cell. 1990;62:1153-63 pubmed
    ..The bglG gene product is absolutely required for this process...
  49. Lopian L, Elisha Y, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. Spatial and temporal organization of the E. coli PTS components. EMBO J. 2010;29:3630-45 pubmed publisher
    ..EI, HPr and BglF control the ?-glucoside utilization (bgl) operon by modulating the activity of the BglG transcription factor; BglF inactivates BglG by membrane sequestration and phosphorylation, whereas EI and HPr ..
  50. Fux L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. A fraction of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli exists as a compact monomer. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50978-84 pubmed
    Expression of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli, induced by beta-glucosides, is positively regulated by BglG, a transcriptional antiterminator...
  51. Amster Choder O, Wright A. Transcriptional regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransferase system-mediated phosphorylation of a transcriptional antiterminator. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51:83-90 pubmed
  52. Moorthy S, Mahadevan S. Differential spectrum of mutations that activate the Escherichia coli bgl operon in an rpoS genetic background. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4033-8 pubmed
    ..Transposition of DNA insertion elements within the regulatory locus, bglR, constitutes the major class of activating mutations identified in laboratory cultures...
  53. Fux L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Lopian L, Amster Choder O. Modulation of monomer conformation of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6775-81 pubmed
    The BglG protein positively regulates expression of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli by binding as a dimer to the bgl transcript and preventing premature termination of transcription in the presence of beta-glucosides...
  54. Schnetz K, Wang J. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2422-8 pubmed
  55. Ueguchi C, Suzuki T, Yoshida T, Tanaka K, Mizuno T. Systematic mutational analysis revealing the functional domain organization of Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS. J Mol Biol. 1996;263:149-62 pubmed
    ..This finding is also addressed with regard to a unique regulatory mechanism (i.e. silencing) for the bgl operon, which is partly mediated by H-NS. ..
  56. Görke B, Rak B. Efficient transcriptional antitermination from the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane. J Mol Biol. 2001;308:131-45 pubmed
    The BglG protein is a transcriptional antiterminator acting within the beta-glucoside operon of Escherichia coli by binding to a specific sequence motif in the growing mRNA...
  57. Radde N, Gebert J, Faigle U, Schrader R, Schnetz K. Modeling feedback loops in the H-NS-mediated regulation of the Escherichia coli bgl operon. J Theor Biol. 2008;250:298-306 pubmed
    ..of the rate of repression by H-NS and transcription, and a threshold for positive regulation by anti-terminator BglG, which is encoded within the operon. The latter two regulatory interactions represent feedback loops in the model...
  58. Chen Q, Amster Choder O. BglF, the Escherichia coli beta-glucoside permease and sensor of the bgl system: domain requirements of the different catalytic activities. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:462-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of beta-glucosides, it phosphorylates BglG, a positive regulator of bgl operon transcription, thus inactivating BglG...
  59. Amster Choder O, Wright A. Regulation of activity of a transcriptional anti-terminator in E. coli by phosphorylation in vivo. Science. 1990;249:540-2 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli is regulated in vitro by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a positive regulatory protein, BglG, which functions in its nonphosphorylated state as a transcriptional antiterminator...
  60. Gulati A, Mahadevan S. Mechanism of catabolite repression in the bgl operon of Escherichia coli: involvement of the anti-terminator BglG, CRP-cAMP and EIIAGlc in mediating glucose effect downstream of transcription initiation. Genes Cells. 2000;5:239-50 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional analyses using plasmids that carry mutations in bglG or within the terminator, suggest that the target for glucose-mediated repression is the anti-terminator protein, ..
  61. Amster Choder O, Wright A. BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl operon, is phosphorylated on a histidine residue. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5621-4 pubmed
    We have shown previously that the activity of BglG, the response regulator of the bgl system, as a transcriptional antiterminator is modulated by the sensor BglF, which reversibly phosphorylates BglG...
  62. Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. BglG, the transcriptional antiterminator of the bgl system, interacts with the beta' subunit of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4336-41 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglG protein antiterminates transcription at two terminator sites within the bgl operon in response to the presence of beta-glucosides in the growth medium...