bglF

Summary

Gene Symbol: bglF
Description: fused beta-glucoside-specific PTS enzymes: IIA component/IIB component/IIC component
Alias: ECK3715, JW3700, bglC, bglS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Ueguchi C, Ohta T, Seto C, Suzuki T, Mizuno T. The leuO gene product has a latent ability to relieve bgl silencing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:190-3 pubmed
    ..A leuO deletion mutant was also characterized in terms of expression of bgl. From these results, the possible function of LeuO in bgl expression will be discussed from an evolutionary and/or ecological point of view. ..
  2. Reynolds A, Mahadevan S, LeGrice S, Wright A. Enhancement of bacterial gene expression by insertion elements or by mutation in a CAP-cAMP binding site. J Mol Biol. 1986;191:85-95 pubmed
    ..The role of the insertion sequences in activation of the bgl operon is discussed. ..
  3. Schnetz K, Toloczyki C, Rak B. Beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli K-12: nucleotide sequence, genetic organization, and possible evolutionary relationship to regulatory components of two Bacillus subtilis genes. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2579-90 pubmed
    ..We have defined the extent and location of three structural genes, bglC, bglS, and bglB, and have determined their DNA sequence...
  4. Mahadevan S, Reynolds A, Wright A. Positive and negative regulation of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2570-8 pubmed
    ..of the operon to complement a series of Bgl- point mutations, we show that the three bgl structural genes, bglC, bglS, and bglB, are located downstream of the regulatory locus bglR in the order indicated...
  5. Madan R, Moorthy S, Mahadevan S. Enhanced expression of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli in the stationary phase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;288:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible physiological implications of these results are discussed. ..
  6. Khan M, Isaacson R. In vivo expression of the beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli occurs in mouse liver. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:4746-9 pubmed
    ..promoter and a rho-independent transcription terminator which were flanked by the 3' end of bglG and the 5' end of bglF. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that cat-specific mRNA was produced in infected mouse liver but not in vitro...
  7. Görke B. Regulation of the Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG by phosphorylation at multiple sites and evidence for transfer of phosphoryl groups between monomers. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46219-29 pubmed
    ..The active His-208-phosphorylated BglG dimer can subsequently be inhibited in its activity by EIIBgl-catalyzed phosphorylation at His-101. ..
  8. Mukerji M, Mahadevan S. Characterization of the negative elements involved in silencing the bgl operon of Escherichia coli: possible roles for DNA gyrase, H-NS, and CRP-cAMP in regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:617-27 pubmed
  9. Giel M, Desnoyer M, Lopilato J. A mutation in a new gene, bglJ, activates the bgl operon in Escherichia coli K-12. Genetics. 1996;143:627-35 pubmed
    ..The putative protein encoded by the bglJ gene has homolgy to a family of transcriptional activators. Evidence is presented that increased expression of the bglJ product is needed for activation of the bgl operon. ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Schnetz K. Silencing of Escherichia coli bgl promoter by flanking sequence elements. EMBO J. 1995;14:2545-50 pubmed
  2. Reynolds A, Felton J, Wright A. Insertion of DNA activates the cryptic bgl operon in E. coli K12. Nature. 1981;293:625-9 pubmed
  3. Prasad I, Schaefler S. Regulation of the beta-glucoside system in Escherchia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1974;120:638-50 pubmed
    ..B (bglB(+)) and a beta-glucoside-specific species of enzyme II (beta-glucoside transport I [bglC(+)]); an additional mutation (bglS(+) to bglS4) allows these enzymes to be formed constitutively...
  4. Dole S, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K. The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:589-600 pubmed
    ..This suggests that H-NS induces polarity of transcription by acting as a roadblock to the elongating RNA polymerase. The control of the bgl operon by H-NS at two levels results in a highly specific repression. ..
  5. Madhusudan S, Paukner A, Klingen Y, Schnetz K. Independent regulation of H-NS-mediated silencing of the bgl operon at two levels: upstream by BglJ and LeuO and downstream by DnaKJ. Microbiology. 2005;151:3349-59 pubmed
    ..Together, the data show that the two levels of bgl silencing by H-NS are regulated independently. ..
  6. Schaefler S. Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. I. Active transport and utilization of beta-glucosides. J Bacteriol. 1967;93:254-63 pubmed
    ..The induction lag and competition do not exist in GP(-) beta-gl(+) strains. It is assumed that phosphorylated alkyl and thioalkyl beta-glucosides inhibit the induction, and that this inhibition is responsible for the induction lag. ..
  7. Schaefler S, Maas W. Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. II. Description of mutant types and genetic analysis. J Bacteriol. 1967;93:264-72 pubmed
  8. Madan R, Kolter R, Mahadevan S. Mutations that activate the silent bgl operon of Escherichia coli confer a growth advantage in stationary phase. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7912-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a possible evolutionary advantage in retaining the silent bgl operon by wild-type bacteria. ..
  9. Yasuzawa K, Hayashi N, Goshima N, Kohno K, Imamoto F, Kano Y. Histone-like proteins are required for cell growth and constraint of supercoils in DNA. Gene. 1992;122:9-15 pubmed
    ..The bgl operon was expressed in cells depleted of both HU and H-NS as well as in cells depleted of H-NS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  10. Singh J, Mukerji M, Mahadevan S. Transcriptional activation of the Escherichia coli bgl operon: negative regulation by DNA structural elements near the promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:1085-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cryptic nature of the bgl promoter is because of the presence of DNA structural elements near the promoter that negatively affect transcription. ..
  11. Hall B. Activation of the bgl operon by adaptive mutation. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1-5 pubmed
    ..coli. ..
  12. Bramley H, Kornberg H. Nucleotide sequence of bglC, the gene specifying enzymeIIbgl of the PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli K12, and overexpression of the gene product. J Gen Microbiol. 1987;133:563-73 pubmed
    ..and other genes involved in beta-glucoside utilization, bgl C, S, B, is incorrect, and that the regulatory gene bglS may be located upstream of the structural genes bglC and bglB...
  13. Amster Choder O. The bgl sensory system: a transmembrane signaling pathway controlling transcriptional antitermination. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:127-34 pubmed
    ..The BglF sensor catalyzes different activities depending on its stimulation state: in its non-stimulated state, it ..
  14. Ueguchi C, Suzuki T, Yoshida T, Tanaka K, Mizuno T. Systematic mutational analysis revealing the functional domain organization of Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS. J Mol Biol. 1996;263:149-62 pubmed
    ..This finding is also addressed with regard to a unique regulatory mechanism (i.e. silencing) for the bgl operon, which is partly mediated by H-NS. ..
  15. Chen Q, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. A novel sugar-stimulated covalent switch in a sugar sensor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44751-6 pubmed
    The bgl sensory system is composed of a membrane-bound sugar sensor, BglF, and a transcriptional regulator, BglG...
  16. Free A, Williams R, Dorman C. The StpA protein functions as a molecular adapter to mediate repression of the bgl operon by truncated H-NS in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:994-7 pubmed
    ..The DNA-binding function of the H-NS-like protein StpA was found to be necessary for repression, which is consistent with a role for StpA as a DNA-binding adapter for mutant derivatives of H-NS. ..
  17. Schnetz K, Wang J. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2422-8 pubmed
  18. Kawula T, Lelivelt M. Mutations in a gene encoding a new Hsp70 suppress rapid DNA inversion and bgl activation, but not proU derepression, in hns-1 mutant Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:610-9 pubmed
    ..The mutation defining the hscA1 allele resulted in a phenylalanine substituting a conserved serine residue located in the ATP-binding region of other Hsp70 proteins. ..
  19. Fux L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Lopian L, Amster Choder O. Modulation of monomer conformation of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6775-81 pubmed
    ..BglG activity is negatively controlled by BglF, the beta-glucoside phosphotransferase, which reversibly phosphorylates BglG according to beta-glucoside ..
  20. Amster Choder O, Wright A. Regulation of activity of a transcriptional anti-terminator in E. coli by phosphorylation in vivo. Science. 1990;249:540-2 pubmed
    ..The degree of phosphorylation of BglG in vivo was shown to be dependent on the cellular levels of BglF protein, which is both the BglG kinase and phosphatase...
  21. Fux L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. A fraction of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli exists as a compact monomer. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50978-84 pubmed
    ..The dimeric state of BglG is determined by BglF, a membrane-bound enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), which reversibly ..
  22. Amster Choder O, Wright A. BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl operon, is phosphorylated on a histidine residue. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5621-4 pubmed
    ..of BglG, the response regulator of the bgl system, as a transcriptional antiterminator is modulated by the sensor BglF, which reversibly phosphorylates BglG...
  23. Amster Choder O, Wright A. Transcriptional regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransferase system-mediated phosphorylation of a transcriptional antiterminator. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51:83-90 pubmed
  24. Moorthy S, Mahadevan S. Differential spectrum of mutations that activate the Escherichia coli bgl operon in an rpoS genetic background. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4033-8 pubmed
    ..The physiological significance of these differences is discussed in the context of survival of natural populations of E. coli. ..
  25. Gulati A, Mahadevan S. Mechanism of catabolite repression in the bgl operon of Escherichia coli: involvement of the anti-terminator BglG, CRP-cAMP and EIIAGlc in mediating glucose effect downstream of transcription initiation. Genes Cells. 2000;5:239-50 pubmed
    ..of multiple copies of bglG or the presence of mutations that inhibit its phosphorylation by Enzyme IIBgl (BglF), result in loss of glucose repression...
  26. Chen Q, Amster Choder O. BglF, the Escherichia coli beta-glucoside permease and sensor of the bgl system: domain requirements of the different catalytic activities. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:462-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein, an enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, has several enzymatic activities...
  27. Dole S, Klingen Y, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K. The protease Lon and the RNA-binding protein Hfq reduce silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2708-16 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that the specific repression by H-NS can (directly or indirectly) be modulated and controlled by other pleiotropic regulators. ..
  28. Fux L, Nussbaum Shochat A, Amster Choder O. Interactions between the PTS regulation domains of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46203-9 pubmed
    ..activity of BglG is determined by its dimeric state, which is modulated by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by BglF, a PTS permease. Only the non-phosphorylated BglG dimer binds to RNA and allows read-through of transcription...
  29. Amster Choder O, Wright A. Modulation of the dimerization of a transcriptional antiterminator protein by phosphorylation. Science. 1992;257:1395-8 pubmed
    ..Repression by the lambda-BglG hybrid was significantly reduced by BglF, the BglG kinase, an effect that was relieved by conditions that stimulate dephosphorylation of BglG by BglF...
  30. Chen Q, Postma P, Amster Choder O. Dephosphorylation of the Escherichia coli transcriptional antiterminator BglG by the sugar sensor BglF is the reversal of its phosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:2033-6 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein catalyzes transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides...
  31. Ohta T, Ueguchi C, Mizuno T. rpoS function is essential for bgl silencing caused by C-terminally truncated H-NS in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6278-83 pubmed
    ..We also examined whether the H-NS homolog StpA has such an adapter function, as was previously proposed. Our results did not support the idea that StpA has an adapter function in the genetic background used. ..
  32. Chen Q, Amster Choder O. The different functions of BglF, the E. coli beta-glucoside permease and sensor of the bgl system, have different structural requirements. Biochemistry. 1998;37:17040-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein (EIIbgl) is an Enzyme II (EII) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) which catalyses transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides...
  33. Chen Q, Arents J, Bader R, Postma P, Amster Choder O. BglF, the sensor of the E. coli bgl system, uses the same site to phosphorylate both a sugar and a regulatory protein. EMBO J. 1997;16:4617-27 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein is a sugar permease that is a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). It catalyses transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides...
  34. Defez R, De Felice M. Cryptic operon for beta-glucoside metabolism in Escherichia coli K12: genetic evidence for a regulatory protein. Genetics. 1981;97:11-25 pubmed
    ..and salicin because of lack of expression of the bglBSRC operon, which contains structural genes for transport (bglC) and hydrolysis (bglB) of phospho-beta-glucosides...
  35. Schnetz K, Rak B. IS5: a mobile enhancer of transcription in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:1244-8 pubmed
    ..Activation of gene expression by means of interaction of a defective mobile element in cis with functions encoded by a nondefective element in trans has so far been described only for a maize controlling element. ..
  36. Monderer Rothkoff G, Amster Choder O. Genetic dissection of the divergent activities of the multifunctional membrane sensor BglF. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8601-15 pubmed
    b>BglF catalyzes beta-glucoside phosphotransfer across the cytoplasmic membrane in Escherichia coli...
  37. Manna D, Wang X, Higgins N. Mu and IS1 transpositions exhibit strong orientation bias at the Escherichia coli bgl locus. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3328-35 pubmed
    ..Transposon hot-spot behavior and orientation bias may relate to an asymmetry of transposon DNA-protein complexes and to interactions with proteins that produce transcriptionally silenced chromatin. ..
  38. Schnetz K, Rak B. Regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by transcriptional antitermination. EMBO J. 1988;7:3271-7 pubmed
    ..In the absence of substrate this antitermination is prevented by the action of the product of gene bglF (the second gene of the operon), which encodes the beta-glucoside-specific transport protein (enzymeIIBgl of the ..
  39. Schnetz K. Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by RpoS requires Crl. Microbiology. 2002;148:2573-8 pubmed
    ..coli strains. Crl may therefore account for some of the observed strain-dependent variations of bgl operon expression levels and effects of pleiotropic regulators on bgl operon regulation. ..
  40. Lopian L, Nussbaum Shochat A, O Day Kerstein K, Wright A, Amster Choder O. The BglF sensor recruits the BglG transcription regulator to the membrane and releases it on stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7099-104 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein is a sugar-sensor that controls the activity of the transcriptional antiterminator BglG by reversibly phosphorylating it, depending on beta-glucoside availability...
  41. Baglioni P, Bini L, Liberatori S, Pallini V, Marri L. Proteome analysis of Escherichia coli W3110 expressing an heterologous sigma factor. Proteomics. 2003;3:1060-5 pubmed
    ..Among the proteins identified, thiol peroxidase (Tpx) was the only one up-regulated. The possible involvement of bgl and tpx in the survival of the pathogen E. coli during infection is discussed. ..
  42. Chen Q, Engelberg Kulka H, Amster Choder O. The localization of the phosphorylation site of BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl sensory system. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17263-8 pubmed
    ..arginine and following the ability of the resulting mutants to be in vivo regulated and in vitro phosphorylated by BglF, the bgl system sensor. Histidine 208 was the only histidine which failed both tests...
  43. Görke B, Rak B. Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations. EMBO J. 1999;18:3370-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PTS may represent a highly integrated signal transduction network in carbon catabolite control. ..
  44. Schnetz K, Rak B. Beta-glucoside permease represses the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by phosphorylation of the antiterminator protein and also interacts with glucose-specific enzyme III, the key element in catabolite control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5074-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of both sugars, when the catabolite-controlled promoter of the operon is derepressed, enzyme IIIGlc may mediate tight repression of antitermination. ..
  45. Yagur Kroll S, Amster Choder O. Dynamic membrane topology of the Escherichia coli beta-glucoside transporter BglF. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19306-18 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein, a permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system, catalyzes transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides...
  46. Vogler A, Broekhuizen C, Schuitema A, Lengeler J, Postma P. Suppression of IIIGlc-defects by enzymes IINag and IIBgl of the PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. Mol Microbiol. 1988;2:719-26 pubmed
    ..We conclude from these results that the IIIGlc-like domain of Enzyme IINag and IIBgl can replace IIIGlc in IIIGlc-dependent carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation. ..
  47. Mahadevan S, Wright A. A bacterial gene involved in transcription antitermination: regulation at a rho-independent terminator in the bgl operon of E. coli. Cell. 1987;50:485-94 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional fusions containing the terminator require the bglC gene in trans for expression; fusions deleted for the sequence show bglC-independent expression...
  48. Chen Q, Amster Choder O. BglF, the sensor of the bgl system and the beta-glucosides permease of Escherichia coli: evidence for dimerization and intersubunit phosphotransfer. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8714-23 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein, also designated EIIbgl, is an enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides...
  49. Dole S, Kühn S, Schnetz K. Post-transcriptional enhancement of Escherichia coli bgl operon silencing by limitation of BglG-mediated antitermination at low transcription rates. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:217-26 pubmed
    ..Implications for bgl operon regulation by global regulators H-NS, RpoS and others are discussed. ..
  50. Free A, Porter M, Deighan P, Dorman C. Requirement for the molecular adapter function of StpA at the Escherichia coli bgl promoter depends upon the level of truncated H-NS protein. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:903-17 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the involvement of other proteins in H-NS-dependent transcriptional repression. ..
  51. Caramel A, Schnetz K. Lac and lambda repressors relieve silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter. Activation by alteration of a repressing nucleoprotein complex. J Mol Biol. 1998;284:875-83 pubmed
  52. Sonden B, Uhlin B. Coordinated and differential expression of histone-like proteins in Escherichia coli: regulation and function of the H-NS analog StpA. EMBO J. 1996;15:4970-80 pubmed
    ..Evidently, these proteins have both overlapping and distinct functions in the cell, and they are both important for normal cell growth and gene control. ..
  53. Amster Choder O, Houman F, Wright A. Protein phosphorylation regulates transcription of the beta-glucoside utilization operon in E. coli. Cell. 1989;58:847-55 pubmed
    We have investigated the interaction between BglF and BglG, two proteins that regulate expression of the E. coli bgl operon...
  54. Caramel A, Schnetz K. Antagonistic control of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter by FIS and CAP in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:85-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FIS contributes to silencing of the wild-type bgl promoter in vivo, presumably in the early exponential phase when FIS is predominantly expressed. ..
  55. Yagur Kroll S, Ido A, Amster Choder O. Spatial arrangement of the beta-glucoside transporter from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3086-94 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli BglF protein, a sugar permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), catalyzes concomitant transport and phosphorylation of beta-glucosides across the cytoplasmic membrane...
  56. Sankar T, Neelakanta G, Sangal V, Plum G, Achtman M, Schnetz K. Fate of the H-NS-repressed bgl operon in evolution of Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000405 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests horizontal transfer of bgl genes to an ancestral Enterobacterium. Conservation and weak expression of bgl in isolates of phylogenetic group B2 may indicate a functional role of bgl in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. ..